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Nikolas Rose and Peter Miller.

Political power beyond the State.


Over-valuation of the problem of the
State
vocabulary structured by the oppositions between State and Civil
society, Public and private, government and marked, coercion and
consent, sovereignty and autonomy an the like, does not
adequately characterise the diverse ways in which rule is exercised
in advanced liberal democracies p. 174.
El vocabulario clsico, que opone el Estado y la Sociedad Civil, el
poder y la libertad, etc., no es adecuado dentro del marco del
liberalismo. Por qu?
Power: making up citizens capable of bearing as a free subjects.
Personal autonomy is not the antithesis of political power, but a
key in its exercise, the more so because (tanto ms cuando) most
individuals are not merely the subjects of power but play a part in
its operations. 174
The Governmet like a Matrix
Government is the historically constituded
matrix within which are articulated all those
dreams, schemes, strategies and monoeuvres
of authorities that seek to shape the beliefs
and conduct of others in desired directions by
acting upon their will, their circumstantes or
their environment. P. 175.
The importance of the Knowledge in
the exercise of the Power
Knowledge is thus central to these activities of
government is a domain of cognition, calculation,
experimentation and evaluation. And, we argue,
government is intrinsically linked to the activities of
expertise, whose role is no one of weaving an all-pervasive
web of social control, but of enacting assorted attemps
at the calculated administration of diverse aspects of
conduct through countless, often competing, local tactics of
education, persuasion, inducement, management,
incitement, motivation and encouragement

La importance del saber, del conocimiento, de los expertos,
quienes problematizan, ofrecen soluciones, inducen,
persuaden, motivan, etc.
Governmental technologies
The Complex of mundane programmes,
calculations, techniques, apparatuses,
documents and procedures through which
authorities seek to embody and give effect to
governmental ambitions. P. 175.
Racionalidades polticas y tecnologas de
gobierno. El eidos y sus dispositivos. En el
medio, los expertos.
Government vs the State
To the extent that the modern state rules, it does so on the basis of an elaborate network of
relations formed amongst the complex institutions, organizations and apparatusses that make it up,
and between state and non-state institutions.
El Gobierno no es un prctica estatal. Mejor dicho, No es que primero est el Estado gobernndolo
todo, no. El Estado funciona sobre la bases de relaciones y racionalidades gubernamentales ya
fijadas, ya hechas.
En el mbito de la razn de Estado, existe una iniciativa por hacer el Estado, ello implica gobernarlo
todo. De ah la importancia de los expertos. El Estado hay que hacerlo desde lo microfsico. El
ejemplo de la biopoltica, la institucionalizacin de las disciplinas, que ya haban surgido para
responder a problemas concretos en la familia, el hospital, el cuartel, como producto de
problematizaciones y organizaciones.
En el mbito liberal hay un cambio. Predomina la idea del dejar hacer. NO intervenir demasiado,
cosa que nunca ocurri. Para producir libertad, hubo que intervenir. El liberalismo se enmarca
dentro de la lgica de la razn de Estado.
La regulacin, el orden, el cuidado, la asistencia, no necesariamente tuvo que ver con el Estado,
OJO. Slo a partir del siglo XVIII el Estado empieza a montar el ensamblaje a travs del Estado
Nacional.
Las prcticas de gobierno fueron institucionalizadas por una entidad central.
Knowledge/Power
El conocimiento como un vasto ensamblaje de
personas, teoras, y tcnicas centrales para
gobernar. Desde la filosofa a la medicina.
Esquemas de planeacin social, tcnicas
mdicas.
Political Rationalities and the analysis
of liberalism
Political Rationality.
Political discourse: formulation and justification of idealised
schemata for representating reality, analyzing it and
rectifying it. P. 178
El discurso poltica, la poltica, el eidos, la formulacin de
ideas, esquemas, proyectos para representar la realidad,
analizndola y rectificndola.
Las racionalidades polticas tiene un sentido moral.
Aparatos prescriptores. They consider the ideals or
principles to which government should be directed
freedom, justice, equality, mutual responsability,
citizenchip, common sense, economic efficiencies,
prosperity, growth, fairness, rationality and the like. P. 179
Liberalism: una racionalidad poltica
Civil society: a natural realm of freedoms and activities
outside the legitimate sphere of politics.
Sociedad civil: eso es lo que no hay que tocar, porque es el
dominio de la libertad. Hay que producir libertad accin a
distancia). El vnculo entre poder y libertad.
Formar el espacio de libertad, crear libertad. Eso es lo que
no hay que tocar.
Liberalism: marks the moment when the dystopian
dream of a totally administered society was abandoned,
and government with a domain that had its own
naturalness, its own rules and processes, and its own
internal forms of self regulations. P. 179.
Sujetos con derechos. Equipados con derechos.
Sobre el liberalismo. Accin a
distancia.
Liberal doctrines on the limits of power and the freedom of subjects
under the law were thus accompanied by theworking out of a range of
new technologies of government, not having the form of direct control by
authorities, that sought to administer the private realms, and
programme and shape them in desired directions. P. 180.
Gobierno moderno: accin a distancia. Latour y Callon.
Liberal government identifies a domain outside politics, and seek to
manage it without destroying its existence and its autonomy. This is made
possible through the activities and calculations of a proliferation of
independent agents including philanthropist, doctor, hygienists, managers,
planners, parents and social workers. And it is dependen upon the forging
aliances. This takes place on the one hand between political strategies and
the activities of these authorities and, on the other, between these
authorities and free citizens, in attempts to modulate events, decisions
and actions in the economy, the family, the private firm, and the conduct
of the individual person: p. 180.
Accin a distancia
Las ideas de libertad estuvieron acompaados
de formadores de la subjetividad. El poder
mdico, la psiquiatria. Los formadores. Etc.
Lugares para la rectificacin y la
normalizacin. La prisin, los asilos. La familia.
(Donzelot). Mltiples intervenciones, que de
alguna forma desnaturalizaron al liberalismo.
Ejemplo. S.XIX. Castro, Procacci, Ewald.

Programmes of government: La
importancia de los expertos, OJO.
La actividad de gobierno est problematizando permanentemente. Por
eso los expertos. Por eso la importancia del problema. Problemas para
buscar mejores.
Gobierno liberal. Alentar el saber. Las fallas y problemas para alcanzar su,
los problemas, son la base para la intervencin cientfica.
Una tecnologa. Un sistema hecho de saberes para perfeccionar la
maquinaria del mercado.
La poltica: una extensin del sentido. Por medio del saber. Para gobernar
e imponer su idea. O mejor, proyectarla. Es Una proyeccin de sentido.
Quienes son esos expertos: Economistas. Expertos en diferentes materias.
En diferentes mbitos.
Los saberes no son neutrales o autnomos, pues se proyectan y crean con
un fin.
Inglaterra. USA. Hay unos ideales. Hagamos el montaje. Miremos haber
donde llegamos.
Pensada: el liberalismo.
Espacios de Saber. Divisin Positivista. Para
colonizar un dominio, e intervenirlo.
La tcnica y la tecnologa.
Pero antes, el saber.
Poltica y tecnologa. Gradisima dualidad para
llevar a cano un proyecto poltico.
Historia de la Ciencia Moderna. Historia de la
Ciencia Poltica.

Programa
NO son slo deseos e intenciones
La divisin la ofrece el programa.
Otras ciencias, ubicadas en otra tradicin.
La utilidad de las ciencias sociales, que por pensar el hombre, crearon cierta
reflexividad.
Su origen fue la dominacin.
Programas positivistas. Son los que dividen.
Eso es una tecnologa. Saber-poder. Foucault-Rose Mejor a Foucault. Maquinaria
intelectual de diferentes saberes. Al servicio de las sociedades liberales.
Las modas mejoradas: uno tambin es producto del capital.
Cmo pensar la moda en el mbito de la biopoltica. Un capital para el individuo. El
capital moda.
Goperbar una esfera. Representrarla.
Sociolgos. Trabajo social. Pensar un conflicto, un problema, para aplicarle una
solucin.
Para generar unas tecnologas, para organizar la sociedad.
Higiene. Los mdicos. Pensar la pobreza, las condiciones de los pobres.

Technologies of government
El saber est sujeto a un programa
El Gobierno es un dominio de estrategias, tcnicas y
procedimientos por medio de los cuales diferentes fuerzas
(sectores, sobre todo los saberes, la industria) (La empresa privada
ha mejorado un montn de cosas. Ellas tambin tienen inters).
Buscan representar programas operables, Estableciendo conexiones
entre diversos tipos de autoridades. Privadas y Polticas.
Tecnologas de gobierno
Por medio de las tecnologas de gobierno las racionalidades se
despliegan.
Un ensamblaje de fuerzas: jurdicas, arquitectnicas, profesionales,
administrativas, financieras. La estadstica.
Bruno Latour. Poder: un efecto. Una intervencin transformadora,
debido al impacto de la ciencia. Un actor poderoso: el que mobilisa
cosas con un propsito.
Inscription and calculation as a
technologies government
Statistics or science of states, en la cual las
operaciones del gobierno fueron posibles por la
acumulacin y tabulacin de hechos en los
dominios que son gobernados. Censos y
encuestas. Y Ejecutores.
El gobierno ha inaugurado una gran labor de
investigacin para transformar eventos y
fenmenos en informacin: nacimientos,
enfermedades y muertes, matrimonios y
divorcios, ingresos, tipos de dieta, formas de
empleo y deseos de empleo. P. 185
Expertise and guvernment
El Aumento de expertos est vinculado a la transformacin en las racionalidades y
tecnologas de gobierno.
Los expertos surgieron como una solucin posible que confront a las
mentalidades liberales de gobierno.
The private enterprise. The private family. Government (Donzelot)
The vital links between socio-political objectives and the minutiae of daily
existence in home and factory were to be established by expertise. Experts would
enter into a kind of double alliance. On the hand, thay would ally themselves with
political autorities, focusing upon their problems and problematizing new issues,
translating political concerns about economics productivity, innovation, industrial
unrest, social stabilily, law and order, normality and pathology and so forth into the
vocabulary of management, accounting, medicine, social science and psycology.
On the other hand they would seek to form alliances with individuals themselves,
translating their daily worries and decisions over investment, child rearing, factory
organization or diet inot a language claiming the power of truth, and offering to
teach the techniques by which the might manage better, earn more, bring up
healthier or happier children and much more besides. P. 188.

Welfare and the gobernamentalization
of the state

This mode of government, that we term welfarism, is constituted by a political
rationality embodying certain principles and ideals, and is based upon a particular
conception of the nature of society and its inhabitants. This welfarism rationality is
linked to an array of mutually transladably programmes, technologies and devices
ranging from tax regimes to social insurance, from management training to social
casework, from employment exchances to resideltial homes for the elderly.
Welfarism: gobierno social. Liberalismo se convirti en un gobierno social.
Lo social, como un terreno creado por el gobierno mismo.
Lo social: localizar ciertos problemas, trazar una maquinaria administrativa de
gestin de problemas sociales.
The programmes of social government that proliferated in the nineteenth century
involved complex alliances between private and professional agents philantropist,
charitable organizations, medics, polemicists and others, and the state formed
around problems arising in a multitude of sites the social body. 191.
Todos esos mecanismos ya existentes fueron siendo vinculados gradualmente al
Estado.
Governing the networks of wealfare
El Ejemplo Ingls, 3 grandes caractersticas.
1. relacin entre racionalidades polticas y redes de gobierno: welfarism
is structured by the wish to encourage nationa growth and well being
throught the promotion of social responsability and the mutually of social
risk
Beveridge report: contrato: entre el Estado y los ciudadanos: del la vida y
nosotros garantizaremos seguridad y empleo. Acabar con los 5 grandes
males: necesidad, enfermedad, ociosidad, ignorancia, miseria.
Nacionalizar el servicio de salud. Poltica de pleno empleo, seguridad
social.
Pero los ciudadanos tenan obligaciones: ser ahorradores, trabajadores,
socialmente responsables.
El welfare tambin responda a problemas concretos: delincuencia y
comportamiento anti-social; problemas familiares. Integrar a los
ciudadanos y moralizarlos.
Welfarism: novel ways to govern
These were not novel problems, but in the post-war period they
were to be problematized by a multitude of official and unofficial
experts and, crucially, were to be governed in new ways. The key
innovations of welfarism lay in the attemps to link the fiscal,
calculative and bureaucratic capacities of the state to govern of
social life. The social devices of the pre-war period consisted of a
tangle (embrollo) of machinery for the surveillance and regulation
of the social, familial and personal conduct of the problematic
sectors of the population. The personnel, procedures, tecniques
and calculations that made up (componen) these devices were
attached to specific locales and organizations: the courts, the
reformatories, the school and the clinics. Welfarism sought to
articulate these varied elements into a network and direct them in
the light of centralised calculations as to resoursers, services and
needs 192-193.
Welfare and responsible citizenchip
Welfarism, embodied a particular relation
with the citinzenchips and the public powers.
Una relacin contractual. Plan Beveridge.
Welfarism and the technicisation of
politics
The system of the social insurance embodied
definite politico-ethical aspirations.
Los expertos
From Welfare to Neoliberalism
Critical to welfarism fron neoliberal rationality: Big government is not only
inefficient but malign
Produce a culture of dependency.
At the rethorical and programmatic level, neoliberalism also embodies a profound
transformation in the mechanisms for governing social life. In place of collective
provisions and social solidarity the new rationality of government proposes
notions of security provided through the private purchase of insurance schemes,
health care purchased by individuals and provided by the health industry, housing
offered through the private sector and efficiency secured through the discipline of
competition within the market. P. 200.
Neoliberalism also entails a reorganization of programmes for the government of
personal life. The language of the entreprenerial individual, endowed with
freedom and autonomy, has come to predominate over almost any other in
evaluations of the ethical claims of political power and programmes of
government.
Crear una esfera de libertad, donde los individuos toman sus propias desiciones,
siguen sus preferencias, buscan macimizar sus intereses y deseos.