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Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000

Subshells and Orbitals



Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000
Quantum Mechanics
Describes the arrangement of electrons
in atoms in terms of:
Main or principal energy levels (n)
Energy subshells
Orbitals (space occupied within the
atom)

Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000
Principal Energy Levels (n)
Contain electrons that are
Close in energy
Similar distance from nucleus
Have values of n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6..
Maximum number of electrons = 2n
2


n =1 2(1)
2
= 2
n =2 2(2)
2
=8
n=3


Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000
Energy Levels (Shells)
A group of electrons in an atom all having the
same principal quantum number (n)
n = 1, 2, 3,
The first shell (n = 1) is lowest in energy,
2
nd
level next and so on 1<2<3<4

The number of electron in each shell is
limited to 2n
2

n = 1 2n
2
= 2
n = 2 2n
2
= ____

Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000
Energy Levels for Electrons
Some possible electron transitions for the first
three energy levels are shown below. The
negative value means that the electron in the
atom has a lower energy than a free electron
Energy Level Energy, E
n=3 ___________________ (-) 2.420 x 10
19
J

n=2 __________________ (-) 5.445 x 10
19
J

n=1 __________________ (-) 2.178 x 10
18
J


Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000
Learning Check S1
A. What energy change (J) takes place when an
electron in a hydrogen atom moves from the
first (n=1) to the second shell (n=2)?


B. What energy change (J) takes place when
the electron moves from the third shell to the
second shell?


Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000
Solution S1
A. What energy change takes place when an
electron in a hydrogen atom moves from the
first (n=1) to the second shell (n=2)?
1.634 x 10
-18
J of energy must be absorbed.
B. What energy change takes place when the
electron moves from the third shell to the
second shell?
(-5.445 x 10
-19
J

)

-

(2.2420 x 10
-19
J)
=
-3.025 x
10
19
J will be emitted as electron falls from a
higher to a lower energy state


Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000

Subshells

Energy sublevels within energy level
All electrons in a subshell have the
same energy
Designated s, p, d, f ..
Sublevel energy: s<p<d<f

Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000
Electron Locations
Main
Energy
Levels Sublevels
n=4 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f
n=3 3s, 3p, 3d
n=2 2s, 2p
n=1 1s
Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000
Sublevels in n = 1,2, 3
3d
n = 3 3p
3s

2p
n = 2 2s

n = 1 1s
Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000
Electrons Allowed
All electrons in the same sublevel have the same
energy.
All 2s electrons have the same energy. All 2p
electrons have the same energy which is slightly
higher than the energy of the 2s electrons
s sublevel 2 electrons
p sublevel 6 electrons
d sublevel 10 electrons
f sublevel 14 electrons


Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000
Electron Configuration
List of subshells containing electrons
Written in order of increasing energy
Superscripts give the number of electrons

Example: Electron configuration of neon
number of electrons
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6


main shell subshell





Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000
Order of Filling
Total energy of a subshell =
energy of the main shell + the subshell
The 4s energy < 3d energy
4p ___
3d ___ (finishes the n=3 shell)
4s ___ (starts the n=4 shell)
3p ___
3s ___
2p ___
2s ___
1s ___

Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000
Writing Electron Configurations
H 1s
1


He 1s
2


Li 1s
2
2s
1


C 1s
2
2s
2
2p
2


S 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
4

Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000
Sublevel Blocks

s
1
s
2
p
1
p
2
p
3
p
4
p
5
p
6

1

2
3

d
1
- d
10
4
5
6

f
1
- f
14

Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000
Find the element on the periodic
table
Use the order of filling indicated
across each period
Groups 1-2 = s level
Groups 3-8 = p level
Transition = d level
Lantanides = f level
Periodic Table and Electron
Configuration
Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000
Learning Check S2
Indicate if each configuration is (1) correct or
(2) incorrect for potassium. Give an
explanation for selection of 1 or 2. Explain
why or why not?

A. 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
1
1 or 2
B. 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
1 or 2
C. 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
1
1 or 2
D. 1s
2
2p
8
3s
1
1 or 2
E. 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
7
1 or 2
Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000
Solution E2
For phosphorus, indicate if each
configuration is (1) correct or (2) incorrect.
Explain why or why not.

A. 2, 2, 8, 5 2
B. 2, 8, 3 2
C. 2, 8, 5 1
D. 2, 6, 7 2

Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000
Learning Check S3
Using the periodic table, write the complete
electronic configuration for each:
A. Cl

B. Sr

C. I
Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000
Solution S3
Using the periodic table, write the complete
electronic configuration for each:
A. Cl
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
5


B. Sr
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
10
4p
6
5s
2

C. I
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
10
4p
6
5s
2
4d
10
5p
5


Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000
Learning Check S4
A. The final two notations for Co are
1) 3p
6
4s
2

2) 4s
2
4d
7

3) 4s
2
3d
7

B. The final three notations for Sn are
1) 5s
2
5p
2
4d
10

2) 5s
2
4d
10
5p
2

3) 5s
2
5d
10
5p
2


Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000
Solution S4
A. The final two notations for Co are
3) 4s
2
3d
7

B. The final three notations for Sn are
2) 5s
2
4d
10
5p
2


Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000
Orbital
A 3 dimensional space around a nucleus in
which electrons are most likely to be found
Shape represents electron density (not a
path the electron follows)
Each orbital can hold up to 2 electrons.

Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000
s orbitals

1s
2s
3s
Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000
Three p Orbitals

p
x

p
z
p
y

Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000
p subshell contains p orbitals

Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000
d orbitals

Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000
Learning Check S5
A. Number of electrons in a p orbital
1) 1e 2) 1e or 2e 3) 3e

B. Number of orbitals in a p subshell
1) 1 2) 2 3) 3

C. Number of orbitals in 4d subshell
1) 1 2) 3 3) 5
D. Number of electrons (maximum) in a 3d
subshell
1) 2e 2) 5e 3) 10e

Timberlake LecturePLUS 2000
Solution S5
A. Number of electrons in a p orbital
2) 1e or 2e

B. Number of orbitals in a p subshell
3) 3

C. Number of orbitals in 4d subshell
3) 5
D. Number of electrons in a 3d subshell
3) 10e