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BELIEFS

SITI ZAHARAH JOHARI


BELIEFS
Beliefs are assumptions, theories,
explainations, conclusions, and states of mind
which we choose, at some level, as
mechanisms to help us make sense out of our
experiences.
Beliefs often become so ingrained due to
repeated situations which seem to prove their
legitimacy , that we may confuse them with
facts.
Belief is the psychological state in which an
individual holds a proposition or premise to be
true.
Superstitious belief or superstition is an
irrational belief or practice resulting from
ignorance or fear of the unknown. The validity
of superstitions is based on belief in the
power of magic and witchcraft and in such
invisible forces as spirits and demons.
BELIEFS
Different religious-different beliefs as it is
connected to religion perspective.
Influence of religion on learning
a) physical
b)Thinking
c) Language
d) Customs
MALAY INDIA CHINESE
celebration It is a must to visit
friends and relatives
houses.
The evening before the
celebration, all the
family members will
gather for dinner
Bad luck will come
if the plate/bowl
used for the
celebration is
broken.
Wears new/fine
clothes-baju
kurung/baju melayu
Then, at night, all the
family members will light
pelita in front of their
house.
Bad words are not
encouraged to be
used during the
CNY.
Lighting the pelita
around the house, 7
days before the Eid
Celebration.
arrange colorful colored
rice into flowers shape in
front of the house
(night)
It is encouraged to
wear red cloth and
avoid the black
color one.
Duit Raya is given to
children by adults.
In the morning of
celebration, they have to
put sesame oil on their
head, which it will be
done by the older person
in the family.
cannot sweep the
floor the night
before CNY.
MALAY INDIA CHINESE
PREGNANCY Gossiping and
using bad words
are not allowed.
Cannot sleep during the day
and sleeping too much.
Cannot eat crab,
rabbit, dog and
rooster meat.
Cannot spike the
nail, dig a hole
or hit animals.
Relatives and neighbor are
not encouraged to visit newly
born baby as it will cause the
baby to be shocked.
Cannot use scissor
or claw nails.
Cannot gives name
for the baby before
it is born.
Cannot go
outside the
house during
dusk.
Cannot go outside alone at
night.
Not allowed to
hang clothes
Cannot see
moon and solar
eclipse
Cannot slaughter animals Cannot pat
mothers shoulder
Husband is not
allowed to blow
anything that
will produce a
sound.
Pregnant woman has to wear
a bracelet that call
Suulkaappu.
Cannot raise hands
exceeding the
shoulders level.
MALAY INDIA CHINESE
marriage Cannot go out with
partners 40 days
before marriage
The man will have a
visit to his partners
house and vice
versa. (merisik)
It is not encouraged
to attend funeral 3
months before and
after the marriage.
Cannot eat rice
with any soup,
couple of months
before married.
The bride is not
allowed to join the
group when they
come to the
grooms house. (not
polite)
Decoration for the
wedding should
avoid from using
white, dark blue,
black and green
color.
Cannot look into
the mirror after
dusk
Only vegetable can
be served at the
temple during the
wedding banquet.
The table,chair and
bed should be
placed in common
position not at the
edge of the room.
Avoid from sunlight
(to avoid from skin
burned)
Beef is prohibited
to be served.
Even number
always be used in
wedding
MALAY INDIA CHINESE
EATING BEHAVIOUR Cannot eat in the
chipped plate/bowl.
Beef is strictly
prohibited
Cannot impale the
chopstick upward
Cannot eat in the
dark
Eating on the
bananas leaf
Older person in the
family will start to
eat before others
do.
Cannot eat
childrens leftover
food (parents)
Eat vegetables
before going to the
temple
It is impolite to lick
the tip of the
chopstick
Wash plate after
eating
If someone is
fasting for
Thaipusam, he/she
only can eat food
that he/she have
vowed before.
The chopstick
should be placed on
top of the bowl
after eating.
MALAY INDIA CHINESE
DEATH All the debt of the dead
should be paid before the
body will be buried.
Picture of the
dead should be
hang upside-down
Applied some
make-up and
perfume on the
corpse
It is encouraged to say
condolence to the family
members
Decoration things
should be kept
from living room.
Corpse is wore
with good and fine
clothes
The widow cannot wear
colorful clothes, perfumes
Family members
should walk
around the corpse
3 time anti-
clockwise
Relatives, friends
and family
members should
cry during the
funeral
Cannot talk loudly even to
say zikir or read Al-Quran,
when you are to send the
body to the graveyard
Bribe some rice to
the dead as the
last give
Song will be
played when the
dead is sent to the
graveyard
MALAY INDIA CHINESE
CONFINEMENT Avoid knocking your toe,
because it will affect your
uterus (said to be connected
to the feet).
Avoid squatting, because
your uterus will descend.
Cannot eat anything cold,
like melon, eggplant, spinach.
Cannot eat anything windy,
like jack fruit.
Cannot drink cold water or
eat oily foods, as they are bad
for blood circulation and cause
muscle aches and pains.
Cannot leave the bed, move
about or leave the house.
Cannot read or watch TV as it
strains the eyes

Cannot eat
seafood if
the mother
is
breastfeedin
g, as it will
cause
vomiting
and rashes
in the baby.

Cannot eat
windy
vegetables
and fruits,
like
cabbage,
eggplant or
grapes.
Cannot
drink water.

Cannot wash hair for 21
days or bathe for 12 days.
Cannot be directly
exposed to wind (hot, for
example, hairdryer; or
cold, for example, air-
conditioning).
Can only watch TV or
read for 15 minutes at a
time, so that the eyes are
well-rested.
Cannot cry.
Cannot carry heavy
objects (including the
baby), over-exert self or
walk up and down the
stairs.
Cannot drink water for
the first 20 days, only rice
wine (with the alcohol
steamed away).

Longhouse taboo (Taboos and
superstitions)
Many sub-ethnic groups among indigenous
tribes in Sabah and Sarawak live in rumah
panjang (longhouses) and maintain their
traditional spiritual/animistic beliefs.

Longhouse taboo
For example, it is believed that bad luck would
result if a visitor enters a new longhouse while
it is being constructed. Walking under a
longhouse is also considered taboo.
Longhouse taboo
One should also never enter a longhouse
without an invitation. The visitor should make
his presence known by calling out from the
bottom of the steps and after he is invited in,
to leave his sandals or shoes outside before
entering

Longhouse taboo
Once inside the longhouse, he should
immediately make his way to the elders room
to announce his presence and state his
business. Never enter the sleeping quarters of
a family without prior consent.
Longhouse taboo
Walking within the longhouse also has its
restrictions and rules. Visitors must tread
lightly, ensuring that they never walk over a
person.

Longhouse taboo
When leaving, visitors are required to partake
in a local wine (usually made out of fermented
rice), or stop for a chat; as it is believed that
visitors who do not pause will take away the
wealth of the house with them.