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Given two n-bit numbers (a(n-
1),a(n-2),a(n-3),,a(0)) and (b(n-1),b(n-
2),b(n-3),,b(0)).
a and b are data inputs and c is the
carry-in bit. It outputs a sum bit s and a
carry-out bit co
Using FA in Building Ripple Carry Adder
Critical Path in K-bit Ripple Carry Adder
Example : Realize the logic function f = w + xyz
using 4 bit RCA
Conditions and Outcomes
2s Complement Adder With Provision For
Detecting Conditions And Exceptions
Analysis of Carry Propagation
The length of a carry chain is the number of digit positions from where the carry is
generated upto and including where it is finally absorbed. A carry chain of length
0 means no carry production and a chain of length 1 means that carry is
absorbed in the next position.
Analysis of Carry Propagation
Expected length of worst case carry chain in a K-bit Addition
with random operands is upper bounded by log
2
k.
a(j) b(j) c(j) c(j+1)
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 0
0 1 1 1
1 0 0 0
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 1
1 1 1 1
If a(j) = b(j) then
c(j+1) = a(j) = b(j)
If a(j) <> b(j) then
c(j+1) = c(j)
a(j) b(j) c(j+1) Status (x(j+1))
0 0 0 Kill (k)
0 1 c(j) Propagate (p)
1 0 c(j) Propagate (p)
1 1 1 Generate (g)
Unrolling the Carry Recurrence
4 bit carry
network with full
4 bit Look Ahead Carry Generator
generator with P and
G signals for the full
block
Latency
Worst case propagation delay through carry skip adder is 9.5 stages (17 gate levels) of
propagation compared to 16 stages (32 gate levels) for 16 bit RCA
Allows carry to skip over several blocks at once. A carry that would need 3
time units to skip these 3 blocks in a single level skip adder can now do so in
1 time unit.