Sei sulla pagina 1di 40

AN INADEQUATE NATIONAL

FOOD SECURITY BILL 2011


LIMITED UNDERSTANDING OF
NUTRITION AND FOOD
SECURITY
Problem 1
Nutrition Security means
Access to adequate quantities of carbohydrates,
proteins, fats, micronutrients through
availability and affordability of diverse foods
including grains, pulses, oil, meat, milk, eggs,
vegetables, and fruits to meet the requirement
for a person according to the stage in her/his
life cycle.
Access to safe drinking water as a public good.

Access to food depends on
Control over land , water, forest
Just wages, full safe employment, social
security
State policies that support food production
A system that supports people, not corporates

An Act is only one small part of all
that is needed


The Governments
understanding of Food
Security is limited to making
a limited amount of
subsidised grain and some
cooked food available to the
poorest. There are no
elements of change for equity
in food production and
income distribution.
TARGETING AND BPL WITH
ALL ITS PROBLEMS REMAINS
PROBLEM 2
It is only the universal principle that will allow
Dalits, Tribals and the Socially vulnerable
to exercise their right to food

These are the majority communities who are excluded
when targeting happens

Preventing Exclusion
Total monthly requirements for a five member
family ICMR norms

Family member Monthly
requirement of
cereals (kg.)
Monthly
requirement of
pulses (kg.)
Monthly
requirement
of oils
(grams)
Man doing
moderate work
14.4 2.7 1050
Woman doing
moderate work.
10.8 2.25 900
1-6 year old child 5 1.1 675
7 to 12 year old
child
9 1.8 750
Elderly person /
third child
9 1.8 675
Total 48.2 9.65 4050
A Universal Public Distribution System
Remove APL BPL subsidised food for all
Nutritional security with per head monthly
entitlements of at least14 kgs of cereals,
1.5 kgs of pulses and 800 gms of oil

Requirement is therefore

But what does the Government
draft say?

Every person belonging to priority &general
household to receive food grains at prescribed
rates and quantities
No pulses or oil
Proposed as follows





Priority group General group
Food
Entitlement

Seven Kg. of food grains (rice,
wheat or nutritional cereals) per
person/month
Three Kg. of food
grain/ person/month

Price Not exceeding 3/2/1/ per Kg.

Not exceeding 50 % of
MSP.
Central Government has
powers to



Amend or modify schedule of rates and quantities
Decide on number of families in the priority households, based on
state-wise poverty ratio and on the additional number of persons
belonging to the general household ,in such a manner that in each
state the combined coverage under the TPDS belonging to priority
and general household are 75% and 50% of the rural and urban
population, respectively.
Prescribe the guidelines for identification of priority and general
household.
Within the state, identification of priority and general household
shall be done by State Govt. (Provided that no household meeting
the exclusion criteria prescribed by the central government is
included either in the priority or the general households.)

Thus
BPL and targeting with all its problems
remains
Central Government meets only partial
requirements of cereals and does not at all
touch on pulses and oils
Central Government has the power to reduce
amounts , population covered , change rates
LIP SERVICE TO PROBLEMS
OF PRODUCTION AND
DISTRIBUTION
PROBLEM 3
Food Security in a Vacuum
NFS Bill provides food security without
considering production aspects as if food
procurement and food distribution can be
divorced from production

In actuality, production, procurement, storage
and distribution have to be considered
together
There is a severe agricultural crisis in
the country. Procurement for an
expanded PDS will give a boost to
production and can become an
important instrument for the
revitalization of the agricultural
economy.
Possible to Use An Expanded PDS
To Revive Agriculture
We had suggested expanded
PDS Along With New
Procurement Policy
Procurement from all mandis, so that all areas benefit
from govt. procurement (not just major procurement
from Punjab, Haryana, AP and partially UP, as is now
the case)

Procurement at MSP of millets, pulses and oilseeds
etc to boost these crops which are now facing neglect
due to low and uncertain prices and due to low
investment.

These crops are easily grown in dry-land areas and
are not water/input intensive.

Procurement should be at fair MSP prices.
Local Distribution Of Local
Procurement
Distribution of grain procured from beyond the district zone
should be resorted to only if there is a shortfall in local
procurement. This will allow:
Procurement, and therefore support to farmers, from all
areas .
Locally preferred grain to be distributed
Drastically cut down storage and transportation costs
Help curb corruption by allowing easier tracking of grain
movements

However, since many areas suffer from deficits, it is important to
ensure that the original intention of the PDS ie : movement of
food from surplus to deficit areas will be ensured by Central govt
agencies.

Village level grain banks to be established to encourage local
procurement, storage and distribution to ensure food security
Policies to increase food production,
consumption, nutrition
Immediate ban on export of food until malnutrition is ended in the
country.
Protect farmers from dumping of unfairly subsidized imports.
First call on all natural resources, including land and water, must be
for food. No forcible diversion of land, water and forest resources
away from food production.
Stop corporatization of agriculture and control of food by
agribusiness corporations.
Immediate moratorium on genetically modified (GM) seeds, GM
food imports, and use of GM food in government food schemes.
All speculation and futures trading in food items should be banned.
Government must eliminate the entry of corporate interests
(including contract farming) and private contractors in food
production, the food market, regulatory bodies and nutrition-related
schemes.
Governments must not enter into any partnerships with the private
sector where there is a conflict of interests.
Government must ensure access to safe drinking water and
sanitation for all.
The NFS Bill says Central, State
and local Governments shall
strive to
(1) Revitalise Agri.
a. agrarian reforms securing interest of small and marginal farmers
b. increase in investments; R&D; extension services
c. ensuring remunerative prices; credit; irrigation
d. prohibiting unwarranted diversion of land
(2) Procurement; Storage and Movement
a. incentivize the decentralize procurement
b. geographical diversification of operations
c. scientific storage
d. priority of movements of food grains- sufficient rakes/ expanding
railway line
STRIVE TO amounts to good intentions with no
surety on action

CHILDRENS RIGHT TO FOOD
IS INSECURE
PROBLEM 4
For Infants Right to Food
Infants need
- Initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth
- Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months
Nutrition Security for Infants
includes
- Skilled assistance and counselling for infant and
young child feeding
- Financial and nutritional assistance to the mother
for six months after birth
- Creches in the community and at the work site
For Childrens Right to Food
Program of feeding in ICDS centres and
schools from birth till Class X.
Minimum nutrition norms specified in the Act
Cooked hot meal
Proper infrastructure- buildings, drinking
water, toilets, equipment
Adequate staff
Health check ups in schools and ICDS
centers
No use of contractors
Provision for inflation

Universalise ICDS
All children in the age group of 0-6 years
entitled to basic nutrition, health and pre-school
education services including supplementary
nutrition; immunization; health check-ups;
referral services; growth monitoring and
promotion; pre-school education; counselling of
mothers for infant and young child feeding
Support and counselling for Breastfeeding
No promotion of baby foods
Weekly Take-home rations
Identification and treatment of acute
malnutrition
The NFS Bill gives limited
services
Every pregnant women and
lactating mother through
anganwadi will be entitled to
free cooked meal during
pregnancy and six months
after the childs birth.


Children in the age group 0-6
years age shall get appropriate
cooked meal ,free of charge,
through the local anganwadi or
any other prescribed institution.





Children in the age group of
6-14 years :one cooked mid
day meal ,free of charge,
except on school holidays ,in
all schools run by local bodies,
Govt. and Govt. aided schools,
up to class VIII.
Every school shall have
appropriate facilities for
cooking and drinking water.
The State Govt. through the
local anganwadi , shall identify
children who suffer from
malnutrition ,and provide
cooked meals.


No Guard Against Inflation, No
Guarantee of Funding by Central
Government
Entitlements under section 4,5&6 shall be
realised through specific schemes, which
will be implemented by the State Govt in
accordance with the guidelines
,including for cost sharing between
centre and state according to Central
Govt.
SERVICES AND DEFINITION
FOR VULNERABLE
INADEQUATE
PROBLEM 5
Rights of the Vulnerable and
Socially Excluded
The Act must recognise the rights of the most
vulnerable. These include old people, physically
challenged , people suffering from/living with
HIV/AIDS , TB or other debilitating and stigmatized
diseases, single women headed households,
beggars, bonded labourers, primitive tribes, most
marginalised groups, homeless, unprotected street
and working children etc.

All such people to be provided Antodaya cards.
Antodaya Card Holders
All Antodaya card holders to get rations at half
price
Hot cooked meals for old and infirm
Double food quotas in ICDS and maternity
benefits
Old age pensions of Rs. 1300 p.m. (inflation
indexed)
Supply of one quintal of food per month free of
cost for six months (after distress is discovered)
Other special programs like community kitchens
or residential schools for street children
Other Special Categories
Migrants, urban homeless and slum dwellers to
be categories for whom special measures to be
taken up

Disaster struck to be given Antodaya cards and
double entitlements immediately

Pensions of Rs.1300 for elderly, single women
and disabled

Maternity benefits of Rs 1,000 per month for six
months, along with crches
The NFS Bill says
All destitute persons shall be entitled to at least one cooked meal everyday free of
charge in accordance to scheme prescribed by the Central Govt.
Destitute person means one who lacks resources for dignified living.
All homeless and poor ,casual workers& migrant labourers shall be entitled to cooked
meals at community kitchens according to schemes prescribed by Central Govt.
In the case of emergency disaster the State Govt. shall provide free two cooked meals
to the affected household or provide them ration free of charge ,for a period up to
three months after disaster.
The State Govt. will identify persons, households ,groups living in starvation or
conditions akin to starvation and shall provide
(1)Free Cooked meals two times a day ,for 6 months from date of identification.
(2)any other relief deemed necessary by the State Govt.
The Government shall strive for pensions
No maternity benefits.

For vulnerable, categories covered and benefits given are much less than what we
asked for. Specially pensions shall only be STRIVED FOR
No Maternity benefits
CASH TRANSFERS ARE
BEING INTRODUCED
PROBLEM 6
The NFS Bill says
Reforms in TPDS which includes
introducing scheme of cash transfer in lieu of
entitlements under the Act.
In case of shortage of supply, Central Govt.
shall provide funds for state Govt. to meeting
obligations under the Act.


Positive: Cards for Women
NFSB has agreed to this
Women of eighteen years or above
to be head of household for
purpose of distribution of ration
cards

REFORMS IN PDS ARE ONLY
TO BE STRIVED FOR
PROBLEM 7
Some of the reforms in PDS required
door step delivery with removal of
wholesalers
de-privatisation of all ration shops
Computerisation for transparency
Strong community vigilance
Issues of Corruption and Leakages
NFS Bill: Governments shall
strive for
Reforms in TPDS in consonance with functional
role
a. doorstep delivery
b. computerization to ensure transparent
recording of transactions
c. leveraging aadhaar for unique identification
d. full transparency
e. preference to public institutions; cooperatives
etc. in licensing FPS by women or womens
collectives
f. support to local distribution models


The NFS Bill says
For efficient operations under TPDS, State Government to :
a. create/maintain scientific storage at State/District/Block Level
b. strengthen capacities of food and civil supplies corporations
c. institutionalise licensing arrangements for Fair Price Shops (FSPs) under
PDS Control Order, 2001
All TPDS records be placed under public domain.
All PRIs/ULBs authorized by State Gov. to conduct regular social audits
Set up Vigilance Committees as prescribed under the PDS Control Order,
2001 at the State, District, Block and FPS
Vigilance Committee shall perform:
a. regularly supervise
b. inform District Grievance Redressal Officer for violations
c. inform District Grievance Redressal of any mal practice or
misappropriation
EXPERIENCE WITH NREGS AND EXISTING VIGILANCE DOES
NOT SHOW MUCH HOPE


INADEQUATE PROVISIONS TO
PUNISH PENALISE OR
COMPENSATE
PROBLEM 8
The NFS Bill says
In case of failure to supply the entitled
persons, they will be entitled to receive food
security allowance from the State Govt. in a
manner prescribed by the Central Govt.
Any public servant/authority found guilty of
failing to comply with the relief recommended
by District Grievance Redressal Officer shall
be liable to penalty not exceeding five
thousand rupees
INADEQUATE AFTER OUR EXPERIENCE WITH
NREGA

The NFS Bill says

A District grievance officer (GRO), shall be
appointed in each district, to enforce various
entitlement under this act and, investigate and
redress grievance.
State and National Food Commissions to be set
up

POWERS TO PUNISH AND ENFORCE ARE NOT
THERE
NOTHING ON HOW TO PREVENT POLITICAL
AND ADMINISTRATIVE INTERFERENCE IN
APPOINTMENT AND FUNDING OF GRO AND
COMMISSIONS