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Temperature is a measure of the average Kinetic Energy of

the particles in a substance.



Remember KE is the energy of motion.
The higher the average Kinetic Energy,
the faster the particles move.
Temperature and Heat are NOT the same thing
Temperature
Temperature measures the speed of the molecules
Celsius Scale
0
0
C water freezes, 100
0
C water boils
Fahrenheit Scale
32
0
F water freezes, 212
0
F water boils
Kelvin Scale
0
K
273
0
K water freezes, 373
0
K water boils
ABSOLUTE Zero 0
0
K
Temperature Scales
There are 3 Types of
Temperature Scales

Fahrenheit
Celsius
Kelvin

Celsius Fahrenheit
Heat Transfer
Conduction, Convection, and Radiation
Types of Heat Transfer
Conduction
Takes place between solids or solids with liquids

Particles vibrating or moving faster transfer some of
their energy to nearby atoms
Conduction
When particles collide and the faster ones pass some of their
energy on to the cooler ones.

This results in a change in energy for each particle

This causes the faster ones to
slow down and cool

The slower ones speed up and
heat up
Examples of Conduction
Conduction requires direct
contact
Convection
Occurs in Fluids
(liquids and gases)

Caused by a change
in density due to a
change in
temperature.
Convection cont
The warmer fluid
expands, becomes less
dense and rises.

The cooler fluid
contracts, becomes more
dense and sinks.

Lava Lamps are an example of convection that you have probably seen before.
Convection cont
Importance of Convection
Convection causes warm water vapor to rise, condense into clouds when it cools,
and then falls back as rain
Without convection, there would be no rainfall and thus no plants
Examples of Convection
Magma in the mantle rises due to
convection.
The heat from the core heats it and
then it rises to form volcanoes on
the surface
Radiation
The transfer of energy due to Infrared and other
electromagnetic rays.
Radiation can travel through space.
All things radiate heat.
Why are light bulbs hot?
They produce infrared radiation in addition to visible
light
Infrared transfers energy to the molecules that makes
them vibrate faster (thus hotter)
Thermal Expansion
When objects heat up their particles move faster, hit
others harder, and bounce further, creating more
empty space between the particles.
As a result, the entire substance expands.
This is known as thermal expansion

Examples of Thermal Expansion
Roads crack as they
expand in the heat
On bridges and other
sensitive sections,
expansion panels allow
it to flex.

Thermal Expansion continued
The liquid in a thermometer expands as it
warms.
This causes it to head up the tube and tell
you the temperature
Heat Transfer
Heat Conductors
Good thermal conductors transfer heat rapidly
Metals are good thermal conductors

Radiators are metals that transfer the
heat in the water to the air
Frying pans transfer heat from the
stove to the food
Heat Transfer
Thermal Insulators
Poor thermal conductors of heat.
Asbestos, cork, ceramic, cardboard, and fiberglass
are examples of thermal insulators
Phase Transition