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GYROSCOPE
A gyroscope is a device for measuring or maintaining orientation, based
on the principles of conservation of angular momentum.

In essence, a mechanical gyroscope is a spinning wheel or disk whose
axle is free to take any orientation.

Gyroscopes are installed in ships in order to minimize the rolling and
pitching effects of waves. They are also used in aero planes, monorail
cars, gyrocompasses etc.
APPLICATIONS:
Applications of gyroscopes include navigation for the stabilization of
flying vehicles like radio-controlled helicopters. Due to their high
precision, gyroscopes are also used to maintain direction in tunnel
mining. Gyroscopes are also used in Air & Land Vehicles, Ships,
Hovercrafts etc.

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PRECESSIONAL ANGULAR MOTION:
The angular velocity of the axis of spin (i.e d/dt) is known as angular
velocity of precession and is denoted by
P
.

The axis, about which the axis of spin is to turn, is known as axis of
precession.
The angular motion of the axis of spin about the axis of precession is
known as precessional angular motion.

The Cause of Precession: Newtons 1st Law of Motion.
Law of Conservation of Angular Momentum.
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PRECESSIONAL ANGULAR MOTION:
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PRECESSIONAL ANGULAR MOTION:
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GYROSCOPE COUPLE
The couple I..p, in the direction of the vector (xxor ab) is the active
gyroscopic couple, which has to be applied over the disc when the axis
of spin is made to rotate with angular velocity
P
about the axis of
precession.
When the axis of spin itself moves with angular velocity
P
, the disc is
subjected to reactive couple whose magnitude is same but opposite in
direction to that of active couple.
This reactive couple to which the disc is subjected when the axis of spin
rotates about the axis of precession is known as reactive gyroscopic
couple.
The gyroscopic couple is usually applied through the bearings which
support the shaft.
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The resisting couple/ reactive couple will act in the direction opposite to
that of the gyroscopic couple. This means that, whenever the axis of
spin changes its direction, a gyroscopic couple is applied to it through
the bearing which supports the spinning axis.
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GYROSCOPE
PROPELLER rotates in CLOCKWISE direction when seen from rear end and
Aeroplane turns towards LEFT
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GYROSCOPE
The reactive gyroscopic couple tends to dip the tail and raise the nose
of aeroplane.
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GYROSCOPE
PROPELLER rotates in CLOCKWISE direction when seen from rear end and
Aeroplane turns towards RIGHT
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GYROSCOPE
The reactive gyroscopic couple tends to raise the tail and dip the nose
of aeroplane.
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GYROSCOPE
PROPELLER rotates in ANTICLOCKWISE direction when seen from rear
end and Aeroplane turns towards LEFT
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GYROSCOPE
The reactive gyroscopic couple tends to raise the tail and dip the nose of
aeroplane.
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GYROSCOPE
PROPELLER rotates in ANTICLOCKWISE direction when seen from rear
end and Aeroplane turns towards RIGHT
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The reactive gyroscopic couple tends to raise the nose and dip the tail of
aeroplane.
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PROPELLER rotates in CLOCKWISE direction when seen from rear end
and Aeroplane is landing or nose move downwards
The reactive gyroscopic couple tends to turn the nose of aeroplane
toward right
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PROPELLER rotates in CLOCKWISE direction when seen from rear end
and Aeroplane is Takes off or nose move upwards
The reactive gyroscopic couple tends to turn the nose of aeroplane
toward left
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GYROSCOPE
PROPELLER rotates in ANTICLOCKWISE direction when seen from rear
end and Aeroplane is Takes off or nose move upwards
The reactive gyroscopic couple tends to turn the nose of aeroplane
toward right
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PROPELLER rotates in ANTICLOCKWISE direction when seen from rear
end and Aeroplane is Landing or nose move downwards
The reactive gyroscopic couple tends to turn the nose of aeroplane
toward left
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Basic principle of stabilization of gyroscope:
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Basic principle of stabilization of gyroscope:
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Basic principle of stabilization of gyroscope:
In rolling, external couple is in transverse plane. So reaction couple
from gyroscope should also act in same plane. (i.e. along longitudinal
axis). So choice is there to choose spin axis either in the vertical or in
transverse direction and accordingly for precession axis).
This depends upon practical constraint. Precession is given to
gyroscope manually (just like steering wheel).
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Basic principle of stabilization of gyroscope:
Gyroscopic effect on Rolling of ship.
The axis of the rotor of a ship is
mounted along the longitudinal
axis of ship and therefore, there is
no precession of this axis. Thus, no
effect of gyroscopic couple on the
ship frame is formed when the
ship rolls
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Gyroscopic effect on Pitching of ship The pitching motion of a ship
generally occurs due to waves which can be approximated as sine wave.
During pitching, the ship moves up and down from the horizontal
position in vertical plane
Bow It is the fore end of ship
Stern It is the rear end of ship
Starboard It is the right hand side of the ship looking in the direction
of motion
Port It is the left hand side of the ship looking in the direction of
motion
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Gyroscopic effect on Pitching of ship
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Gyroscopic effect on Pitching of ship
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Gyroscopic effect on Steering of ship
Left turn with clockwise rotor
When ship takes a left turn and the rotor rotates in clockwise direction
viewed from Stern.
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Gyroscopic effect on Steering of ship
Right turn with clockwise rotor
When ship takes a Right turn and the rotor rotates in clockwise
direction viewed from Stern.
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GYROSCOPE
Stability of Four Wheeled Vehicle negotiating a turn.
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Stability of Four Wheeled Vehicle negotiating a turn.
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Stability of Four Wheeled Vehicle negotiating a turn.
m = Mass of the vehicle (kg)
W = Weight of the vehicle (N) = m.g,
h = Height of the centre of gravity of the vehicle (m)
r
W
= Radius of the wheels (m)
R = Radius of track or curvature (m)
I
W
= Mass moment of inertia of each wheel (kg-m
2
)
I
E
= Mass moment of inertia of the rotating parts of the engine (kg-m
2
)

W
= Angular velocity of the wheels (rad/s)

E
= Angular velocity of the engine (rad/s)
G = Gear ratio =
E
/
W
,
v = Linear velocity of the vehicle (m/s)=
W
r
W
,
x = Wheel track (m)
b = Wheel base (m)
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Stability of Four Wheeled Vehicle negotiating a turn.
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Stability of Four Wheeled Vehicle negotiating a turn.
When the wheels and rotating parts of the engine rotate in the same
direction, then positive sign is used in the above equation. Otherwise
negative sign should be considered.

Assuming that the vehicle takes a left turn, the reaction gyroscopic
couple on the vehicle acts between outer and inner wheels.
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Stability of Four Wheeled Vehicle negotiating a turn.
This gyroscopic couple tends to press the outer wheels and lift the
inner wheels.
Due to the reactive gyroscopic couple, vertical reactions on the road surface
will be produced. The reaction will be vertically upwards on the outer wheels
and vertically downwards on the inner wheels.
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Stability of Four Wheeled Vehicle negotiating a turn.
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Stability of Four Wheeled Vehicle negotiating a turn.
Effect of Centrifugal Couple When a vehicle moves on a curved path, a
centrifugal force acts on the vehicle in outward direction through the
centre of gravity of the vehicle
This centrifugal couple tends to press the outer and lift the inner
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Stability of Four Wheeled Vehicle negotiating a turn.
Due to the centrifugal couple, vertical reactions on the road surface will
be produced. The reaction will be vertically upwards on the outer wheels
and vertically downwards on the inner wheels.
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Stability of Four Wheeled Vehicle negotiating a turn.
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Stability of Four Wheeled Vehicle negotiating a turn.
A little consideration will show that when the vehicle is running at high
speeds, P
I
may be zero or even negative. This will cause the inner
wheels to leave the ground thus tending to overturn the automobile. In
order to have the contact between the inner wheels and the ground,
the sum of P/2 and Q/2 must be less than W/4.
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Stability of Four Wheeled Vehicle negotiating a turn.
A rear engine automobile is travelling along a track of 100 metres mean
radius. Each of the four road wheels has a moment of inertia of 2.5 kg-m
2

and an effective diameter of 0.6 m. The rotating parts of the engine have
a moment of inertia of 1.2 kg-m
2
. The engine axis is parallel to the rear
axle and the crankshaft rotates in the same sense as the road wheels. The
ratio of engine speed to back axle speed is 3 : 1. The automobile has a
mass of 1600 kg and has its centre of gravity 0.5 m above road level. The
width of the track of the vehicle is 1.5 m.

Determine the limiting speed of the vehicle around the curve for all four
wheels to maintain contact with the road surface. Assume that the road
surface is not cambered and centre of gravity of the automobile lies
centrally with respect to the four wheels.
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Stability of Two Wheeled Vehicle
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Stability of Two Wheeled Vehicle
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Stability of Two Wheeled Vehicle
Let
m = Mass of the vehicle and its rider in kg,
W = Weight of the vehicle and its rider in newtons = m.g,
h = Height of the centre of gravity of the vehicle and rider,
r
W
= Radius of the wheels,
R = Radius of track or curvature,
I
W
= Mass moment of inertia of each wheel,
I
E
= Mass moment of inertia of the rotating parts of the engine,

W
= Angular velocity of the wheels,

E
= Angular velocity of the engine rotating parts,
G = Gear ratio =
E
/
W
,
v = Linear velocity of the vehicle =
W
r
W
,
= Angle of heel. It is inclination of the vehicle to the vertical
for equilibrium.
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Stability of Two Wheeled Vehicle
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Stability of Two Wheeled Vehicle negotiating a turn
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Stability of Two Wheeled Vehicle negotiating a turn
A motor cycle with its rider has a mass of 300 kg. The centre of gravity
of the machine and rider combined being 0.6 m above the ground with
machine in vertical position. Moment of inertia of each wheel is 0.525
kg m2 and the rolling diameter of 0.6 m. The engine rotates 6 times the
speed of the road wheels and in the same sense. The engine rotating
parts have a mass moment of inertia of 0.1686 kg m2. Find (i) the angle
of heel necessary if the vehicle is running at 60 km/hr round a curve of
30 m (ii) If the road and tyre friction allow for the angle of heel not to
exceed 50o, what is the maximum road velocity of the motor cycle.