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Motivation

Concept & Theories


The psychological processes that cause
the arousal , direction, and persistence of
voluntary actions that are goal oriented
Motivation is the desire
within the individual that
stimulates him or her to
action
Motive means want , need or
drive and it prompts a person
to action.
Motivation Defined:
Characteristic features of Motivation
Motivation is
internal to person
It is an ongoing
process
It varies from
person to person
& time to time
It may be positive
or negative
Individual
needs
Perceived
environment
Wants
(Tension)
Motivation
Action
(Tension
released)
Maslow Hierarchy of Needs
Physiological: hunger, thirst shelter
Safety: Needs to be free from harm or danger.
Social: Desire for acceptance & caring
relationships.
Esteem: self respect, being recognized by
others.
Self actualization: self -fulfillment
Fredrick Herzberg- Two Factor Theory
Hygiene factors -rules &
policies,, nature of physical
working conditions, salary
etc.
Motivator factors -
recognition at work ,
opportunity for
advancement, achievement,
prospects of promotion.
Absence may
Lead to
dissatisfaction
Existence does not
lead to satisfaction/
motivation

Existence leads to satisfaction &
improvement in performance
Self actualization
Esteem
Social
Security
Physiological
Achievement, recognition,
growth , responsibility
Company policies, working
conditions, salary,
interpersonal relationships
Motivating
factors
Hygiene
factors
EXISTENCE:
Physiological
Needs
RELATEDNESS:
Interpersonal
relationships
GROWTH:
Personal
growth
ERG THEORY

ERG theory
Basic needs
Relatedness needs

Existence needs
Growth needs
Social needs
Rewards
Need for
Achievement
( nAch) The
drive to excel.
Need for
Power
( n Pow)
Make others
behave
Need for
affiliation
( nAff)
Interpersonal
Relations

Theory focuses on the three
needs
Vroom's Expectancy Theory
The theory proposes three determinants of
motivation:
The expectancy
that individual
effort will result
in performance
The
expectancy
that
performance
will result in
reward
The
valence of
Regards
Expectancy theory from the managers perspective
Individual decides to work hard
and give best efforts
Expectancy
I expect to be high performer
High performance is achieved &is
associated with:
Being transferred.
Being expected to be always a
high performer
Merit Pay Increase
Recognition for good work
Being considered for promotion
Negative valence outcome Positive valence outcome
Instrumentality
Goal setting Theory: Salient features
Specific goal fixes the needs of resources & efforts.
It increases performance
Goal setting theory has identified two factors which
influences the performance:

Goal
Commitment
Self
Efficiency
Why are goals important?

Goals
guide &
direct
behavior
Goals
serve as
organizin
g function
Goals Provides
benchmarks
Goals may
define the
basis for
organizational
design
Theory X AND Y
DOUGLAS MCGREGOR
THEORY X
More negative
Less motivated
Avoid responsibility
THEORY Y
More positive
Motivated
Take responsibility