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Wall Follower Robot

Project Guide Chandresh Pratap Singh

Mr. Vinay Negi Gaurav Kushwaha
Ishan Upadhayay
Lalit Mohan Pandey
The study of robots has received a considerable amount of attention in
past two decades. Term robot was mentioned in the literature as early as
1920s. Due to its interdisciplinary nature constructing a robot requires
understanding of various facets of the aforementioned areas of expertise.
Wall following is a major topic of table top robotics . Wall following is the
act of having a robot follow a wall without turning into it or getting too far
from it.
Currently, specific task can be executed by robots using AI tools, but no
universal thing exists that can truly think. Therefore construction of even
simple robot for the task of navigation within a maze can be challenging
and educational.
The objective of the project is to build a robot
that follows a wall when the robot module is
placed within the sensor range of wall.
The end objective of the robot is to follow the
wall until it reaches the end of the wall. This
application is also known as Maze Detection.
Motion of a Wall Follower Robot
Atmega16 microcontroller.
IR Sensors.
Motor Driving Circuitary
Power Supply.
Locomotive System.
The ATmega16 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit
microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced RISC
The ATmega16 provides the following key features:
16 Kbytes In-System Programmable Flash Program
memory with Read-While-Write capabilities.
512 bytes EEPROM, 1 Kbyte SRAM.
32 general purpose I/O lines.
32 general purpose working registers.
It is basically 16 pin IC.
This device is a monolithic integrated high voltage four
channel driver design to accept DTL or TTL logic levels.

Sensors provide a robot with the means to
observe the characteristics of the external environment and the
internal state. Without the sensors the robot would be unable
to determine its current state and therefore unable to act
meaningfully. Infrared sensors are used for range sensing.
IR sensors have a range of 8 inch, and if the object (wall) is within
its range, then the rays produced by emitter bounces off the
object and is detected by sensor.
The program is written in embedded C language.
The code is written to give instructions to the
microcontroller as to how to proceed in a
particular situation.
This code is compiled by the compiler to produce
a hex file that contains the code in its
hexadecimal representation.
As the microcontroller understands only binary
language, this hex file is fed into the
microcontroller memory. This process is called
As soon as the robot with the power ON is
placed alongside a wall, the IR sensors comes
into play.
The sensors receives the input signals as
according to the wall.
These signals are sent to the ADC comparator
from where the digital signals are forwarded
to the microcontroller.
This input is passed onto the microcontroller
which in turn gives instructions to the motor
to perform desired task.
The motor rotates according to the
instructions and the wheels help the motor in
performing the task.
Hence the sensor provides the input to the
microcontroller, and the output is provided by
the motor.


Future improvement can be made such as the
detection of the color object, and automatic
color threshold adjustment. Many advance
applications can be achieved based on the
features of Wall-Follower, including parallel
parking, automatic indoor navigation and so