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Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic


Chemistry: Alkanes
10.1
Organic Compounds
Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
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Organic Chemistry
An organic compound

is a compound made from carbon atoms.
has one or more C atoms.
has many H atoms.
may also contain O, S, N, and halogens.


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Organic Compounds
Typical organic compounds

have covalent bonds.
have low melting points.
have low boiling points.
are flammable.
are soluble in nonpolar
solvents.
are not soluble in water.
oil (organic) and water (inorganic)
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Organic vs. Inorganic
Propane, C
3
H
8
, is an
organic compound used
as a fuel.

NaCl, salt, is an
inorganic compound
composed of Na
+
and
Cl
-
ions.

Why is propane organic,
but NaCl is not?

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Comparing Organic and Inorganic
Compounds
Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
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Learning Check
Identify each characteristic as most typical of compounds
that are 1) inorganic 2) organic.

A. has a high melting point
B. is not soluble in water
C. has a formula CH
3
CH
2
CH
3

D. has a formula MgCl
2

E. burns easily in air
F. has covalent bonds
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Solution
Identify each characteristic as most typical of compounds
that are 1) inorganic 2) organic.

1 A. has a high melting point
2 B. is not soluble in water
2 C. has a formula CH
3
CH
2
CH
3

1 D. has a formula MgCl
2

2 E. burns easily in air
2 F. has covalent bonds
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Writing Formulas for Alkanes
In organic compounds
carbon has 4 valence electrons and hydrogen has 1.


C H


to achieve an octet, C forms four bonds.
H H



H C H H C H


H H CH
4
, methane


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Tetrahedral Structure of Carbon
VSEPR theory
predicts that a
carbon atom with
four single,
covalent bonds,
has a tetrahedral
shape.
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Organic Molecules
In organic molecules,
valence electrons are shared.
covalent bonds form between carbon atoms.

H H
H H

H C C H H C C H

H H H H

ethane, CH
3
CH
3


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Tetrahedral Structure of Carbon
In molecules with
two or more carbon
atoms, each
carbon atom with
four single bonds
has a tetrahedral
shape.