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CASE STUDY METHOD

CASE STUDY METHOD


Real life situation in real time
Limited in space and time
Immediate impact
Immediate relevance


RESEARCH PHILOSOPHY
Ontology: Who are you, who are you studying? Are they
your equals or your subjects? What rights do you
consider them to have?
Epistemology: What do you consider to be knowledge
and how does this affect your data collection and
analysis?
Validity, reliability: Have you found out what you say
you found out? Can you convince others that you have
done so? Can you generalise the results to another
situation?

THE SLIPPERY SLOPE
Quantitative research
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MAKING NON-SCIENCE INTO
SCIENCE?
Get as many different views on the situation as
possible (triangulate)
Demonstrate that the techniques and the way they
will be used were decided in advance
Be scrupulously careful with recording and
cataloguing all data.
Underpin your case with theory and derive theory
from the case itself
CASE STUDY METHODOLOGY
Plan and chart techniques to be used
Identify site(s) for access & convenience
Schedule data collection
Regular review
EXAMPLE OF CASE STUDY RESEARCH DESIGN
FROM JOHNS & LEE- ROSS ( 1998) P. 148
Hackman and Oldham's Job Diagnostic
Survey (1980)
Participant observation
Semi-structured
interviews
In-depth interviews
Results
Direct output from research method
Information for research method formulation
RECORDING
Analysis is the key, so dont gather anything until
you know how you will use it
Notes vs Audiotape vs videotape: too little data
or too much?
Investigative journalist in the field: cold scientist
out
STORAGE AND CATALOGUING
Label, number, code
Transcribe, translate
Index, catalogue
General overview plus detailed scrutiny
DESTINATION DEVELOPMENT THROUGH
ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A COMPARISON OF TWO CASES

Compared Hay on Wye Town of Books with Stavanger
Town of Culture
Objective: to contrast the factors underlying (a)
successful and (b) unsuccessful tourism
entrepreneurship
Methods:
Interviews with key entrepreneurs
Interviews with other stakeholders
Relevant news items and other literature
Johns, N. and Mattsson, J. (2005) Destination development through entrepreneurship: a comparison
of two cases. Tourism Management. 26(4):605-616.
CONSIDERATIONS
Why is this a suitable situation for a case study?
Aims & objectives
Theoretical basis
Appropriateness of data collected
Appropriateness of data-gathering methods
Credibility/validity/reliability of findings
BUILDING REFLECTIVE PRACTITIONERS ON BUSINESS
PROGRAMMES: AN ACTION RESEARCH STUDY

Faculty on Masters programmes at a Swiss hotel
school
one specific issue: that students would be
encouraged to become reflective practitioners.
Three academic years
Centred around gathering student feedback
Data gathered: course paperwork, student
course feedback, course and programme reports,
committee minutes, interviews with students
and faculty
Johns, N. And Henwood, J. A. (2008) Building reflective practitioners on business programmes: an
action research study . Journal of Hospitality, Leisure and Tourism Education. Accepted awaiting
publication.
BORDER TOURISM IN ISRAEL: CONFLICT,
PEACE, FEAR AND HOPE
The main aim of this research is to describe and analyse cultural elements
that express the symbolic landscape of Israel's border-tourism attractions.
The methodology selected is based on the naturalistic approach of
landscape interpretation. A descriptive analysis is provided of the
symbolism of elements in two case studies of border tourism in Israel.
These places have grown into unique tourist attractions, and they illustrate
the conflict or the co-operation between Israel and its neighbouring
countries. Visits to Israeli border sites usual y entail observation and hold a
special meaning f or tourists, either because they can sense the danger and
fear of battles conducted in the past near the border, or because they have
a close and clear look at the neighbouring country. On the other hand, these
sites are also places of hope for a better future - one of peace and co-
operation between the two sides. In many cases the observation points have
Grown to signify both the core of the conflict and a prayer for peace, a
special simultaneity of fear and hope.

Gelbman, A. (2008) Border tourism in Israe l: conflict, peace , fear and hope . Tourism
Geographies. 10 (2) 193-213.

INTERNATIONAL FRANCHISE PARTNER SELECTION AND
CHAIN PERFORMANCE THROUGH THE LENS OF
ORGANISATIONAL LEARNING


This study aims to investigate how international franchisors engage in
exploratory and exploitative learning in the partner selection process and the
implications for chain performance. Based on an embedded case study of a
leading international hotel organisation, the findings reveal that the franchisor
attempted a balanced learning approach in response to challenges caused by
high cultural distance in international markets. However, the crowd-out
effect of exploration and exploitation created a tension: exploration
emphasising adaptation to local needs dominated the partner identification
stage in country markets, whilst exploitation stressing standardisation and
efficiencies dominated the partner decision-making stage at division. As a
result, a consistent brand image came at the cost of very cautious
international expansion.


Wang, C. L. and Altinay, L. (2008) International franchise partner selection and chain performance
through the lens of organisational learning. Service Industries Journal. 28 (2) 225 238.