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International Relations

By
Ms. Nighat Noureen
SSH
University of Management and
Technology

Topic of Discussion

Why did 17th century mark the beginning of
International Relations?
Why the scope of International Relations has
been enhanced in 20th Century?
What is the scope of International Relations?
What is the significance of International
Relations in contemporary age?

Task assigned
Critical reading of newspaper articles of
Sunday DAWN


Nature of International
Relations
International Relations is dynamic and
complex in nature as one can observe
that what one has studied few years
ago with keen interest becomes
hackneyed and obsolete today.
Therefore, these new developments at
international level bring new actors at
global actors.

Scope of International
Relations
It is comparatively a young discipline when
compare to other social sciences such as
Political Science, History Economics, Law and
so on. Therefore, its scope was not much
clear. It was just after 1990s when its scope
was cleared to a great extend.

State System
An analysis of state system
Individuals identity is recognized by the
name of its state
Inter-state relations still the most
dominant actor in I.R despite the
increasing influence of non-state actors
Relations in conflict &
cooperation
I.R is a same coin with two sides, one
have conflict and the other side has
cooperation
Broadly speaking prime focus of I.R is a
study of both conflictual and
cooperative inter-state relations
General & Diplomatic History
The importance of History particularly
diplomatic history can not be ignored
for better understanding of inter-state
relations

Power & Balance of Power
Morgenthau stated that international
politics is nothing but power politics.
one states security leads to another
states insecurity
World public opinion, collective security,
determinants of power etc important
related concepts
International Law
Meaning of Int. Law
It is a set of rules and regulations which
regulate the inter-state relations both in
times of war and peace
Therefore, it determines the behavior
patters of states in both time of conflict
and cooperation


Int. & Regional Organizations
Provides a plate forum in time of war,
peace and for conflict resolution and
cooperation among states
International System
Uni-polar system?
Bi-polar system?
Multi-polar system?


Conflict management &
conflict resolution
Why conflict arise?
Techniques to resolve conflict?
War & Peace
Why wars do occur?
How wars can be avoided?
War and peace theories etc

Foreign Policy
The diplomatic policy of a nation in its
interactions with other nations is known
as foreign policy.
Though foreign policies are not the be-
all and end-all of international relations
yet they constitute a significant part of
I.R
National Interest
National Interests are the goal of state
which a state pursue with the help of
power and foreign policy
Hartmann stated that international
relations as a field of study focus upon
the processes by which states adjust
their national interest to those of other
states
Military & Strategic Factors
Problems of national security, defense,
bi-lateral and multi-lateral security
arrangements, alliance etc
Economic Factors
Imperialism, neo-imperialism
It is widely shared that today there is
no need of military wars but to capture
the economy of other states
New World Order, WTO, IMF, , free
trade, string attached aid and so on
Arms Control & Disarmament
Gained much importance particularly
after 2
nd
World War
During Cold war intense armament
between the U.S.A and the U.S.S.R was
evident
Coercive and Preventive
Diplomacy
A different kind of diplomacy in recent
years one can observe in case of the
U.S particularly after 9/11
Geo-politics
Palmer & Perkins stated that undoubtedly
the struggle for space & power over the
vast land and sea region of the world and
perhaps in outer space as well will be a
central theme in the international relations
of the future.