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Heat and Temperature

What is Heat??
Heat = Thermal Energy!!

Thermal Energy = the total energy of all of the
particles in a material or object.

Throughout the ages people have invented a variety of
devices to help create and capture heat for use.
Topic 1: Using Energy from Heat
What are some ways that we use heat?
Cook food
Warm buildings
Dry clothes

What are some ways Thermal Energy has been
used throughout history?
Development of Heat Technologies
What heat technologies can you think of that
have been developed through-out time? Why
have they changed?

Examples.
Devices to generate, transfer, control or
remove heat
Heat = Thermal energy

Can you think of any examples of devices that
generate, transfer, control or remove heat?
Topic 2: Measuring Temperature

Thermometer: Mechanical or electrical device for
measuring temperature. Early thermometer was invented
by Galileo.

Scale: A series of equally measured sections that are
marked and numbered for use in measurement.

Celsius Scale
Celsius Scale: Most commonly used in Canada. Unit of
temperature is called a degree. Based on the boiling and
freezing points of water.

Boiling Point: The temperature at which water boils. 100o C
at sea level.

Freezing Point: The temperature at which water freezes. 0o C
at sea level.

Another Scale
Kelvin is another way of measuring
temperature.
Scientists use Kelvin to explain the behaviour
of gases.
Absolute Zero is measured in Kelvin which
is the coldest possible temperature
0 Kelvin = -273 C
Right Device for the Job
Each thermometer has a sensor a material
which is affected by changes in the
environment (such as temperature)
The sensor produces a signal (information
about temperature, such as an electrical
current) which affects a responder (a pointer,
light or other mechanism that uses the signal
in some way)
The Thermocouple
Wires made up of two different
metals are twisted together.
When the wire tips are heated, a
small electric current is
generated
The amount of current depends
on the temperature.
They can measure higher
temperatures than
thermometers.
The electric current can be used
to turn switches on or off if the
temperature changes.
Used in kilns, diesel engines and
industrial furnaces
Bimetallic Strip
metals joined together
When the strip is heated
one metal expands more
than the other
Thus the strip coils more
tightly
Movement of the strip can
operate a switch that can
control
furnacescommonly used
in thermostats in homes
Your brain has its own temperature sensor.
It monitors your own internal temperature. If
the temperature outside changes, the sensor
signals your brain to release chemicals that
temperature (37C)

Continued
Recording Thermometer: A bimetallic strip
connected to a writing device and paper
which records temperature fluctuations over
time.

Infrared Thermogram: Records infrared
radiation, (heat sensor) as different colors
according to their temperature.
Topic 3: Particle Model of Matter,
Temperature and Thermal Energy
Reminder: matter is anything that takes up
space
Three most important ideas of the model:
All substances are made of particles too small to
see
The particles are always in motion
The particles have space between them
When motion of
particles increases
so does the
temperature
When motion of
particles decreases
so does the
temperature
Temperature indicates the average speed of particle motion
in a substance
Energy
Energy is the ability to do work in other
words to cause change
In order for something to change, there must
be a transfer of energy from one thing to
another
batteries would not
Thermal Energy
Energy associated with hot objects

What gives off thermal energy?

What Energy isand is not
Energy is not a substance.
It cannot be weighed
It does not take up space
Energy describes a condition

Law of Conservation of Energy: Energy cannot be created or
destroyed. It can only be transformed from one type to another
or passed from one object to another
Temperature vs. Thermal Energy
Temperature = A measure of the average
energy of the particles in a material.

Thermal Energy = The total energy of all the
particles in a material.

What is the difference??
Understanding Heat Transfer,
Conduction, Convection and
Heat Transfer
Heat always moves from a warmer place to a
cooler place.
Hot objects in a cooler room will cool to room
temperature.
Cold objects in a warmer room will heat up to
room temperature.

Question
If a cup of coffee and a red popsickle were left
on the table in this room what would happen
to them? Why?
The cup of coffee will cool until it reaches
room temperature. The popsickle will melt
and then the liquid will warm to room
temperature.
Heat Transfer Methods
Heat transfers in three ways:
Conduction
Convection

Conduction
When you heat a metal strip at one end, the heat
travels to the other end.
As you heat the metal, the particles vibrate, these
vibrations make the adjacent particles vibrate, and so on
and so on, the vibrations are passed along the metal and
so is the heat. We call this?
Conduction
Metals are different
The outer e______ of metal atoms
drift, and are free to move.

When the metal is
heated, this sea of
electrons gain k_____
energy and transfer it
throughout the metal.
Insulators, such as w___ and p____, do not
have this sea of electrons which is why they
do not conduct heat as well as metals.
lectrons

inetic
ood lastic
Why does metal feel colder than wood, if they
are both at the same temperature?
Metal is a conductor, wood is an insulator. Metal
conducts the heat away from your hands. Wood
does not conduct the heat away from your hands as
well as the metal, so the wood feels warmer than
the metal.
Convection
What happens to the particles in a liquid or a
gas when you heat them?
become less dense.
This effects fluid movement.

What is a fluid? A liquid or gas.
Fluid movement
Cooler, more d____, fluids
sink through w_____, less
dense fluids.

In effect, warmer liquids and
gases r___ up.
Cooler liquids and gases s___.
ense
armer
ise
ink
Water movement
Hot water
rises
Cooler
water sinks
Convection
current
Cools at the
surface
Why is it windy at the seaside?
Cold air sinks
Where is the
freezer
compartment
put in a fridge?

Freezer
compartment
It is put at the
top, because
cool air sinks,
so it cools the
food on the
way down.
It is warmer
at the
bottom, so
this warmer
air rises and
a convection
current is
set up.
The third method of heat transfer
How does heat energy get
from the Sun to the Earth?

There are no particles
between the Sun and the
Earth so it CANNOT
travel by conduction or
by convection.
?
True/False
Radiation can travel through a vacuum
True/False
True/False
Radiation travels at the speed of light
True/False

Emission experiment
Four containers were filled with warm water. Which
container would have the warmest water after ten minutes?
Shiny metal
Dull metal
Dull black
Shiny black
The __________ container would be the warmest after ten
minutes because its shiny surface reflects heat _______ back
into the container so less is lost. The ________ container
would be the coolest because it is the best at _______ heat
shiny metal
dull black
emitting
Absorption experiment
Four containers were placed equidistant from a heater. Which
container would have the warmest water after ten minutes?
The __________ container would be the warmest after ten
minutes because its surface absorbs heat _______ the best.
The _________ container would be the coolest because it is
the poorest at __________ heat radiation.
dull black
shiny metal
absorbing
Shiny metal
Dull metal
Dull black
Shiny black
Convection questions
Why are boilers placed beneath hot water
tanks in peoples homes?

Hot water rises.
So when the boiler heats the water, and the hot water
rises, the water tank is filled with hot water.
Why does hot air rise and cold air sink?
Cool air is more dense than warm air, so the
cool air falls through the warm air.
Why are houses painted white in hot countries?
White reflects heat radiation and keeps the house cooler.
Why are shiny foil blankets wrapped around marathon
runners at the end of a race?
The shiny metal reflects the heat radiation from the runner
back in, this stops the runner getting cold.
1. Which of the following is not a
method of heat transfer?
B. Insulation
C. Conduction
D. Convection
2. In which of the following are
the particles closest together?
A. Solid
B. Liquid
C. Gas
D. Fluid
3. How does heat energy reach
the Earth from the Sun?
B. Conduction
C. Convection
D. Insulation
4. Which is the best surface for
A. Shiny white
B. Dull white
C. Shiny black
D. Dull black
5. Which is the best surface for
A. Shiny white
B. Dull white
C. Shiny black
D. Dull black
Topic 4: Expansion and Contraction
Contract: Decrease in volume
Expand: Increase in volume

Temperature changes cause things to expand and contract

Heated usually causes expansion
Cooled usually causes contraction

Usually more drastic in gases, then liquids then solids

Topic 5: The Particle Model and Changes
of State
Heat Capacity: Amount of thermal energy that
warms or cools the object by one degree
Celsius.

Specific Heat Capacity: Amount of thermal
energy that warms or cools one gram of a
material by one degree Celsius.
Sample Specific Heat Capacity Table
Solids
Solids have definite shape and volume
Cannot be compressed into smaller objects

When solids are heated they expand
When solids are cooled they contract
Liquids
Liquids have definite volume but no shape
Cannot be compressed (meaning if I have 1 litre of
coke, I cannot make it fit into a pop can)

When liquids are heated they expand
When liquids are cooled they contract
Gases
Have no definite shape or size
Can be compressed

When heated, gases expand
When cooled, gases - contract
Changes of State
Definitions:
Define, in your notes, each of the following:
Melt
Freeze
Evaporate
Condense
Sublimation
Continued
Evaporative Cooling: A process in which the faster
moving particles on the surface of a liquid evaporate
and escape into the air, the slower ones are left
behind creating a lower average kinetic energy
(cooling it)

Particles are more or less organized when they are
hot or cold????
Phase Changing
During a change from solid to liquid or liquid to gas the
average temperature does not change even though heat is
being added, the name for the heat that is added is latent
heat.