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THE MEDIA IN THE

INCITEMENT AND
PREVENTION OF GENOCIDE
FRANK CHALK
CONCORDIA UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY
AND THE
MONTREAL INSTITUTE FOR GENOCIDE AND
HUMAN RIGHTS STUDIES
MOTIVES FOR GENOCIDE
THE CHALK-JONASSOHN
TYPOLOGY
TO ELIMINATE A REAL OR POTENTIAL
THREAT
TO SPREAD TERROR AMONG
ENEMIES
TO ACQUIRE ECONOMIC WEALTH
TO IMPLEMENT A BELIEF, THEORY OR
IDEOLOGY
UTILITARIAN GENOCIDES
PERPETRATORS SEIZED BY THE FIRST
THREE MOTIVES FOR GENOCIDE--
SEEKING TO ELIMINATE A REAL OR POTENTIAL
THREAT
SPREAD TERROR AMONG ENEMIES
ACQUIRE ECONOMIC WEALTH
ARE HIGHLY PRACTICAL AND UTILITARIAN
THEY OFTEN PRODUCE TANGIBLE GAINS
FOR THEIR NATIONALS, ALTHOUGH AT
GREAT COST
GENOCIDES MOTIVATED BY
IDEOLOGY
PERPETRATOR SEEKING A PERFECT
FUTURE INSPIRED BY ETHNO-NATIONALIST,
UTOPIAN OR RACIST GOALS
THE PERPETRATOR MUST DEMONIZE THE
VICTIM GROUP, EXCLUDING ITS MEMBERS
FROM THE UNIVERSE OF MUTUAL
OBLIGATION AS A PREREQUISITE FOR THE
GENOCIDE TO FOLLOW
IDEOLOGICALLY-MOTIVATED GENOCIDES
PRODUCE FEW MATERIAL BENEFITS FOR
THE NATIONALS OF THE PERPETRATING
NATION
THE MOTIVES OF
PERPETRATORS INFLUENCE
THE SIGNIFICANCE AND
EXTENT OF MEDIA USE
PERPETRATORS OF IDEOLOGICALLY-
MOTIVATED GENOCIDES RELY MORE
ON THE MASS MEDIA AS AN
INSTRUMENT OF MOBILIZATION THAN
PERPETRATORS OF UTILITARIAN
GENOCIDES
THE MEDIA PLAY A SMALLER
ROLE IN UTILITARIAN
GENOCIDES
PERPETRATORS OF UTILITARIAN
GENOCIDES CAN CALL ON THEIR
PROFESSIONAL ARMED FORCES OR
MILITIAS
THEY ARE LESS RELIANT ON MASS
MOBILIZATIONS OF THE CIVILIAN
POPULATION TO ACCOMPLISH THEIR
DOMESTIC GOALS
MEDIA USE IN IDEOLOGICALLY-
MOTIVATED GENOCIDES
AIM: DEMONIZE THE VICTIM GROUP BY
ENGENDERING FEAR, HATRED AND
VIOLENCE
METHOD: SUSTAINED PROPAGANDA TO
MOBILIZE VIOLENCE AGAINST THE VICTIMS
ON A GRAND SCALE
TECHNIQUE: INTENSIVELY SPREAD
ELIMINATIONIST HATE PROPAGANDA AND
DISINFORMATION THROUGHOUT THE
GENERAL POPULATION TO REINFORCE
MOTIVATING BELIEFS
INDOCTRINATING WILLING
EXECUTIONERS
GENOCIDE IS PREPARED WITH
PROPAGANDA, A BOMBARDMENT OF
LIES AND HATRED DIRECTED
AGAINST THE TARGETED GROUP,
AND AIMED AT PREPARING THE
WILLING EXECUTIONERS FOR THE
ATROCIOUS TASKS THEY WILL BE
ASKED TO PERFORM.
PROF. WILLIAM SCHABAS
RESULTS OF PROPAGANDA
IN IDEOLOGICALLY-MOTIVATED
GENOCIDES, IDEOLOGY AND PROPAGANDA
ARE SYNERGISTICALLY EMPLOYED TO
CREATE PANIC-FEAR
PROPAGANDA LEADS ORDINARY PEOPLE
TO BELIEVE THEY ARE KILLING
DEFENSIVELY TO PRESERVE THEIR LIVES,
TRADITIONAL RIGHTS, AND PROPERTY,
IMPERILED BY THREATENING GROUPS
KILLING VICTIMS IS ACCEPTED AS THE
ONLY SOLUTION
PROPAGANDA
AND EARLY WARNING
IT IS THIS OPEN, MASS MOBILIZATION
OF THE POPULATION BY THE MEDIA
THROUGH PUBIC ENCOURAGEMENT
OF THE PEOPLE TO ENDORSE AND
JOIN IN STATE-SUPPORTED CRIMES
AGAINST HUMANITY AND GENOCIDE
THAT AIDS US IN THE PREDICTION
AND EARLY WARNING OF
IDEOLOGICALLY-MOTIVATED
GENOCIDE
THE MEDIA OF MASS
COMMUNICATIONS TODAY
TRADITIONAL PRINTED NEWSPAPERS,
MAGAZINES AND JOURNALS
ELECTRONIC MEDIA
RADIO
TELEVISION
THE INTERNET
WEALTH AND THE ROLE OF THE
MEDIA IN SHAPING PUBLIC
ATTITUDES
THE PRINT MEDIA, TELEVISION AND THE
INTERNET PREDOMINATE IN THE
WEALTHIER NATIONS
RADIO IS THE MEDIUM OF CHOICE FOR
SHAPING AND REINFORCING PUBLIC
OPINION IN POORER STATES MARKED BY
LOWER RATES OF LITERACY
TELEVISION IS ONLY SLOWLY GAINING A
FOOTHOLD IN THE POORER COUNTRIES
THE MOST VULNERABLE
SOCIETIES
POOR, ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPING
SOCIETIES
SOCIETIES MOVING FROM
AUTHORITARIAN, ARBITRARY AND
UNDEMOCRATIC RULE TO
DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS
THE MEDIA IN THE MOST
VULNERABLE SOCIETIES
NO TRADITION OF AN INDEPENDENT MEDIA
LACK DEEPLY ROOTED PROFESSIONAL
STANDARDS FOR JOURNALISTS
VIOLENT MEDIA CULTURE WITH NO SENSE
OF RESPONSIBILITY TO SOCIETY AS A
WHOLE
JOURNALISTS MANIPULATED BY THE
DOMINANT POLITICAL FACTION THROUGH
BRIBERY AND INTIMIDATION
MAJOR THEMES OF STORIES DEPEND ON
STEREOTYPING AND SENSATIONALISM
STORIES REDUCING ETHNIC TENSION
IGNORED
KEYS TO EFFECTIVE MEDIA
INTERVENTION
ASSESS THE STAGE WHICH THE
GENOCIDAL SITUATION HAS
REACHED
DEVISE A RESPONSE STRATEGY
APPROPRIATE TO THAT STAGE
EARLY STAGE INTERVENTIONS
(KILLINGS HAVE NOT BEGUN)
DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN
MONITORING OF THE MEDIA
TRAINING PROGRAMS AND CODES OF
CONDUCT FOR LOCAL EDITORS AND
JOURNALISTS
FOREIGN ASSISTANCE TO
STRENGTHEN LOCAL MEDIA
RADIO SOAP OPERAS AND DRAMA
PROGRAMS PRODUCED BY LOCAL,
INTER-ETHNIC TEAMS FOR CHILDREN
AND ADULTS
MIDDLE STAGE INTERVENTIONS
(ALREADY SOME GENOCIDAL MASSACRES)
LOCAL JOURNALISTS, NGOs, AND
GOVERNMENT MINISTERS OPPOSED TO
GENOCIDE NEUTERED OR REPRESSED BY
GOVERNMENT AND ITS ALLIES
FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS AND NGOs, AND
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS SHOULD
NOTIFY PERPETRATORS THEIR HATE
PROPAGANDA IS BEING MONITORED AND
RECORDED TO ENABLE FUTURE PROSECUTION
INTENSIFY BROADCASTS OF ACCURATE NEWS
IN LOCAL LANGUAGES TO COUNTER
DISINFORMATION
INITIATE ELECTRONIC JAMMING OF HATE
BROADCASTERS INCITING GENOCIDE
LATE STAGE INTERVENTIONS
(GENOCIDE UNDERWAY)
DESTROY THE TRANSMITTERS AND
PRINTING PRESSES OF THE HATE
MONGERS
BROADCAST WARNINGS THAT GENOCIDE
HAS BEGUN
WARN PERPETRATORS TO CEASE AND
DESIST
BROADCAST FEASIBLE ROUTES TO SAFETY
AND OTHER SURVIVAL INTELLIGENCE TO
POTENTIAL VICTIMS
COUNTRIES WHERE SOLUTIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS HAVE BEEN TRIED
AFGHANISTAN
BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA
BURUNDI
CAMBODIA
KOSOVO
LIBERIA
MACEDONIA
SIERRA LEONE
ORGANIZATIONS FIGHTING
HATE BROADCASTING
UNITED NATIONS
EUROPEAN UNION
OSCE
BBC WORLD SERVICE AND BBC TRUST
BRITISH DEPT. FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
US AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
INTERNEWS NETWORK
CANADIAN INSTIT. FOR MEDIA, POLICY AND CIVIL SOCIETY
SEARCH FOR COMMON GROUND
HIRONDELLE FOUNDATION
OPEN MEDIA RESEARCH INSTITUTE
RADIO PARTNERSHIP
CENTER FOR WAR, PEACE AND THE NEWS MEDIA
LIFELINE MEDIA
MEDIEN HILFE
AND OTHERS
FUTURE INITIATIVE: AN
INTERNATIONAL CODE OF
CONDUCT BACKED BY
TRANSMITTER EXPORT CONTROLS
THE LANDMARK MEDIA CASE
JUDGMENTS OF THE ICTR, 3 DEC.
2003, CONFIRM THE UN GENOCIDE
CONVENTIONS CRIMINALIZATION OF
MEDIA INCITEMENTS TO COMMIT
GENOCIDE, WHETHER OR NOT A
GENOCIDE RESULTS
A MEDIA CODE OF CONDUCT
NEEDED NOW IS AN INTERNATIONAL
CODE OF CONDUCT WHICH
RECOGNIZES THE DUAL USE
POSSIBILITIES OF TELEVISION AND
AM, FM, AND SATELLITE RADIO
TRANSMITTERS
THE CODE OF CONDUCT SHOULD BAN
THE EXPORT OF TRANSMITTERS TO
COUNTRIES ALREADY UNDER
INTERNATIONAL ARMS EMBARGOES
REASONS WHY EXPORTS OF
TRANSMITTERS COULD BE BANNED
NOT RESPECTING SANCTIONS DECREED BY THE
UN SECURITY COUNCIL
VIOLATING HUMAN RIGHTS OBLIGATIONS
EMBODIED IN INTERNATIONAL TREATIES
LIKELY TO USE EQUIPMENT TO PROVOKE OR
PROLONG ARMED CONFLICTS OR AGGRAVATE
EXISTING TENSIONS IN COUNTRY OF FINAL
DESTINATION
THREATENING THE NATIONAL SECURITY OF
STATES SUBSCRIBING TO THE CODE OF CONDUCT
DEMONSTRATING DISRESPECT FOR
INTERNATIONAL LAW, ALLIANCES AND THE NEED
TO CONTAIN TERRORISM
LIKELY TO DIVERT THE EQUIPMENT WITHIN THE
BUYER COUNTRY OR TO RE-EXPORT IT UNDER
UNDESIRABLE CONDITIONS
Mandatory UN embargoes
Afghanistan (Taliban)
Al-Qaida, Usama Bin Laden
Angola (UNITA)
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Liberia
Libya
Rwanda (rebels)
Sierra Leone (rebels)
Somalia
Yugoslavia (FRY

EU embargoes
Afghanistan
Bosnia and Herzegovina
China
Croatia
DRC
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Indonesia
Iraq
Libya
Myanmar (Burma)
Nigeria
Sierra Leone (rebels)
Sudan
Yugoslavia
Zimbabwe

Frank Chalk
Contact Information
http://migs.concordia.ca

drfrank@alcor.concordia.ca