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Imaging the Philippines,

1946-1972
Neocolonialism
Transition from Colonial
to Neocolonial Society

American Political
Patronage

Filipino Ruling Class as
Articulator of American
Interests


Neocolonialism
Restoration of Philippine
Commonwealth

Role of Douglas
MacArthur in Philippine
Presidential Politics

Politics of Collaboration
Architect of Neocolonial Policies
Philippine Rehabilitation
Aid
Bell Trade Act
Parity Amendment to
the 1935 Constitution
Military Bases
Agreement
Military Assistance
Agreement
Implementor of Neocolonial Policies
Recipient of $250 million
economic aid and $100
million military
assistance
Weakened the rebellion
waged by the PKP-HMB
1949 elections marred by
fraud and violence

Populism and Neocolonialism
Suppression of the PKP-HMB Rebellion
Duplicity in Foreign Relations
(SEATO and NAM)
Populist President
Icon of Decent Public Service
Politics of Resettlement
Nationalist Posturings
Filipino First Policy
Reparations Agreement
Bohlen-Serrano Agreement
Cultural Heritage Promotion

Anti-Subversion Law
Corruption Issues
Nationalist Posturing (Garcia)
September 1959 - conferences led by Philippine Secretary
Felixberto Serrano U.S. and Ambassador Charles Bohlen
Results:
Recognition of United States of the right of the Philippines to be
consulted on the operational use of American bases in the Philippines
in situations in which the United States might be involved in Asia
Formal inclusion of the principle of automatic retaliation in the Mutual
Defense Treaty of 1951
Prior consent of the Philippines before establishing missile sites in the
country
Reduction of the 99-year lease of the American bases to 25 years
subject to renewal of termination by mutual consent
Long-range programming of the different aspects of American military
assistance to the Philippines



Nationalist Posturings
Change of the independence
day celebration (July 4 to
June 12)

Founding of MAPHILINDO


Imaging Marcos
last senate president to be voted
to the presidency
builder president
world class leader
the only post war Philippine
president who won reelection
the strong man of Philippine
politics in the same league with
his Asian counterparts such as
South Koreas Park Chung Hee,
Indonesias Achmed Sukarno
and Singapores Lee Kuan Yew


Radical Alternative
1967- Movement for the Advancement of Nationalism

1968- Communist Party of the Philippines

1969- New Peoples Army

1970s- militant student protests and the emerging
united leftist front against the Marcos administration



Nationalist Elite
Politics of Claro Recto and Lorenzo Tanada




Assertion of Philippine Sovereignty

Nationalist Industrialization



Road to Martial Law
Communist Threat (CCP-NPA-NDF)

Constitutional Convention

Plaza Miranda Bombing



Mock Ambush of Enrile and MV Karagatan Discovery
Instruments of Neocolonialism
Military and Police Interventions: Advisers, Training,
Aid, Public Safety
Socio-Economic Maneuverings: Economic Aid, Food
for Peace, Land Reform, Green Revolution, Rural
Development, Peace Corps, Safeguarding U.S.
Investments, Labor Unions, Multilateral Lending
BOTTOM LINE:
THESE INTERVENTIONS AND MANEUVERINGS
WERE EFFECTED TO ADVANCE AMERICAN
POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC AGENDA IN THE
CONTEXT OF COLD WAR.