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HEC-HMS

The Hydrologic Engineering Centers


Hydrologic Modeling System (HMS)
Summary of Topics - HEC-HMS
Premier Hydrologic Model Today (HEC)
Performs RF-RO Calculations for Watersheds
Basic Input and Output Options
Precipitation Options
Unit Hydrograph Options
Flood Routing Option
Creating and Viewing Results and Graphs

Execution of HEC-HMS
Running actual projects
Calibration to gage data
Castro Valley case study
Keegans example
Linkage with GIS/NEXRAD data (HEC Geo-HMS)
The Hydrologic Cycle
1 0 0
P r e c i p i t a t i o n o n l a n d
Infiltration
W
a
te
r
t
a
b
le
Groundwater flow
1 Groundwater
discharge
38 Surface discharge
61
Evaporation from land
39
Moisture over land
385
Precipitation
on ocean
424
Evaporation
from ocean
Surface
runoff
Impervious
strata
Groundwater
Recharge
Precipitation
Snow
melt
Uses of the HEC Program
Models the rainfall-runoff process in a watershed
based on watershed physiographic data

Offers a variety of modeling options in order to
compute UH for basin areas.
Offers a variety of options for flood routing along
streams.
Capable of estimating parameters for calibration of
each basin based on comparison of computed data to
observed data

HEC-1 Program History
HEC-1 - History of Model Development

Separate Programs: 1967 by Leo R. Beard
Major Revision and Unification: 1973
Second Major Revision: 1981 (Dam Breach,
Kinematic Wave)
PC Versions: 1984 (partial), 1988 (full)
HEC-1/HMS Program History
Current Versions: 1991, 1998
1991 Version Provides Extended Memory Support
1998 Version 4.1 is Final Release
HEC NexGen Project Begins 1990
(RAS, HMS, FDA)
HEC-HMS - New GUI and Updates
First Release April 1998
Version 1.1 Released April 1999
Current Version 2.0.3
HEC-HMS Background
Purpose of HEC-HMS
Improved User Interface, Graphics, and
Reporting
Improved Hydrologic Computations
Integration of Related Hydrologic Capabilities
Importance of HEC-HMS
Foundation for Future Hydrologic Software
Replacement for HEC-1
Improvements over HEC-1
Ease of Use

projects divided into three components
user can run projects with different parameters
instead of creating new projects
hydrologic data stored as DSS files
capable of handling NEXRAD-rainfall data and
gridded precipitation

Converts HEC-1 files into HMS files
HEC-HMS Availability
Available Through HEC Vendors
Available at HEC Web Site:
http://www.wrc-hec.usace.army.mil
Public Domain Program
No Copyright on Software
No Copyright on HEC Documentation
Special Training Available
EXAMPLE 5.1
Small Watershed Example (HEC-1)
A small undeveloped watershed has the parameters listed in the following tables. A unit
hydrograph and Muskingum routing coefficients are known for subbasin 3, shown in Fig.
E5.1(a). TC and R values for subbasins 1 and 2 and associated SCS curve numbers (CN)
are provided as shown. A 5-hr rainfall hyetograph in in./hr is shown in Fig. E5.1(b) for a
storm event that occurred on June 19, 1983. Assume that the rain fell uniformly over the
watershed. Use the information given to develop a HEC-1 input data set to model this
storm. Run the model to determine the predicted outflow at point B. Note that this same
sample will be used later with HEC-HMS as Example 5.2.
SUBBASIN
NUMBER
TC
(hr)
R
(hr)
SCS CURVE
NUMBER
% IMPERVIOUS
(%)
AREA
(mi
2
)
1 2.5 5.5 66 0 2.5
2 2.8 7.5 58 0 2.7
3 -- -- 58 0 3.3
TIME (hr)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
UH FOR
SUBBASIN 3:
U (cfs)
0 200 400 600 450 300 150 0
Muskingum coefficients: x = 0.15, K = 3 hr, Area = 3.3 sq mi
ID ****
ID ****
ID ****
ID ****
IT 60 60 19-Jun-83 1200 100
IO 4
KK SUB1
KM
PI 0.2 1.5 2 1 0.5
BA 2.5
LS 66 0
UC 2.5 5.5
KK SUB2
KM
BA 2.7
LS 58 0
UC 2.8 7.5
KK A
KM
HC 2
KM
RM 1 3 0.15
KK SUB3
KM
BA 3.3
LS 58 0
UI 0 200 400 600 450 300 150 0
KK B
KM
HC 2
ZZ
MUSKINGUM ROUTING FROM A TO B
RUNOFF FROM SUBBASIN 3
COMBINE FLOW FROM SUB 3 AND ROUTED TO POINT B
KKA TO B
EXAMPLE 5.1
HEC-1 INPUT DATA SET
RUNOFF FROM SUBBASIN 1
RUNOFF FROM SUBBASIN 2
COMBINE RUNOFF FROM SUB 1 WITH RUNOFF FROM SUB 2 AT A
Solution The input data set is as follows:
Program Organization
Main project screen
Connects to all data and information through menus
Using HEC-HMS
Three components
Basin model - contains the elements of the
basin, their connectivity, and runoff
parameters
Meteorologic Model - contains the rainfall and
evapotranspiration data
Control Specifications - contains the start/stop
timing and calculation intervals for the run
Project Definition
May contain several basin models, meteorologic
models, and control specifications
User can select a variety of combinations of the three
models in order to see the effects of changing
parameters on one subbasin
Basin Model
Basin Model
Based on Graphical User
Interface (GUI)
Click on elements from left and
drag into basin area
Can import map files from GIS
programs to use as background
Actual locations of elements do
not matter, just connectivity and
runoff parameters

Basin Model Elements

subbasins- contains data for subbasins (losses,
UH transform, and baseflow)

reaches- connects elements together and
contains flood routing data

junctions- connection point between elements

reservoirs- stores runoff and releases runoff at a
specified rate (storage-discharge relation)



Basin Model Elements

sinks- has an inflow but no outflow

sources- has an outflow but no inflow

diversions- diverts a specified amount of runoff
to an element based on a rating curve - used for
detention storage elements or overflows


Basin Model Parameters
Loss rate, UH transform, and baseflow methods
Abstractions (Losses)
Interception Storage
Depression Storage
Surface Storage
Evaporation
Infiltration
Interflow
Groundwater and Base Flow
Loss Rate methods

Green & Ampt
Initial & constant
SCS curve no.
Gridded SCS curve no.
Deficit/Constant
No loss rate
Initial and Uniform Loss Computation
Initial Loss Applied at Beginning of Storm
Estimated from Previous or SCS data
Sand: 0.80-1.50 inches; Clay: 0.40-1.00 inches
Uniform Loss Applied Throughout Storm
Also Estimated From Previous Studies or SCS
Data
Sand: 0.10-0.0 in/hr; Clay 0.05-0.15 in/hr
HEC-HMS Loss Entry Window
Rainfall/Runoff Transformation
Unit Hydrograph
Distributed Runoff
Grid-Based Transformation
Methods:
Clark
Snyder
SCS
Input Ordinates
ModClark
Kinematic Wave
Unit Hydrograph
Definition:
Sub-Basin Surface Outflow Due to Unit (1-in)
Rainfall Excess Applied Uniformly Over a Sub-
Basin in a Specified Time Duration
Duration of UH:
HEC-HMS Sets Duration Equal to Computation
Interval
Synthetic Unit Hydrographs
Computed from Basin Characteristics
HEC- HMS Synthetic Unit Hydrographs
SCS Dimensionless Unit graph
Clark Unit Hydrograph (TC & R)
Snyder Unit Hydrograph
User-Defined Input Unit Hydrograph
ModClark Unit Hydrograph
Clark Unit Hydrograph
Computation
Estimating Time of Concentration
for Clark Unit Hydrograph
Hydraulic Analysis Method
Compute Travel Time in Open Channels and Storm
Sewers based on Flow Velocities
Compute Reservoir Travel Time from Wave Velocity

Overland Flow Equations
Kerby Method
Kirpich Method
Overton & Meadows
SCS TR-55 Method for Shallow Concentrated Flow
Baseflow Options

recession
constant
monthly
linear reservoir
no baseflow
Stream Flow Routing
Simulates Movement of Flood Wave
Through Stream Reach
Accounts for Storage and Flow Resistance
Allows modeling of a watershed with sub-
basins
Reach Routing


Flood routing
methods:
Simple Lag
Modified Puls
Muskingum
Muskingum Cunge
Kinematic Wave

HEC-HMS Methods for
Stream Flow Routing
Hydraulic Methods - Uses partial form of St
Venant Equations
Kinematic Wave Method
Muskingum-Cunge Method
Hydrologic Methods
Muskingum Method
Storage Method (Modified Puls)
Lag Method
Effects of Stream Flow Routing
Storage S
Dt
Outflow
Inflow
Avg Inflow - Avg Outflow = dS/dt
Modified Puls (Storage)
Stream Flow Routing Method
Storage-Indication Relationship:
I
1
+ I
2
+ (2S
1
/Dt - Q
1
)= (2S
2
/Dt + Q
2
)
I - Q = (dS/dt)
Averaging at two points in time: 1 and 2
HEC-HMS Stream Flow Routing
Data Window
Storage-Discharge Relationships
Stream Flow Diversions
Diversion Identification
Maximum Volume of Diversion (Optional)
Maximum Rate of Diversion (Optional)
Diversion Rating Table
Stream Flow Rates Upstream of Diversion
Corresponding Diversion Rates
Stream Flow Diversions
Flow is allowed to move from one channel to
another via a side weir or flow across a low
divide
Weir
Flow increases until a fixed level and then a
flow diversion table determines rate through
the weir or across the divide
Diverted Q
Reservoir Routing
Developed Outside HEC-HMS

Storage Specification Alternatives:
Storage versus Discharge
Storage versus Elevation
Surface Area versus Elevation

Discharge Specification Alternatives:
Spillways, Low-Level Outlets, Pumps
Dam Safety: Embankment Overflow, Dam Breach
Reservoirs
Q

(
c
f
s
)


I=Q
time
Q

(
c
f
s
)
Inflow
Outflow
I - Q =
dS
dt
Level Pool Reservoir
Q (weir flow)
Q (orifice flow)
I
S
H
S = f(Q) Q = f(H)
Orifice flow:
Q = C * 2gH
Q
I
I
Weir Flow:
Q = CLH
3/2
Q
Pond storage with
outflow pipe

Orifice flow

Weir flows

Inflow and Outflow
Reservoir Data Input
Initial Conditions to Be Considered
Inflow = Outflow
Initial Storage Values
Initial Outflow
Initial Elevation
Elevation Data Relates to Both Storage/Area
and Discharge
HEC-1 Routing Routines with Initial Conditions
and Elevation Data can be Imported as
Reservoir Elements
Reservoir Data Input Window
Meteorologic Model
Meteorologic Model
Precipitation
user hyetograph
user gage weighting
inverse-distance gage
weighting
gridded precipitation
frequency storm
standard project storm -
Eastern U.S.

Evapotranspiration-ET
monthly average,
no evapotranspiration
Precipitation
Historical Rainfall Data
Recording Gages
Non-Recording Rainfall Gages

Design Storms
Hypothetical Frequency Storms
Corps Standard Project Storm
Probable Maximum Precipitation
Gage Data
Gage Data (from project definition screen)
Precipitation gages-
precipitation data for
use with meteorologic
models

Stream gages- observed
level data to compare
computed and actual
results
Precipitation:
Gridded Weather Radar Data
Data from National Weather Service
NexRAD program, Doppler Radar
Data must be manipulated and stored in DSS file
format
Grids are HRAP (NWS) or SHG (HEC)
HRAP uses spherical projections and generalized earth
radius values
SHG uses Albers Equal Area projections
Grids cover about 1 square kilometer
Historical raw data may not be archived
Sources of Rainfall
Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF)
East of 105th Meridian (Denver)
NWS HYDRO-5 (5 minutes to 60 minutes)
NWS TP-40 (2 hours to 24 hours) - 1961
NWS TP-49 (2 days to 10 days)
West of 105th Meridian
NOAA Atlas 2 (Separate Volumes for Each
State)
Input and Output Files
project-name.HMS: List of models, descriptions and
project default method options
basin-model-name.BASIN: Basin model data,
including connectivity information
precipitation-model-name.PRECIP: Precipitation
model data
control-specifications- name.CONTROL: Control
specifications
run-name.LOG: Messages generated during execution
of run
project-name.RUN: List of runs, including most
recent execution time
Input and Output Files
project-name.DSS: DSS file containing basin model
data such as computed hydrographs and storage
discharge relationships
project-name.DSC: List of files contained in DSS file
project-name.OUT: Log of operations for the DSS file
project-name.MAP: Coordinate point file for subbasin
boundaries and channel location
project-name.GAGE: Listing of gages available for use
in the project
HMStemp.TMP: Echo listing of imported HEC-1 model
Data Storage System (DSS)
Multiple time series or relational data sets
Each data set or record has a unique pathname/Castro
Valley/Fire Dept/PRECIP-INC/16Jan197/10min/Obs/
Pathnames Consist of Parts A through F
Part A: General name, project name
Part B: Specific name, or control point
Part C: Data type (PRECIP-INC, PRECIP-CUM,
FLOW, STORAGE, etc.)
Part D: Start Date
Part E: Time interval
Part F: User specified
The HEC-HMS Options
Precipitation Option (6 available)
Loss Computation (5 available)
Runoff Transform Computation (6 available)
Routing Computation (7 available)
Over 6 x 5 x 6 x 7 = 1,260 Combinations

Subbasin
routing reach
Control Specifications
Control Specifications - Start/Stop/Time Interval

Running a project
User selects the
1. Basin model
2. Meteorologic model
3. Control ID for the
HMS run
Viewing Results
To view the results: right-click on any basin element,
results will be for that point

Display of results:
hydrograph- graphs outflow vs. time
summary table- gives the peak flow and time of peak
time-series table- tabular form of outflow vs. time

Comparing computed and actual results: plot
observed data on the same hydrograph to by selecting a
discharge gage for an element
Viewing Results
hydrograph
HEC-HMS Output
1. Tables
Summary
Detailed (Time Series)
2. Hyetograph Plots
3. Sub-Basin Hydrograph Plots
4. Routed Hydrograph Plots
5. Combined Hydrograph Plots
6. Recorded Hydrographs - comparison
Viewing Results
Summary table
Time series table
HEC-HMS Output
Sub-Basin Plots
Runoff Hydrograph
Hyetograph
Abstractions
Base Flow

HEC-HMS Output

Junction Plots


Tributary Hydrographs
Combined Hydrograph
Recorded Hydrograph
Purpose of Calibration
Can Compute Sub-Basin Parameters
Loss Function Parameters
Unit Hydrograph Parameters
Can Compute Stream Flow Routing
Parameters
Requires Gage Records
FINALLY - information on HEC-HMS
www.hec.usace.army.mil/software/software_
distrib/hec-hms/hechmsprogram.html
(the users manual can be downloaded from this
site)
www.dodson-hydro.com/download.htm#
Electronic_Documents
Available on the laboratory computers