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Removal of Ocular Artifacts

in EEGAn Improved
Approach Combining DWT
and ANC
Presented by:-
Md. Danish Jamil(2K13/SPD/11)
Outline
What is EEG?
Types of EEG
Artifacts in EEG
Methodology
RLS Algorithm
Result
Conclusion
References
What is EEG?
The Electroencephalogram (EEG) is a technique for measuring electrical
activity within the brain.
An EEG signal is a measurement of currents that flow during synaptic
excitations of the dendrites of many pyramidal neurons in the cerebral
cortex.
The frequency range of EEG is 0-64 Hz.
The amplitude of EEG signal is in microvolts.
Types wave patterns in EEG
Artifacts in EEG
Signals that are detected by an EEG but not belong to a cerebral
origin are called artifacts.
Types of artifacts:-
Power line artifact
Muscle artifact
Eye blink
Eye movement
ECG artifact
Ocular artifact
The eye blink and eye movement together are called ocular artifacts.

The frequency range of ocular artifacts is 0-16 Hz.

The amplitude of ocular artifcats is 5 times of the amplitude of EEG signal.
Methodology
The recorded EEG signals are contaminated by OAs, this contamination is
considered to be an additive noise within the EEG signal. So, we can write
the following expression:

EEG
rec
(t) = EEG
true
(t)+kOAs(t)
Where,
EEG
rec
(t) recorded EEG signal;
EEG
true
(t) EEG signal due to cortical activity and without interference;
kOAs(t) OAs due to eye movement.
We can get the EEG
true
(t) from the EEG
rec
(t) by removing the kOAs(t)
efficiently.

Methodology contd
Our model consists of two main steps. The first is the construction of the
reference signal; the second is the removal the OAs from the recorded EEG
signal by applying ANC, based on a recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm.


Reference signal generation
Steps:-
Wavelet decomposition is applied to expand the contaminated EEG signal
get the wavelet coefficients.
According to the minimum risk value, we select the soft threshold(T
j
) and
apply them to the three lowest level coefficients to obtain the new
coefficients for those three levels.

Apply wavelet reconstruction to the new wavelet coefficients for
constructing the reference signal.
Adaptive noise cancellation
RLS algorithm is used to adjust the weight of adaptive filter.

RLS Algorithm
Where,
g(n) is kalman gain vector.
Y(n) is filter output
E(n) is error signal
W(n) weights of filter.
P(n) is inverse of correlation matrix
result
Conclusion
Our new model is able to provide better attenuation levels for common
types of OAs present in EEG signals.
This performance does produce some processing overhead with respect to
these other methods, but the advantages are sufficient to warrant
alternative system architectures to be considered to mitigate these
overheads. The removal of OAs from EEG signals in projects such as OPTIMI
is just a first step in our work. The usability constraints in portable
environments require single channel processing that is efficient in real time
and robust.

References
[1] T. P. Jung, S. Makeig, C. Humphries, T. W. Lee, M. J. McKeown, V. Iragui, and
T. J. Sejnowski, Removing electroencephalographic artifacts by blind source
separation,Psychophysiology, vol. 37, pp. 163178, Sep. 2000.
[2] G Gratton, M. G. Coles, and E. Donchin, A new method for off-line removal
of ocular artifact,Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., vol. 55, no. 4, pp.
468484, Apr. 1983.
[3] J. C. Woestengurg, M. N. Verbaten, and J. L. Slangen, The removal of the
eye movement artifact from the EEG by regression analysis in the frequency
domain,Biological Psychol., vol.16, pp. 127147, Feb./Mar.1983.
[4] T. D. Lagerlund, F. W. Sharbrough, and N. E. Busacker, Spatial filtering of
multichannel electroencephalographic recordings through principal
component analysis by singular value decomposition,Clin. Neurophysiol., vol.
14, no. 1, pp. 7382, 1997.

Thank
you