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Introduction to 802.1 P/Q


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Objectives
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Understand the need for smaller broadcast domains

Understand what is VLAN

Understand the difference between tagged and untagged frame

Understand VLAN applications
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Associated IEEE Standards
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IEEE 802.3 : Ethernet (Max. frame size = 1518 bytes)

IEEE 802.3ac : Ethernet (Max. frame size = 1522 bytes)

IEEE 802.1 d : MAC Bridge first introduced the concept of Filtering
Services in a bridged local network

IEEE 802.1 q : VLAN Tagging

IEEE 802.1 p : Priority Tagging / Mapping

IEEE 802.1ag : OAM (CFM)

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What is VLAN?

Advantages for using VLAN

Regular Ethernet frame

Tagged frame structure

Types of VLAN

Types of connections

802.1P implementations

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Agenda
Agenda
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A Layer 2 Protocol which enables enhanced
traffic maneuvers :

Prioritization
Filtering
Provisioning
Mapping (e.g. - ATM to/from ETH)
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What is VLAN?
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What is VLAN?
Regular ETH networks forward broadcast frames to all endpoints
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VLAN networks forward broadcast frames only to pre-defined ports
(Profile Membership)
VLAN 1
VLAN 547
Switch ports
What is VLAN?
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Breaking large networks into smaller parts (Formation of virtual workgroups)

Simplified Administration (no need for re-cabling when user moves)

Improving Broadcast & Multicast traffic utilization

Mapping expensive backbones (ATM) to simpler & cheaper ETH backbones

Security establishing tunnels / trunks through the network for dedicated
users (traffic between VLANs is restricted).
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Advantages of VLAN
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Before we start explaining bit by bit, what is VLAN
and how does it work, let us review first the
structure of a regular ETH frame
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Preamble + SFD DA SA Length / Type DATA + PAD FCS
6 Bytes 6 Bytes 8 Bytes 2 Bytes 46 - 1500 Bytes
4 Bytes
(32-bit
CRC)
FCS is created by the sender and recalculated by the receiver
Length / Type < 1500 - Parameter indicates number of Data Bytes
Length / Type > 1536 - Parameter indicates Protocol Type (PPPoE, PPPoA, ARP etc.)

Minimum 64 Bytes < FRAME SIZE < Maximum 1518 Bytes
Untagged Ethernet Frame
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Additional information is inserted
Frame size increases to 1522 Bytes
4 Bytes
16 Bit
3 Bit 1 Bit 12 Bit
TPID = 0x8100 TCI
CFI P-TAG VLAN ID
TPID = Tag protocol ID
TCI = Tag Control Information
CFI = 1 bit canonical Format Indicator
Preamble + SFD DA SA Length / Type DATA + PAD FCS VLAN TAG
Tagged Ethernet Frame
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VLAN ID uses 12 bits, therefore the number of maximum VLANs is
4094:

2^12 = 4096
VID 0 = reserved
VID 4096 = reserved (every vendor may use some VIDs for internal purposes such as MNG etc.)
VID 1 = default

After tagging a frame, FCS is recalculated

CFI is set to 0 for ETH frames, 1 for Token Ring to allow TR frames
over ETH backbones (some vendors may use CFI for internal purposes)
Tagging a Frame
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Protocol type Value
Tagged Frame 0x8100
ARP 0x0806
Q-in-Q (CISCO) 0x8100
Q-in-Q (other vendors) 0x88A8
Q-in-Q (other vendors) 0x9100
Q-in-Q (other vendors) 0x9200
RARP 0x8035
IP 0x0800
IPv6 0x86DD
PPPoE 0x8863/0x8864
MPLS 0x8847/0x8848
IS-IS 0x8000
LACP 0x8809
802.1x 0x888E
TPID in tagged frames in always set to
0x8100
TPID / ETHER-Type / Protocol Type
It is important that you understand
the meaning and usage of this
parameter


Later when we discuss QoS, we
shall demonstrate how & why the
system audits this parameter
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Membership by Port
VID Port
1 1
1 2
44 3
200 4
PRO easy configured
CON no user mobility
VID1
VID1
VID 44
VID200
VLAN types
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Membership by MAC
VID MAC
1 00:33:ef:38:01:23
1 00:01:de:22:42:ae
44 00:20:8f:40:15:ef
200 00:20:32:35:ea:11
PRO user mobility, no reconfiguration when PC moves

CON needs to be assigned initially, not an easy task with
thousands of endpoints
VLAN types
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Membership by Subnet Address (a.k.a. Layer 3 VLAN)
VID Subnet Address
1 10.0.0.0 / 24
1 20.0.0.0 / 30
44 11.0.0.0 / 24
200 192.168.1.0 / 24
Membership is based on the Layer 3 header
No process of IP address is done

Main disadvantage longer overall throughput
VLAN types
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Membership by Protocol Type

VID Protocol Type
1 IP
44 IPX
The VID is derived from the protocol type field
found in the Layer 2 header
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VLAN types
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VLAN aware Switch
Device unaware of VLANs
transmits untagged
(regular) ETH frames
Switch tags the ingress
frames with VID according
to specific Tagging
mechanism
Access Port a port which is not aware of VLANs
(Cannot tag outgoing frames or un-tag incoming frames)
A
Port Types
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Device unaware of VLANs
transmits untagged
(regular) ETH frames
Switch tags the ingress frames with VID according to
specific Tagging mechanism

Switch un-tags frames with VID received from network
and delivers untagged frames to Access ports
Trunk Port a port which is aware of VLANs
(Can tag or un-tag incoming frames)
VLAN aware Switch
A T
Port Types
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VLAN aware Switch
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Trunk Port can carry tagged frames with different VIDs.
This requires Port Membership configuration.
A
T
A A
This port is not a member of the Trunk
port membership list, hence, traffic is
discarded
Port Types
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VLAN
aware Switch
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Q-in-Q (A.K.A. Double TaggingVLAN Encapsulation)
Enhanced security not exposing original VID

Improved flexibility of VID in the network
(Ingress VID was already assigned in the network)
CN PN
+
Port Types
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Introduction to QoS / CoS
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We can extend the benefits of ATM QoS into Ethernet LANs to guarantee Ethernet priorities
across the ATM backbone. A L2 switch or L3 router reads incoming 802.1p or IP ToS priority
bits, and classifies traffic accordingly.

To match the priority level with the appropriate ATM service class and other parameters, the
switch then consults a mapping table with pre-defined settings.
CBR

VBR

UBR
P-Tag 6

P-Tag 4

P-Tag 0

Mapping ATM QoS over ETH CoS (RFC 1483)
Core
Site
Hub
Site
Tail site
RNC
BSC/MSC
FibeAir
IP-10


n x T1/E1
FE/GE
GE
GE
STM1/
OC3
ATM
Router
MPLS
Router IP-10
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Mapping ETH to MPLS and vice versa
Core
Site
Hub
Site
Tail site
RNC
BSC/MSC
FibeAir
IP-10


n x T1/E1
FE/GE
GE
GE
STM1/
OC3
STM1/
OC3
MPLS
Router
MPLS
Router IP-10
IP-10s L2 switch can take part in the process of transporting
services through MPLS core


Frames/services are mapped to MPLS FECs according to:
VLAN ID mapped to MPLS EXP bits
VLAN P-Bit mapped to MPLS EXP bits
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802.1P utilizes Traffic Classes:

A switch port allocates ingress frames to
queues (buffers) according to their P-Tag
value

The more queues the more prioritizing
levels (classes)

Downside more time, more memory

Normally 4 queues (TCs) are sufficient

In this example the port groups a few Bits
into a single queue

8 priority levels become 3 classes
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VLAN P-Bit Remap (Traffic Classes)
Q4 High
Q3
Q2
Q1 Low
P-Bits 6-7
P-Bits 4-5
P-Bits 0-3
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Ingress
P-Tags
Number of Available Traffic Classes
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0 (default)
0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2
0 0 0 1 1 2 2 2
3
0 0 0 1 1 2 3 3
4
0 1 1 2 2 3 4 4
5
0 1 1 2 2 3 4 5
6
0 1 2 3 3 4 5 6
7
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Egress P-Tag
IEEE Recommendation

The following table shows
IEEE definition of traffic
classes

It shows the ingress options
for P-Tag VS. egress P-tag

The number of egress
priorities (classes) depend
on the number of assigned
queues


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VLAN P-Bit Remap (Traffic Classes)
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Acronyms
ETH Ethernet
NIC Network Internet Card
VID Vlan ID
VLAN Virtual LAN
P-TAG Priority Tag, Priority Bits
CFI Canonical Format Indicator
TPID Tag Protocol Identifier
FCS Frame Check Sequence
DA Destination Address
SA Source Address
QoS Quality of Service
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Thank You !
training@ceragon.com
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