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SALIENT ASPECTS OF BRIDGE ENGINEERING

Dr. Bharat Shah
Associate Professor
Applied Mechanics Department
L D College of Engineering
Ahmedabad
Contents of Presentation
Introduction
Classification of Bridges
Terminology used in Bridges
Components of Bridges
General Design Consideration of Bridges
Investigations of Bridges
Inventory and Condition Survey of Bridges
Testing of Bridges
Culverts
Introduction
A bridge is a structure providing passage over an obstacle
without closing the way beneath.
The required passage may be for a road, a railway, pedestrians,
a canal or a pipeline.
The obstacle to be crossed may be a river, a road, railway or a
valley.
Classification of Bridges
Bridges may be classified in many ways, as below:
According to the functions as aqueduct (canal or a river), viaduct (road,
railway over a valley) pedestrian, highway, railway, road cum rail or a
pipeline bridge.
According to material of construction of superstructure as timber, masonry,
iron steel, RCC, PSC, composite etc.
According to form of superstructure as slab, girder(T girder, Box girder),
truss, arch, cable stayed or suspension bridge.
According to inter-span relations as simple, continuous or cantilever.
According to the road level relative to the highest flood level of the river
below, particularly for a highway bridge, as high level or submersible bridge.
According to the length of bridge
Length > 60m major bridges, 60m > Length > 6m minor Bridges, 6 > span
Culverts.
According to the anticipated type of service and duration of use as
permanent, temporary, military (pontoon, Bailey) bridge.
Classification of Bridges
According to the functions as aqueduct (canal or a river), viaduct (road, railway
over a valley), pedestrian, highway, railway, road cum rail or a pipeline bridge.
Canal Bridge
Pedestrian Bridge
Railway Bridge
Classification of Bridges
Highway Bridge (Flyover)
Railway Over Bridge
River Bridge
Classification of Bridges
According to material of construction of superstructure as timber, masonry, iron
steel, RCC, PSC, composite etc.
Iron Steel Bridge RCC Bridge
Timber Bridge Masonry Bridge
Classification of Bridges
According to form of superstructure as slab, girder (T-girder, Box girder), truss,
bridge.
Slab Bridge Truss Bridge
Box girder bridge
T Girder Bridge
Classification of Bridges
According to form of superstructure as arch, cable stayed or suspension bridge.
Arch Bridge
Cable Stayed Bridge
Suspension Bridge
Classification of Bridges
According to inter-span relations as simple, continuous or cantilever.
Balanced Cantilever Bridge
Continuous Girder Bridge
Classification of Bridges
According to the road level relative to the highest flood level of the river below,
particularly for a highway bridge, as high level or submersible bridge.
High Level Bridge
Submersible Bridge
Classification of Bridges
According to the length of bridge as per IRC 5 clause 101.1.
L= Length of Bridge
Length = L > 60m major Bridges

60m > Length = L > 6m minor Bridges

Length = L Culverts < 6 m
Classification of Bridges
According to the anticipated type of service and duration of use as permanent,
temporary, military (pontoon, Bailey) bridge.
Pontoon type temporary Bridge Temporary Bailey Bridge
Temporary Military Bridge
Freeboard The difference between H.F.L. (allowing afflux) and formation
level of road embankment on approaches.
H.F.L. Highest flood level is the level of highest flood ever recorded or
the calculated level for design discharge.
L.W.L. Lowest flood level is the level of the water surface obtained in dry
season.
Linear Waterway Width of waterway between the extreme edges of water surface
at H.F.L. measured at right angles to the abutment face.
Effective Linear The total width of the waterway of the bridge at H.F.L. minus
Waterway effective width of obstruction.
Vertical
clearance
The height from the design highest flood level with afflux of the
channel to the lowest point of the bridge superstructure at the
position along the bridge where clearance is denoted.
Afflux The rise in the flood level of the river immediately on the
upstream of a bridge as a result of obstruction to natural flow
caused by the construction of bridge and its approaches.
Terminology are used in Bridges
Terminology are used in Bridges
Typical Cross Section of Bridge
Components of Bridges
VARIOUS TYPE OF FOUNDATIONS
A. Foundations
Shallow Foundations

1. Open foundations : Hard Strata is met at Shallow Depth or depth of
foundation is upto 5 to 6 m.

2. Raft foundations : Foundation Strata is weak having low SBC

Deep Foundations

1. Pile Foundations: Hard strata is not available at shallow depth and
scour depth is considerable.

2. Well Foundations: Hard strata is not available at shallow depth,
scour depth is considerable and foundation is in water (may be river,
sea).
Components of Bridges

Earlier Practice for Deep Foundation:
Well foundations were widely used earlier for design of foundations
But had disadvantages of slow progress, tilting & shifting of wells,
anchoring in rocks etc.
Methods designed and adopted were
o Open well sinking or Pneumatic sinking with Airlock system
o Kentledges were designed for sinking as well for correction
of tilts
Present Practice for Deep Foundation:
Well foundations are not much in practice now
Jack down method is available for faster progress
Pile foundation are mostly used in practice.

Depth of foundation
Rule-1: In soil: The minimum depth of foundation shall be upto
stratum having adequate bearing capacity but not less
than 2.0 m. below the scour level or protected scour level.
Rule-2: In Rocks: The foundation shall be securely anchored into
that material i.e. about 0.6 m. into hard rocks with an
ultimate crushing strength of 10 MPa (100 kg/cm
2
) or
above and 1.5 m. in all other cases.
Rule-3: All Beds: The pressure on the foundation material must be
well within the safe bearing capacity of the material.
These rules are applicable for open foundation only. For deep
foundation like well & pile foundations, wherever adopted
depending upon site requirements, it will be worked out as per
IRC:78.
Components of Bridges
Components of Bridges
Sinking of Well Foundation
Boring of Pile Foundation Casing of Pile Foundation
Components of Bridges
Various Type of Substructures
Abutment
o Cantilever wall type RCC
o Gravity type PCC
o Counter fort type
o Spill through type
o Box type
Piers
o Wall type
o Circular type
o Semi circular type
o Y-shape type
Wing wall / Return wall
o Cantilever wall type RCC and PCC
o Counter fort type
o Box type
o RE Wall
o Gabion Wall
Toe wall RCC and PCC type
B. Substructures
Components of Bridges
B. Substructures
Cross Section of Pier with Pile
Foundation
Cross Section of counterfort
Abutment
Components of Bridges
B. Substructures
Counterfort type Abutment
Wall type Abutment
Components of Bridges
B. Substructures
Circular Type Pier
Wall type Pier
Components of Bridges
B. Substructures
Type of Return Wall
Components of Bridges
B. Substructures
Reinforced earth Wall
Various Type of Bridge Superstructures
Solid slab type (RCC/PSC)
Voided slab type (RCC/PSC)
RCC Multi-girder slab system
PSC Multi-girder slab system
PSC Box
Steel type Superstructure
Steel RCC composite Superstructure
Balanced Cantilever type
Cable Suspension type
Bow String Girder type
C. Superstructures
Components of Bridges
C. Superstructures
Components of Bridges
Earlier practice for Superstructure:
Girders and slab system or Box girders were designed & used
Girders & slabs system was more prominent due to majority
bridges being of small / moderate spans.
Emerging design trend for Superstructure is
Long span bridges
Continuous structures
Segmental construction
o Cast-in-situ
o Pre-cast
Steel / concrete composite constructions
Extra dosed cable stayed structure to bridge longer span with
shorter depths
Cable stayed bridges
Suspension bridges
SELECTION CRITERIA OF SUPERSTRUCTURE
1. Spans upto 10m. R.C.C. solid slab.
2. Spans - 10m to 20m R.C.C. Multi-girder slab system.
3. Spans - 20m.to 30m P.S.C. Girder/Box type superstructure.
4. Span - 30m to 40m P.S.C. Box girder / PSC T-Girder
5. Span above 40 to 50m PSC Box
6. Span above 50 Long span Bridges
1. Truss Bridges
2. Suspension Bridges
3. Cable stayed Bridges
4. Bow String Girder type Bridges etc.

Components of Bridges
C. Superstructures
Components of Bridges
Solid Slab type Superstructure
Voided Slab type Superstructure
C. Superstructures
Components of Bridges
RCC Multi-girder slab system
PSC Multi-girder slab system
C. Superstructures
Components of Bridges
PSC Box type Superstructure
Steel type of Superstructure
C. Superstructures
Components of Bridges
Cable Suspension
Bow String Girder
C. Superstructures
Components of Bridges
PSC Box type Superstructure
Balance cantilever type Superstructure
Components of Bridges
Expansion Joints:
To cater the expansion and contraction of bridge due to change in
temperature, creep shrinkage etc.

Following are the common Expansion joints are used in Bridge
Superstructure:

o Filler type
Buried
Filler Joint
Asphaltic
Plug Joint
Compression
Seal Joint
o Strip seal type
o Finger Plate expansion joint
o Modular strip seal joint
Components of Bridges
Strip Seal type Expansion J oint
Filler type Expansion J oint
Components of Bridges
Modular Strip Seal type Expansion J oint
Finger plate type Expansion J oint
SUITABILITY CRITERIA FOR ADOPTION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF EXPANSION JOINTS
Sr.
No.
Type of
Expansion
Suitable for adoption joint
1. Buried Simply supported spans up to 10m
2. Filler Joint Fixed end of simply supported spans with In-significant movement.
3. Asphaltic
Plug Joint
Simply supported spans for right or skew upto (20 degree) moderately curved or wide deck
with maximum horizontal movement not exceeding 25mm.
4. Compression
Seal Joint
Simply support of continuous spans right or skew (upto 30),
moderately curved with maximum horizontal movement not exceeding 40 mm.
5. Elastomeric
slab seal joint
Simply supported or continuous spans Right or skew (less than 70 degree) moderately curved with
maximum horizontal movement up to 50 mm.
6. Simple strip
seal joint
Moderate to large simply supported.(cantilever/ continuous construction having right, skew or
curved deck with maximum horizontal movement upto 70 mm.
7. Modular strip/
Box Seal Joint
Large to very large continuous/cantilever construction with right, skew or curved deck having
maximum horizontal movement in excess of 70 mm.
8. Special joints
for special
condition
For bridge having wide decks/span length of more than 120 m. or/and involving complex
movement/rotations in different directions/ plans, provision of special type of modular expansion
joints such as swivel joists
Components of Bridges
Components of Bridges
Bearings:
The function of Bearings is to transmit the load from superstructure to the
Substructure in such a manner that bearing stresses induced in the
substructure are within the permissible limits.

They should also allow,
Longitudinal moment due to temperature variation
Rotation due to deflection of girder
Vertical moment due to sinking of the support
Following types of the bearing are commonly used.
o Tar paper
o Rocker roller bearing
o Elastomer bearing
o POT / PTFE bearing
Components of Bridges
Bearings
Elastomeric Bearing POT Bearing Rocker Bearing
Elastomeric
Components of Bridges
Fixed Free Guided
POT-PTFE Bearings
Components of Bridges
Railing:
Railing are provided for safety of pedestrian / vehicles passing over the
bridge as well as under the bridge in the case of Flyover.
Following are the commonly used Railing/Crash barrier.
o R.C.C. anti crash barrier
o Metallic anti crash barriers
o RCC Parapet
o Pipe railing
Crash Barrier RCC Parapet Metalic Anti Crash Barrier
Components of Bridges
Safety Kerb:
Safety Kerb is a roadway kerb and it is occasionally used for pedestrian
traffic. The width of safety kerb is taken as 0.75m.






Footpath:
Footpath is generally provided on bridges in urban areas for safe
crossings of the pedestrians.
It may be either cast-in-situ or precast.
Width of the footpath is normally 1.5m.
Footpath
Safety Kerb
Components of Bridges
Carriageway width of the Bridges:

Carriageway width is the minimum distance between inside face of
roadway kerb or wheel guards.
The carriageway width for 2-lane as per latest circular by MOSRT&H as
below.

(a) For 2-lane without footpath





Components of Bridges
Carriageway width of the Bridges:

(b) For 2-lane with footpath

450
1500
450
1500
Components of Bridges
Carriageway width of the Bridges:
For 4-lane/6-lane as per IRC SP:84-2009 provision of footpath is compulsory
on either side..
(a) For 4-lane divided carriageway (if daily traffic PCUs <30,000)






(b) For 6-lane divided carriageway (if daily traffic PCUs >30,000)

8500
CARRIAGE WAY
8500
CARRIAGE WAY
12000
CARRIAGE WAY
12000
CARRIAGE WAY
Components of Bridges
Carriageway width of the new Culverts:

The overall width of new culverts shall be equal to the full formation
width of the road.

The typical cross section of culvert as per the IRC:SP-84 as below.
Components of Bridges
Water spouts /Drainage spouts:
Main function of Water spouts /Drainage spouts is to remove water from
deck slab.
Minimum distance between two drainage spouts is kept 5m.
A
A
Section A-A
Components of Bridges
Weep holes:
Weep holes are mainly provided for
releasing the hydrostatic pressure
behind earth retaining structure like
abutment / return wall.
Approach Slab:
Approach slab is provided for smooth
transition from flexible pavement to rigid
pavement.
General Design Consideration of Bridges
Various Grade of Concrete as per IRC 21-2000, Table-5 are as follows:
General Design Consideration of Bridges
The permissible stresses for concrete of different grade as per Table-9 IRC 21-
2000 are as follows:
General Design Consideration of Bridges
Permissible Tensile and Compressive Stresses in steel Reinforcement as per
IRC 21-2000, Table-10 are as follows:
General Design Consideration of Bridges
Types of Prestressed Bridges :

Basically there are two types of prestressing.
(a) Pre-tensioning
(b) Post-tensioning

Pre-tensioning: Pre-tensioning is a method of prestressing in which:
The steel tendons (wires or strands) are tensioned before the concrete has been
placed in the moulds.
Tendons are tensioned by hydraulic jacks bearing against strong abutments between
which the moulds are placed.
After the setting and hardening of concrete, the tendons are released from the
tensioning device and the forces in the tendons are transferred to concrete by bond.

Post-tensioning: In this method tendons are stressed and anchored at each end of the
member after the concrete has been cast and has attained sufficient strength to
withstand the prestressing force.
General Design Consideration of Bridges
Types of loads considered for Bridge Design:

Following loads and their combinations are used for design of bridges.
Dead load
Superimposed Dead load
(SIDL)
Live load
Vehicle Impact
Impact of floating bodies
Vehicle collision load
Wind
Water Current
Tractive
Braking
Bearing friction
Centrifugal force
Buoyancy
Earth pressure
Temperature
Deformation effects
Secondary effects
Erection effects
Seismic
Wave Pressure
Grade effect

General Design Consideration of Bridges
As per IRC:6-2000 clause 207.4 following combination of live load are
considered.
Sr.
no.
Carriageway width Number of lanes for
design purposes
Load combination
1. Less than 5.3m 1 One lane of Class A considered to
occupy 2.3m. The remaining
width of carriageway shall be
loaded with 500 kg/m2.
2. 5.3m and above but less than
9.6m
2 One lane of class 70R OR two
lanes of Class A
3. 9.6m and above but less than
13.1m
3 One lane of Class 70R for every
two lanes with one lane of class A
on the remaining lane OR 3 lanes
of Class A.
4. 13.1m and above but less than
16.6m
4 One lane of Class 70R for every
two lanes with one lane of class A
for the remaining lanes, if any, or
one lane of class A for each lane.
5 16.6m and above but less than
20.1m
5
6 20.1m and above but less than
23.6m
6
The minimum Clearance for various type of Bridges
a) Lateral clearance at under passes
Desirably the full roadway width of the approaches should be carried through the under
pass.

b) Vertical clearance at under passes
Rural areas - 5m min.
Urban area - 5.5m min.

c) Vertical clearance for
Railway traction (broad gauge)
Electric traction - 6.55m min.
Non-electric traction - 4.875m min.

d) Vertical clearance for
Power /telecommunication lines
Lines carrying low voltage upto
110 v - 5.5m min.
Electric power lines upto 650 V - 6.0m min.
Electric power lines > 650 V - 6.5m min.
General Design Consideration of Bridges
Investigations of Bridges
Following main investigations are carried out before starting design of
bridges.

(a) Hydraulic Investigations
(b) Geo-technical Investigations

Hydraulic Investigations:
Hydraulic Investigations are carried out to works out the Discharge,
to works out the Velocity of the stream, to find the size and number of
the openings of the stream and to find the afflux (heading up of
water).

Investigations of Bridges
Essential Data required for Hydraulic analysis

Catchment area :
Catchment area less then 1.25 sq km, the traverse should be made along
the stream.
For larger catchment area 1cm=500m SOI maps required.

Cross section :
For sizable stream at least 3 c/s should be taken at a selected site , at
upstream and at down stream. The distance from the such c/s are depends
on size of the catchment area.
Catchment area Dist of C/s on U/S and D/S
up to 3 sq. km 100m from C/l of bridge
from 3 to 15 sq. km 300m from C/l of bridge
Over 15 sq. km 500m from C/l of bridge
Investigations of Bridges
Methods used for carrying the hydraulics Calculations are,

Empirical Formula
Rational Formula
Area Velocity Method ( Mannings Formula)
The most popular Empirical methods used are,

Dickens Formula
Ryves Formula
Inglis Formula
Investigations of Bridges
Dickens formula

4 / 3
CM Q
Where,
Q = the peak run-off in m
3
/sec
M = Catchment area in sq. km
C = 11-14 where the annual rain fall is 60-120 cm
= 14-19 where the annual rain fall is > 120 cm
= 22 in Western Ghats


Investigations of Bridges
Ryves formula : it is devised for erstwhile Madras Presidency

3 / 2
CM Q
Where,
Q = the peak run-off in m
3
/sec
M = Catchment area in sq. km
C = 6.8 for areas within 25 km of the coast
= 8.5 for areas from 25-160 km of the coast
= 10 for limited areas near the hills.
Investigations of Bridges
Inglis formula : it is devised for erstwhile Bombay Presidency
10
125

M
M
Q
Where,
Q = maximum flood discharge in m
3
/sec
M = Catchment area in sq. km
Investigations of Bridges
Calculation of Discharge Rational method
C
I A P Q 028 . 0
A precipitation of I
C
cm/hour over an acre of A hectares will give
rise to a run-off Q, after accounting losses due to absorption etc.
Where,
Q = maximum run-off in m
3
/sec
A = Catchment area in hectares
I
C
= critical intensity of rainfall in cm/hr.
P = co-efficient of run-off for the catchment characteristics
Investigations of Bridges
Calculation of Discharge Area velocity method
In a stream with rigid boundaries (bed and banks) the shape and
the size of cross section is significantly the same during a flood as
after its subsidence. If the HFL is plotted and the bed slope is
measured, it is simple to calculate the discharge.
Investigations of Bridges
Calculation of Velocity :
Plot the probable scoured line.
Measure the cross sectional area in m
2
and the wetted
perimeter P in m.
Calculate the hydraulic mean depth, R= A/P (in m)
Measure the bed slope from the plotted Longitudinal section
Velocity can then be calculated from one of the many
formulae. Mannings formula given below is widely used.
2
1
3
2
1
S R
n
V
Where,
V = velocity in m/sec
R = hydraulic mean depth
S = energy slope which may be taken as the bed slope
n = the rugosity co-efficient
Investigations of Bridges
Normal Scour depth
If the linear waterway of the
bridge is kept less than the
regime width of the stream, then
the normal scour depth under
the bridge will be greater than
the regime depth of the stream
Investigations of Bridges
Maximum Scour depth
Rule-1: For average conditions on a straight reach of the stream
and when the bridge is a single span structure,
Maximum scour depth = 1.27 times the normal scour depth.

Rule-2: For bad sites on curves or where diagonal current exist or
the bridge is multi-span structure,
Maximum scour depth = 2 times the normal scour depth.
Investigations of Bridges
Geo-Technical Investigations
To determine the type and depth of foundations.
It should cover the entire length of the bridge and also extend either
side on approaches.
The depth of exploration is normally kept 1.5 times width of footing
below proposed foundation level.
In case of hard strata encounter at shallow depths exploration is
carried out 3.0m in hard rock.

In case of pile foundation exploration should be,

1. 1.5 times probable length of pile but not less than 15m below ground
level.
2. In weak /jointed rock 15 times diameter of piles or 15m in such
strata.
3. In case of hard rock 4 times diameter of piles or 3m minimum.

Inventory and Condition Survey of Bridges
Inventory and Condition Survey of Bridges is carried out for,

To find the existing type and condition of the bridges

To prepare the improvement proposals for widening/reconstruction

To prepare the repair and rehabilitation scheme for each structure

The Standard Performa used for carrying out inventory and
condition survey of bridges.
Bridges & Culverts Inventory
Testing of Bridges

Non-Destructive Test (NDT):

Following Non-Destructive Test (NDT) are carried out,
Visual Inspection
Schmidt Rebound hammer test
Ultra pulse velocity test
Core test

Visual Inspection: Following is observed,
Surface cracking
Spalling of concrete along with crack patterns
Deterioration of concrete
Concrete surface texture and color variation also indicate the extent of damage
to concrete.
Testing of Bridges
Schmidt Rebound hammer test: (Ref. IS-13311-1992,Part-2)
Schmidt Rebound hammer test is principally a surface hardness tester. It works on the
principle that the rebound of an elastic mass depends on the hardness of the surface
against which the mass impinges.
There is little relationship between the strength of the concrete and the rebound no. of the
hammer.
Hammer can be used in horizontal, vertical overhead or vertical down position as well as
at any intermediate angle.

Ultra pulse velocity test : (Ref. IS-13311-1992,Part-1)
This method operates by measuring the average time taken for the Ultra sonic wave to
travel between the source and the receiver.
The distance between the two points is divided by the travel time which gives the average
velocity of compressive wave propagation in the material.
This method is used for the measuring uniformity and in some cases the compressive
strength of concrete. Following table gives the relations between quality of concrete and
the pulse velocity.
Sr. No. Pulse Velocity Mt./Sec. Quality of concrete
1 Below 3000 Doubtful
2 3000 to 3500 Medium
3 3500 to 4500 Good
4 Above 4500 Excellent
Testing of Bridges
Core test: (Ref. IS-516-1959)

This test is used to determine the compressive strength of the concrete which is
extracted from the existing structure.

The core used for testing is such that its height and diameter ratio is not greater
then 2.

The core is crushed to failure noting the maximum load achieved. From the
values of load and dimensions the compressive strength of the core can be
calculated.
Importance of Beauty in Bridge Engineering
Bridge beauty consists of functional as well as aesthetics beauty,
Functional beauty in the form of continuous bridges, slender
structures etc is gaining popularity in India,
Bridges are generally approached as technical problems with
little attention given to aesthetic beauty,
Normally bridge aesthetics is considered as increased in cost &
time,
Public awareness about appearance of bridges is growing now,
Aesthetic bridges receive more attention,
Designers responsibilities is to design with the best combination
of economy and beauty.
Examples of Bridge Aesthetics
Classification of Culverts
Slab Culvert Pipe Culvert
There are four types of the culverts.

The span length less than or equal to 6m is considered as Culvert.
Slab Culvert
Pipe Culvert
Arch Culvert
Box Culvert
Classification of Culverts
Arch Culvert
Box Culvert
Reconnaissance & Visual Observations of existing Bridges
The bridge condition survey will be carried out in consultation
with Sr. Expert from Bridge side as well as NDT Specialist
During reconnaissance survey both qualitative and
quantitative aspects of the distresses/deficiencies will be
examined
Indentify the types of damage
Indentify test to be carried out for NDT



Only agencies, having earlier experience in conducting Non-
Destructive test should be considered.


Methods for performing Non Destructive Testing
Schmidt Rebound hammer test: (Ref. IS-13311-1992,Part-2)
Schmidt Rebound hammer test is principally a surface hardness tester. It works on the
principle that the rebound of an elastic mass depends on the hardness of the
surface against which the mass impinges.
There is little relationship between the strength of the concrete and the rebound no.
of the hammer.
Hammer can be used in horizontal, vertical overhead or vertical down position as
well as at any intermediate angle.
Ultra pulse velocity test : (Ref. IS-13311-1992,Part-1)
This method is used for the measuring uniformity and in some cases the compressive
strength of concrete.
This method operates by measuring the average time taken for the Ultra sonic wave
to travel between the source and the receiver.
The distance between the two points is divided by the travel time which gives the
average velocity of compressive wave propagation in the material.
Following table gives the relations between quality of concrete and the pulse
velocity.
Sr. No. Pulse Velocity Mt./Sec. Quality of concrete
1 Below 3000 Doubtful
2 3000 to 3500 Medium
3 3500 to 4500 Good
4 Above 4500 Excellent
Core test: (Ref. IS-516-1959)
This test is used to determine the compressive strength of the concrete
which is extracted from the existing structure.
The core used for testing is such that its height and diameter ratio is not
greater then 2.
The core is crushed to failure noting the maximum load achieved. From
the values of load and dimensions the compressive strength of the core
can be calculated.
Cover Meter Test
To determine the existing thickness of cover and Location of
Reinforcement bars.
Conclusion of Test Report
The existing condition of concrete and reinforcement are ascertained
from the Test Report.
The nature and extent of repairs are identified.
Proposal of repair can be formulated Jacketing to concrete, Guniting to
concrete, Epoxy for example to concrete and FRP to concrete etc
Conclusion of Test Report
The existing condition of concrete and reinforcement are ascertained
from the Test Report.
The nature and extent of repairs are identified.
Proposal for repairs can be formulated as given below

i. Jacketing shall be carried out for distressed Abutment /Pier
ii. Guniting / FRP shall be carried out for distressed Super structure.
iii. Epoxy grout shall be carried out for repair of cracks for super structure
and substructure.
iv. PMC shall be carried out for repair of spalled concrete/Honeycombing in
super structure.


Rating of existing bridges.
There are two methods for rating of existing bridge as per IRC SP: 37.
a) Analytical Method: When the detailed drawings of existing bridge are
available.
For Superstructure
Compute the section capacity for moment and shear (Mcap,Vcap) from
drawings
Apply the Assess reduction factor to the bending moment and shear based
on detailed field investigations / Lab testing ()
Compute the effect of all other than live load (Mdl & Vdl)
Compute available capacity for live load
Mll = * Mcap Mdl,
Vll = * Vcap Vdl
Compute maximum live load from standard IRC loading (MLL & VLL)
Compare available capacity for live load and computed live load from
IRC loading (MllMLL, VllVLL)
Bridge rated for corresponding IRC standard of loading

For Substructure & Foundation
Where the foundation and substructure are known to carry given external
loads without any sign of deterioration or distress and the increase in the
live load over those already using the bridge does not causes an increase
of more than 25% of the total loads at foundation level, the foundation
and substructure of the bridge shall be assumed to be safe for the
aforesaid increase in live loads.
b) Load Test : When the detailed drawings of existing bridge are not available .
It is extremely difficult to simulate in the field, the IRC standard bridge
loadings for full scale load testing.
The test vehicles will be from the commercially available vehicles.
The test vehicles chosen will be the next heavier vehicle than the
predominant heavy vehicles presently plying over the bridge.
The next heavier vehicle may be considered for testing if required, after
the load testing with the first vehicle is complete and found to be
satisfactory. Heavier vehicles, if available, is permitted for testing.
Number of vehicles for test is to be worked out so as to produce the
desired bending moment at the critical sections.

Vertical deflection up to 25mm will be measured by suspended wire
method utilizing dial gauges fixed on firm support independent of the
structure to be tested.
The horizontal movement of spread of piers and abutment may be
measured at three similar locations over the length of the pier and
abutment near the springing level.
Plot the load deflection diagram.
Based on deflection diagram work out the bending moment analytically
and compare with the maximum bending moment for standard IRC
loading which produces nearly identical moment.
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