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National Workshop

On
RECENT ADVANCES IN RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY & DATA ANALYTICAL
TOOLS

Research methodology for social
sciences The research process

Prof. AJAY PANDIT
FMS, Delhi University
May 14, 2011
RESEARCH

RESEARCH
Scientific investigation in to an area of interest
to the researcher

Key attributes of being scientific?
Attributes of being Scientific
Systematic

Accurate

Authentic


Research Defined
Research is systematic collection, analysis and
interpretation of data [for managerial decision
making.]

No method known to man can entirely eliminate
uncertainty. But scientific method, more than
any other procedure, can minimize those
elements of uncertainty which result from lack
of information. By so doing, it reduces the
danger of making a wrong choice between
alternative courses of action

Research process - Steps
Problem Definition
Research design
Design of data collection methods and forms
Sample design and data collection
Analysis and interpretation of data
Research report

RESEARCH DESIGN

EXPLORATORY DESCRIPTIVE CAUSAL
TYPES OF RESEARCHES
EXPLORATORY DESCRIPTIVE CAUSAL
- Low prior info

- Qualitative /
Desk / `Expert

- Unstructured
- Defines state of
market and
consumer as of today

- Can check out
hypo
If then
Method
- Experimentation
- field / lab
- Tracking of real
life events
EXPLORATORY RESEARCH
Low a priori information

Serves to provide an understanding, defines issues,
hypothesis building and focusing / prioritisng research
effort

Methodologies include
- literature search
- Interviewing knowledgeable persons
- case study analysis

Exploratory research characterised by their flexibility
SOURCES OF SECONDARY DATA
Newspapers and magazines
Trade publications
Census
Government statistics
Annual reports of industry/trade associations
Stock exchange directories
PROBLEMS WITH SECONDARY DATA
Rarely available


When available,
- rarely comprehensive
- rarely updated
- rarely accurate
- not detailed

Therefore, rarely usable, if available
USE OF AVAILABLE DATA
Initial
Analysis
Recorded
data
Unrecorded
data
Internal
data
External
data
Informal
interviews
Direct
observation
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH TECHNIQUES
- Word association
- Sentence completion
- Storytelling
- Obituaries
- Role plays
- Psychodramas
- Psychodrawings
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCHES
Meant to describe
- characteristics of the market/consumer
- estimate size/composition of market

Require a clear specification of




ho
hat
hen
here
hy & how of the research
W
CAUSALITY
Causality means X causes Y

But, how does one establish causality ?

Association does not mean causality. Increase in number
of cars on Indian roads is associated with electricity
consumption. But, one is not the cause of the other.

Causality usually remains a hypothesis.
Tasks Involved in Problem
Definition
Discussions with Decision Makers
Interviews with Industry Experts
Secondary Data Analysis
Qualitative Research

Proper Definition of the Research
Problem
Research Problem
Broad Statement
Specific Components
Components of an Approach

Objective/Theoretical Foundations
Analytical Model
Research Questions
Hypotheses
Specification of the Information Needed
Objective/Theoretical Foundations

Theory is a conceptual scheme based on
foundational statements, or axiom, which are
assumed to be true.

Objective evidence is unbiased evidence
supported by empirical findings.
Models
An analytical model is a set of variables and
their interrelationships designed to represent,
in whole or in part, some real system or
process.

Types:
- verbal
- graphical
- mathematical
Models
In verbal models, the variables and their
relationships are stated in prose form. Such
models may be mere restatements of the
main tenets of a theory.
Graphical Models
Graphical models are visual. They are used to
isolate variables and to suggest directions of
relationships but are not designed to provide
numerical results.
Cognitive Loyalty
Affective Loyalty
Conative Loyalty
Repurchase
Mathematical models explicitly specify the
relationships among variables, usually in
equation form.



Where
y = degree of preference

= model parameters to be estimated
statistically
Mathematical Models


n
i
i i
x a a
y
1
0
a a
i
,
0
Development of Research
Questions and Hypotheses


Components of the

Research Questions
Hypotheses
Objective/
Theoretical
Framework
Analytical
Model

Marketing Research Problem
Research Questions and
Hypotheses
Research questions (RQs) are refined
statements of the specific components of the
problem.
A hypothesis (H) is an unproven statement or
proposition about a factor or phenomenon
that is of interest to the researcher. Often, a
hypothesis is a possible answer to the
research question.

Department Store Project
RQ: Do the customers of Pantaloon exhibit
store loyalty?

H1: Customers who are store loyal are less
knowledgeable about the shopping
environment.
H2: Store-loyal customers are more risk-
averse than are non-loyal customers.
For a retail store like Pantaloon, following questions become
important:

1. What criteria do households use when selecting
department stores?
2. How do households evaluate Pantaloon and competing stores in
terms of the choice criteria identified in question 1?
3. Which stores are patronized when shopping for specific
product categories?
4. What is the market share of Pantaloon and its competitors for
specific product categories?
5. What is the demographic and psychological profile of the
customers of Pantaloon? Does it differ from the profile of
customers of competing stores?
6. Can store patronage and preference be explained in terms of
store evaluations and customer characteristics?
Pantaloon Study

Pantaloon Study
Specification of Information Needed

Component 1
The researcher identified the following factors as part of the choice
criteria: quality of merchandise, variety and assortment of merchandise,
returns and adjustment policy, service of store personnel, prices,
convenience of location, layout of store, credit and billing policies. The
respondents should be asked to rate the importance of each factor as it
influences their store selection.

Component 2
The researcher identified nine department stores as competitors to
Pantaloon based on discussions with management. The respondents
should be asked to evaluate Pantaloon and its nine competitors on the
eight choice criteria factors.
Study on Blogs
OBJECTIVES
Identify the profile of those who engage in blog writing and investigate
their behaviour.
Explore and substantiate with evidence why do some people blog.
Examine the consequences of blogging, on behaviour of opinion leaders
and opinion seekers.
Measure the positive and challenging impact on consumers behaviour as
a result of blogs.
Develop a blog communication model impacting consumer decision
process.
Establish blogs as an effective tool for Public Relations and corporate
image building.
Justify blogs as the emerging concept of Customer Relationship
Management.

Digression
Few Fundamental Concepts

Measurement Scales
Central Limit Theorem
Socio-economic classification
Scales of
Measurements
Scales of Measurement
Scale Basic
Compa
-risons
Typical
Examples
Measures
of
Average
Nominal Identity Male-female
User-
nonuser
Occupations
Uniform
Numbers
Mode
Scales of Measurement
Scale Basic
Compa
-risons
Typical
Examples
Measures
of
Average
Ordinal Order

Preference
for brands

Social class

Hardness of
minerals

Graded
quality of
lumber
Median
Scales of Measurement
Scale Basic
Compa-
risons
Typical
Examples
Measures
of
Average
Interval Compari
son of
Intervals

Temperature
scale

Grade-point
average

Attitude
toward
brands

Awareness
of
advertising
Mean
Scales of Measurement
Scale Basic
Compa-
risons
Typical
Examples
Measures of
Average
Ratio Comparison
of absolute
magnitudes

Units sold

Number of
purchasers

Probability
of
purchase

Weight

Geometric
mean
What sort of a scale would consumer responses
to the following questions generate?


1. Have you purchased toothpaste in the last one week?
2. How many children do you have?
3. What size of pack did you last purchase-0.5 kg, 1.0 kg or1.5k
4. Please put these five brands of soft drinks [Pepsi, Coca Cola, 7- Up, Limca,
Fanta] in the order of your preference?.
5. On a scale of 1-10 how would you rate the computer course you have just
completed?
6. How much money did you spend last month on entertainment ?

Questionnaire
Design Process
The Sampling Design Process
Define the Population
Determine the Sampling Frame
Select Sampling Technique(s)
Determine the Sample Size
Execute the Sampling Process
Data Analysis
Data Analysis involves three stages:

1. Testing association between variables
2. Determining the degree of association
between the variables
3. Estimating the values of the variables
Identifying the technique
Technique shall largely depend upon the scales
of measurement of variables i.e. nominal,
ordinal, interval or ratio.
Bi-variate Analysis

Independent

Nom Int/Ratio


Nom Chi-Sq.
2
Discriminant


Dependant



Int/Ratio ANOVA Reg/Co-Rel

Thanks!


Any Questions Please!