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# BUS SUSPENSION SYSTEM

KGZ130008
KOK KENG FAI
KGZ130010

NORSURYANI BINTI
ZAINAL ABIDIN
KGZ130009
Introduction
Increase comfort of passengers on bumpy roads.
Eliminates transmitted dynamic impact.
Vehicle oscillation caused by road disturbance such as pothole.
Only vertical force of suspension reaction is important.

Design Requirements
Should not oscillate roughly Should dissipates quickly
Design Requirements
Difficult to measure X1 - W
Deformation of tire ( X2 W ) is negligible
Distance X1 X2 will be used as output
As step input, road disturbance (W) will
be used
This step is represented as a bus coming
out from pothole

Design Requirements
Percentage overshot should be less than 5%
Settling time shorter than 5 seconds
2 requirements
Design Requirements
Parameter Symbol Typical value
Body mass M
1
2500 kg
Suspension mass M
2
320 kg
Spring constant of suspension system K
1
80,000 N/m
Spring constant of wheel and tire K
2
500,000 N/m
Damping constant of suspension system b
1
350 Ns/m
Damping constant of wheel and tire b
2
15,020 Ns/m
Control force u Force from controller
Continuous Time Transfer Function

Continuous Time Transfer Function
Continuous Time Transfer Function
Substituting the values into Matlab, we have :
State Space Realization of Continuous Time

A = 0 1 1
-(b1*b2)/(m1*m2) 0
((b1/m1)*((b1/m1)+
(b1/m2)+(b2/m2)))-(k1/m1)
1
-(b1/m1)
b2/m2 0 -((b1/m1)+(b1/m2)+(b2/m2)) 1
k2/m2 0
-((k1/m1)+(k1/m2)+(k2/m2)) 0
State Space Realization of Continuous Time
B =
0 0
1/m1
(b1*b2)/(m1*m2)

0 -(b2/m2)
(1/m1)+(1/m2 )
-(k2/m2)
State Space Realization of Continuous
Time
C = 0 0 1 0
D = 0 0
State Space Realization of Continuous
Time
a =
0
x
1
X
2
x
3
x
4
x
1
0
0 0 1
x
2
x
3
x
4
-6.571 0
0
0
46.94
1563
-25.26
-48.17
-1845
-0.14
-6.571
0
State Space Realization of Continuous
Time

b = 0 u
1
x
1
0
6.571
-46.94
x
2
x
3
-1563 x
4
c = 0 x
1
y
1
0
x
2
x
3
x
4
0 0 1
d = 0 u
1
y
1
0
Discreet Time Transfer Function of Linearized
System (ZOH)
Discreet Time Transfer Function of Linearized
System (ZOH)
a =
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
4
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
4
1

-0.003461

0.02338

0.7705

0.0005

1

5.852e
-6

0.7705

-3.126e e
-6

-0.01244

0.976

-0.9112

0.000494

0.9998

-1.802e
-6

-7.313e
-6

Discreet Time Transfer Function of Linearized
System (ZOH)
b =
u
1
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
4
u
2
4.999e
-11

1.999e
-7

4.375e
-10

1.762e
-6

8.506e
-7

0.003461

-0.02338

-0.7705

c =
y
1
0

x
1
x
2
x
3
x
4
0

1

0

d =
y
1
0

u
1
u
2
0

Discreet Time Transfer Function of Linearized
System (ZOH)
Transfer function from input 1 to output :
G
1
(s) =
4.375e
-10
z
3
+ 4.375e
-10
z
2
- 4.312e
-10
z

+ 4.332e
-10

z
-4
+ 3.976 z
3
+ 5.928 z
2
- 3.928 z
2
+ 0.9762

Transfer function from input 2 to output :
G
2
(s) =
- 0.02338 z
3
+ 0.06976 z
2
+ 0.06937 z
2
+ 0.02299
z
-4
+ 3.976 z
3
+ 5.928 z
2
- 3.928 z
2
+ 0.9762
Sampling time: 0.0005
State Space Realization of Discrete Time Transfer
Function
Step Response of the Open Loop Linearized
Systems
System is under-damped.
Passenger who sits in the bus will feel small
amount of oscillation.
Large settling time
Step Response of the Open Loop Linearized
Systems
Step Response of the Open Loop Linearized
Systems
Selecting Sampling Time
Discrete time controller converts continuous plant to its discreet time equivalent.

Selection of sampling time is important since a step in the road surface very quickly
affects the output.

Suspension mass is low, spring is stiff, resulting suspension mass to rise quickly and
X2 increase immediately.

Sampling time must be short, so output (X1 to X2) will not exceed 5% of the requirement in
one sampling period

Experiment been conducted to select sampling time from 0s to 0.0005s.
Selecting Sampling Time
Result:
Design with a PID Controller
K
p
= 208025
K
d
= 832100
K
i
= 624075
Design with a PID Controller
K
p
= 208025 * 2
K
d
= 832100 * 2
K
i
= 624075 * 2
Design with a PID Controller
Design requirements are met !
Percentage overshoot less
than 5%
Settling time is 2 seconds

Thank You

Questions?