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Compressors & Gas Compression

Categories and Types


Compression Process
Compressor Characteristics
Key Design Parameters
Calculation Methods
Specification Data Sheet
Selection Guidelines
Control Systems
Typical operating Problems
Compressors & Gas Compression
Positive Displacement
Reciprocating (Piston, Diaphragm)
Rotary Type (Screw, Lobe, Slidiong Vane

Dynamic
Centrifugal (Radial and Axial)
Blowers
Categories and Types
Compressors & Gas Compression
Categories and Types
Compressors & Gas Compression
Centrifugal Compressor
Compressors & Gas Compression
Axial Compressor
Compressors & Gas Compression
Ranges of Application
Compressors & Gas Compression
Compression Process
Gas compression is a thermodynamic process where change
takes place in the physical state of the gas

Compression adds energy to the gas resulting in pressure-
volume changes defined by ideal gas laws

Compression take place under conditions defined:
Adiabatic: no heat added or removed from systems
Isothermal: constant temperature in system
Polytropic: heat added or removed from system

Compression of real gases in actual compressors deviate
from conformance with ideality, usually significantly,
affecting compressor design.
Compressors & Gas Compression
Compressor Characteristics
Capacity/Head

Performance

Terminology
Compressors & Gas Compression
Reciprocating Compressor
Performance Diagram

Terminology
Piston Displacement
Clearance Volume
Volumetric Efficiency
Pressure Ratio
Rod Loading
Compressors & Gas Compression
Reciprocating Compressor
Compressors & Gas Compression
Reciprocating Compressor
Compressors & Gas Compression
Centrifugal Compressor
Performance Curves

Terminology
Operating Point
Surge Point
Stonewall
Stability
Turndown
Compressors & Gas Compression
Centrifugal Compressor
Compressors & Gas Compression
Centrifugal Compressor
Compressors & Gas Compression
Centrifugal Compressor Performance
Compressors & Gas Compression
Centrifugal Compressor
Key Design Parameters
Capacity
Gas Properties
Pressure Head
Power
Efficiency
Multi-Stages
Compressors & Gas Compression
Centrifugal Compressor
Key Design Parameters

Flow Rates
Normal
Maximum
Minimum

Design Capacity
Capacity
Compressors & Gas Compression
Centrifugal Compressor
Key Design Parameters
Composition
Contaminants
Molecular Weight MW
Specific Heat Ratio Cp/Cv
Compressibility
Gas Properties
Compressors & Gas Compression
Centrifugal Compressor
10C
38C
66C
93C
121C
Compressors & Gas Compression
Centrifugal Compressor
Compressors & Gas Compression
Centrifugal Compressor
Compressors & Gas Compression
Centrifugal Compressor
100F = 560R: 560/549 = 1.02
100F = 311K, 549R = 305K: 311/305 = 1.02
PV = ZmRT/MW
P=100psia = 6.89 bar a T=100F = 37.8C = 310.9K
= m/V = P(MW)/(ZRT)
= 6.89E5x34.27/(0.946x8314x310.9)
= 9.7kg/m
3
= 0.61lb/ft
3
Compressors & Gas Compression
Centrifugal Compressor
0.973
0.077
1.02
Compressors & Gas Compression
Centrifugal Compressor
0.88
Compressors & Gas Compression
Centrifugal Compressor
Key Design Parameters
Available vs. Required Head
Available Head is Compressor Related
H(Available) = CV
2
/g
C = Pressure Coefficient (0.55)
Required head is System-Related
Head
H(Required)
Compressors & Gas Compression
Centrifugal Compressor
For centrifugal compressors the following
method is normally used:

First, the required head is calculated.
Either the polytropic or adiabatic efficiency
is used with the companion head.
Horsepower Calculation
Compressors & Gas Compression
Centrifugal Compressor
Horsepower Calculation
Where:
Z = Average compressibility factor: using 1 will yield
conservative results
R = 1544/(mol weight)
T1 = Suction Temperature, R
P1, P2 = Suction, discharge pressures, psia
K = Adiabatic exponent, (N-1)/N = (K-1)/(KE
p
)
E
p
= Polytropic Efficiency
E
A
= Adiabatic Efficiency
Compressors & Gas Compression
Centrifugal Compressor
Horsepower Calculation
The polytropic and adiabatic efficiencies are related as follows:
From Polytropic Head:

HP = WH
poly
/(E
p
33000)
From Adiabatic Head:

HP = WH
AD
/(E
A
33000)
Where:

HP = Gas Horse Power
BHP = Brake Horsepower
W = Flow, Lb/min
BHP = HP/E
m
Compressors & Gas Compression
Efficiency
Hydraulic Efficiency
Adiabatic
Polytropic

Volumetric Efficiency
Reciprocating

Mechanical Efficiency
Drivers
Compressors & Gas Compression
Centrifugal Compressor
Approximate polytropic efficiencies for centrifugal and axial compressors
Compressors & Gas Compression
Temperature Rise
Temperature ratio across a compression stage is:

T
2
/T
1
= (P
2
/P
1
)
(K-1)/K
Adiabatic

T
2
/T
1
= (P
2
/P
1
)
(N-1)/N
Polytropic

Where:

K = Adiabatic exponent, C
p
/C
v

N= Polytropic exponent, (N-1)/N = (K-1)/KE
p

P
1
, P
2
= Suction, discharge pressures, psia
T
1
, T
2
= Suction, discharge temperatures, R
E
p
= Polytropic efficiency, fraction

Compressors & Gas Compression
Temperature Rise
The usual centrifugal compressor is uncooled internally and
follows a polytropic path.

Temperature must often be limited to:
Protect against polymerization as in olefin or butadiene
plants
At T > 230-260C, the approximate mechanical limit,
problems of sealing and casing growth start to occur.

High temperature requires a special and more costly machine.
Most multistage applications are designed to stay below 250-
300C
Compressors & Gas Compression
Temperature Rise
Intercooling can be used to hold desired temperatures for high
overall compression ratio applications.
This can be done between stages in a single compressor frame or
between series frames.

Sometimes economics rather than a temperature limit dictate
intercooling.

Sometimes for high compression ratios, the job cannot be done
in one frame. Usually a frame will not contain more than 8 stages
(wheels). For many applications the compression ratio across a
frame is about 2.5 4.0

The maximum head that one stage can handle depends on gas
properties and inlet temperature. Usually this is about 2000 to
3400m for a single stage.
Compressors & Gas Compression
Surge Controls
A centrifugal compressor surges at certain conditions of low
flow.

Surge control help the machine to avoid surge by increasing flow.
For an air compressor, a simple spill to atmosphere is
sufficient.
For a hydrocarbon compressor, recirculation from discharge
to suction is used.

Compressors & Gas Compression
Surge Controls
There are many types of surge controls.

Avoid the low-budget systems with a narrow effective range,
especially for large compressors.

Good systems include the flow/P type.

The correct flow to use is the compressor suction. However, a
flow element in the suction can rob excessive horsepower.
Therefore, sometimes the discharge flow is measured and the
suction flow calculated within the controller by using pressure
measurements. The compressor intake nozzle is also sometimes
calibrated and used as a flow element.
Compressors & Gas Compression
Compressor Calculation Method
Define gas properties: MW, Cp/Cv, Z
1

Define inlet conditions: Temp & Press.
Calculate gas flow rate: Normal and Design
1

Establish total discharge pressure.
Calculate compression ratio and number of stages
Define selection & polytropic efficiency

1. At inlet conditions

Compressors & Gas Compression
Compressor Calculation Method contd
Calculate heat capacity factor M
Calculate required polytropic head
Calculate hydraulic gas horsepower
Calculate discharge temperature
Calculate total brake horsepower
Estimate inter-stage cooling requirement

Compressors & Gas Compression
Compressor Calculation Example 1:
Calculate compressor required to handle a process gas at the
following operating conditions: Inlet press and temp at 20 psia
and 40F. Discharge pressure of 100 psia. Gas rate 2378
lb.mol/hr of the following composition and calculated
properties:
Mol% Mol/h Mol.
Wt
C
p


T
c
P
c

Ethane 2 48 30.1 0.60 11.96 0.24 550 11 708 14
Propane 95 2259 44.1 41.9 16.55 15.70 666 633 617 587
Butane 3 71 58.1 1.74 22.50 0.68 766 23 551 17
Total 100 2378 44.24 16.62 667 618
Compressors & Gas Compression
Compressor Calculation Example 1: contd
Inlet flow:

Weight flow = 2378 x 44.24/60 = 1753 lb/min

P
r
= 20/618 = 0.0324, T
r
= (40+460)/667 = 0.75
Compressibility factor Z = 0.97 (from generalized Z chart)

Density = (MW x P
1
)/(10.73 x T
1
x Z)
= (44.24 x 20)/(10.73 x (40 + 460) x 0.97)
= 0.17 lb/cu.ft

Inlet volume = 1753/0.17 = 10 310 cu.ft/min
Calculation:
Compressors & Gas Compression
Compressor Calculation Example 1: contd
Heat Capacity Factor

k = Cp/Cv = Cp/(Cp 1.99) = 16.62/(16.62 1.99) = 1.137

M = (k-1)/(kE
p
)

Assume E
p
= 77%:
M = (1.137 1)/(1.137 x 0.77) = 0.156
Calculation:
Compressors & Gas Compression
Compressor Calculation Example 1: contd
Polytropic Head, H
p

Calculation:
= 0.97 x (1545/44.24) x (40 + 460)/0.156 x [(100/20)
0.156
-1]
= 30 988 ft
Compressors & Gas Compression
Compressor Calculation Example 1: contd
Discharge Temperature, T2


T2 = T1(P2/P1)M
= 500(5)0.156
= 643R
= 183F

Gas Horsepower (GHP) & Brake Horespower (BHP)

GHP = W . H
poly
/(33000E
p
)
= 1753 x 30988/(33000 x 0.77)
= 2140

BHP = 2140/0.98 = 2180 (Assume Mechanical Eff. = 98%)

Calculation:
Compressors & Gas Compression
Example
Calculate the Brake Horsepower for the following Compressor:

07TI001 07TI002 07TI004 07TI005 07TI006 07T1008 07TI010 07TI012
22 99 50 124 55 139 57 65
C C C C C C C C
07PIC004 07PI005 07PI006 07PI007 07PI017 07PI009 07PI013 07PI011
2418 4300 4250 7700 7643 14 14 14.6
kPa g kPa g kPa g kPa g kPa g MPa g MPa g MPa g
07FI003 07FI004
107 353
km
n
3
/h km
n
3
/h
11497
11464
0.0%
0.0%
20.0 0.1% 08AI004
87.0 2.5%
km
n
3
/h KNM3/H 15.0% % Argon
Argon
H2 65.6 Purge
0.0% to Flare
N2 21.4
Actual Speed =
Reference Speed =
RECYCLE
STAGE 1
STAGE 2 STAGE 3 STAGE 4
C3030 C3031
HC02
HC06
HC02
HC08
C3032
C3034
HC41
TO NH3 REACTOR
Red Blocks = Local Readings (necessary for MW calculation)
Compressors & Gas Compression
Example
Calculate the Brake Horsepower for the following Compressor:

Calculate Gas Mixture Properties

Composition: H2 = 65.6/(65.6+21.4) = 75.4 vol%
N2 = 100 75.4 = 24.6 vol%
Composition Mole% Mole Wt MW mass% Cp MW
Hydrogen 75.4 2 1.51 18.0 14.3 2.57
Nitrogen 24.6 28 6.89 82 1.04 0.85
Total Gas Mix 100.0 8.40 11.04 3.42
Use Z = 1 for conservative results
Compressors & Gas Compression
Example
Calculate the Brake Horsepower for Compressor: Contd

Lets look at the first stage:

First calculate Polytropic Head:
T
2
/T
1
= (P
2
/P
1
)
(N-1)/N
ln(T
2
/T
1
) = (N-1)/N ln(P
2
/P
1
)
(N-1)/N = ln(T
2
/T
1
)/ln(P
2
/P
1
)
= ln(372/295)/ln(4400/2518)
= 0.416

H
poly
= 1 x (8.314/8.4) x 295 x ((4400/2518)
0.416
-1)
0.416
= 183.4 kJ/kg

T
1
= 22C = 295K
T
2
= 99C = 372K
P
1
= 2418 kPag = 2518 kPa a
P
2
= 4300 kPag = 4400 kPa a
Compressors & Gas Compression
Example
Calculate the Brake Horsepower for Compressor: Contd

First stage:
(N-1)/N = (K-1)/(KE
p
)
E
p
= (1.4 -1)/(1.4 x 0.416)
= 0.69

W = (107 000/22.414) x 8.4 = 40100kg/h = 11.14 kg/s
Cp/Cv = Cp/(Cp-R)
= 3.42/(3.42-8.314/8.4)
= 1.4
Compressors & Gas Compression
Example
Calculate the Brake Horsepower for Compressor: Contd

First stage:
Gas Horsepower = W . H
poly
/E
p

= (11.14 x 183.4)/0.69
= 2960 kJ/s
= 3.0 MW

Similar for stage 2, 3 and Recycle:
GHP(stage 2) = 2.9MW
GHP(stage 3) = 3.3 MW
GHP(recycle stage) = 1.0 MW

Total GHP = 3.0 + 2.9 + 3.3 + 1.0 = 10.2 MW

A good assumption for Mechanical Efficiency = 95%

BHP = 10.2/0.95 = 10.6 MW
Compressors & Gas Compression
Compressors & Gas Compression