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FLUID MECHANICS-II

Himani Jain (66) Damera Avinash (67)


Kamlesh Gupta (68) Anjali Shrivastava (69)
Sumit Bhadoriya (70) Gaurav Ladoia (71)
Saket Rusia (72) Susheel Chimnani (73)
Amit Sharma (74) Aditya Kusray (75)
Sashidhar Vadlamani (76) Atish Sharma (77)
Shupriya Singh (78) Mandeep Arya (79)
Nemani Venkata Deepak (80)

I NT RODUC T I ON
Hydraulic machines are those machines which
convert hydraulic energy into mechanical energy or
mechanical energy into hydraulic energy.
The machines which convert hydraulic energy into
mechanical energy are called Hydraulic Turbines.
The mechanical energy developed by a turbine is
used in running an electric generator which is
directly coupled to shaft of turbine. The power thus
generated by the turbine is called as Hydroelectric
Power.


Elements of hydroelectric power plants
Production of electricity with the help of a
turbine
In general a water turbine consists of a wheel called
runner (or rotor) having a number of specially
designed vanes or blades or buckets.
The water possessing a large amount of hydraulic
energy when strikes the runner, it does work on the
runner and causes it to rotate.
The mechanical energy so developed is supplied to the
generator coupled to the runner , which then generates
electrical energy.

8
I n t r o d u c t i o n
I n t r o d u c t i o n
Heads and efficiencies of a Turbine
Heads:
Gross head- Diff between head race level and the
tail race level when no water is flowing . It
is also known as static head or total head and is
represented as Hg
Net or Effective Head- It is the head available at the
entrance of the turbine. It is obtained by
subtracting from the gross head all the
losses of the water that may occur as
water flows from the head race to the
entrance of the turbine.
Hnet= Hg hf (where hf is losses due to friction or major
losses)
Heads
Hydroelectric power plants are usually classified
according to the heads under which they work as:

Hydroelectric Plant
High Head Plant
Medium Head
Plant
Low Head
Plant
Heads greater
than 250m
Heads
between 60m
to 250m
Heads less than 60 m
Efficiencies
Large modern water turbines operate at mechanical
efficiencies greater than 90%.
The various efficiencies of turbine may be classified as
follows
1. Hydraulic efficiency
2. Mechanical efficiency
3. Volumetric efficiency
4. Overall efficiency
1. Hydraulic Efficiency( nh)
It is defined as the ratio of the power developed by the
runner to the net power supplied by the water at the
entrance to the turbine.
These two powers differ by the amount of hydraulic losses.
nh= {power developed by the runner/power supplied at the
turbine entrance}
Power supplied by the turbine at the
entrance=[w(Q+delQ)H] , where Q is the quantity of water
actually striking the runner, delQ is the amount of water
that is discharged directly to the tail race without striking
the runner, and H is the net head available at the entrance
to the turbine.
1. Hydraulic Efficiency( nh)
But delQ is negligibly small , so the equation becomes:
nh = {Power developed by the runner/wQH}
The unit of power is expressed in Kilowatt in SI units
amd metric horse power in metric units.
The power supplied at the turbine entrance is termed
as Water Horse Power (W.H.P).


2. Mechanical Efficiency(nm)
It is defined as the ratio of the power available to the
turbine shaft to the power developed by the runner.
These two differ in their amount by the mechanical
losses(Bearing friction).
Formulae:
nm= {Power available at the turbine shaft/power
developed by the runner}
The power available at the turbine shaft is known as
Shaft Horse Power , S.H.P or Brake Horse Power ,
B.H.P.
3. Volumetric Efficiency
The volumetric efficiency is the ratio of the quantity of
water actually striking the runner and the quantity of
water supplied to the turbine.
The two quantities differ by the amount of water that
slips directly to the tail race without striking the
runner.
nv = {Q/(Q+delQ)}
4. Overall Efficiency
The overall efficiency of the turbine is the ratio of the
power available at the turbine shaft to the power
supplied by the water at the entrance to the turbine.
no = Power available at the turbine shaft/Net Power
supplied at the turbine entrance.
no = P .
[w(Q+delQ)H]
Overall Efficiency= Hydraulic efficiency + Mechanical
efficiency + Volumetric efficiency.

Classifications of Turbines
The Hydraulic turbines are classified as follows:
1. According to the type of energy at the inlet:
(a) Impulse turbine (b) Reaction Turbine
2.According to the direction of flow through the runner:
(a) Tangential flow turbine (b) Radial flow turbine
(c) Axial flow turbine (d) Mixed flow turbine
3. According to the head at the inlet of turbine:
(a) High head turbine (b) Medium head turbine
(c) Low head turbine
4.According to the speed of the turbine:
(a) Low specific speed turbine (b) medium specific
speed
turbine
(c) High specific speed turbine

1. According to the type of energy at the inlet:
Impulse Turbine: In this type of turbine all the
available energy of water is converted into kinetic
energy by passing it through a contracting nozzle
provided at the end of the penstock. Example Pelton
wheel.
Reaction Turbine: In this type of turbine only a part of
the total available energy is converted into kinetic
energy and the rest remains in the form of pressure
energy. Example Francis Turbine.
2.According to the direction of flow through the runner:
Tangential flow: In this the water flows along the tangent to the
path of the rotation of the runner. Example Pelton wheel.
Radial flow: In this the water flows along the radial direction and
remains wholly and mainly in the plane normal to the axis of
rotation, as it passes through the runner. Example- old francis
turbine.
Axial flow: In this the flow of water is wholly and mainly along
the direction parallel to the axis of the rotation of the runner.
Example Kaplan turbine.
Mixed flow: In this water enters the runner at the outer periphery
in the radial direction and leaves it at the centre in the direction
parallel to the axis of the rotation of the runner. Example-
Modern Francis turbine.
3.According to the head at the inlet of turbine:
High head turbine: These turbines are capable of
working under very high heads ranging from hundred
to thousands of meters. ExamplePelton wheel
turbine.
Medium head turbine: These turbines are capable of
working under medium heads ranging from about
60m to 250m. ExampleModern francis turbine.
Low head turbine: These turbines are capable of
working under the heads less than 60m. Example
Kaplan turbine.
4.According to the specific speed of the turbine:
Low specific speed turbine: In these turbines the
specific speed varies from 8.5 to 30 for pelton wheel
with single jet and 43to 50 for pelton wheel with
double jet.
Medium specific speed turbine: In these turbines the
specific speed varies from 50 to 340----Francis turbine.
High specific speed turbine: In these turbines the
specific speed varies from 255 to 860 ---- Kaplan and
other propeller turbines.
TURGO WATER TURBINE


Similar in operation to the
pelton wheel only with half
cups arranged around the
runner



Water from the jets can
enter and exit from the cups,
more easily and in greater
quantities giving this turbine
an efficiency of 90%
BANKI TURBINE (MICHELL CROSSFLOW OR
OSSBERGER TURBINE)
Numerous trough-shaped
blades arranged radially
lengthwise around a
cylindrical runner


The crossflow turbine has
two independent nozzles
which are set at an angle of
45 projecting the water at
the optimum angle to the
blade
Jonval Turbine



It is an axial or parallel-
flow turbine, the water
passing through the
motor in directions
parallel with the central
shaft

A new feature provided
by Henschel was the
suction pipe in the
outlet.


FRANCIS SPIRAL TURBINE
This turbine was the first with an
inlet spiral. The water admission can
be regulated only with the slide valve
at the inlet of the spiral because the
guide blades of the turbine are
immovable. Today they are usually
made from concrete to withstand the
high pressure.


Head: 17.4 m
Speed: 263 min-1
Water flow: 0.21 ms-1



FOURNEYRON TURBINE

It is a simple design as the
blades are bent only in one
plane unlike most modern
turbines which twist their
blades
It is easy to size the
Fourneyron Turbine to the
exact needs of the individual
site where it is to be
employed.
PROPELLER AND KAPLAN TURBINES
Pelton Turbine
Also called a free-jet turbine or Pelton
wheel
Named after L. A. Pelton who invented it in 1880
Suited for high head,
low flow sites. The
largest units can be up
to 200 MW. Can
operate with heads as
small as 15 meters and
as high as 1,800
meters.
In a Typical Pelton Turbine, the water from the reservoir flows
through the penstock at the outlet of which a nozzle is fitted. The nozzle
increases the kinetic energy of the water. At the outlet of the nozzle the
water strikes spoon-shaped buckets or cups arranged on the periphery
of a runner, or wheel, which causes the runner to rotate, producing
mechanical energy. The runner is fixed on a shaft, and the rotational
motion of the turbine is transmitted by the shaft to a generator.
Main parts of Pelton turbine


1.Nozzle and flow regulating arrangement

2.Runner with buckets

3.Casing

4.Breaking jet

35
1.Nozzle and flow regulating arrangement
The amount of water striking the buckets (vanes) of the runner
is controlled by providing a spear in the nozzle. The spear is a conical needle
which is operated either by a hand wheel or automatically in an axial direction
depending upon the size of unit.
2.Runner with buckets
It consists of a circular disc on the periphery of which
number of buckets evenly spaced are fixed. The shape of the buckets is of a
double hemispherical cup or bowl. Each bucket is divided into two
symmetrical parts by a dividing wall which is known as splitter.
3.Casing The function of the casing is to prevent the splashing of
water and to discharge water to tail race. It also acts as safe guards against
accidents. It is made of cast iron or fabricated steel plates. The casing of the
pelton wheel does not perform any hydraulic function.

4.Breaking jet When the nozzle is completely closed by moving the
spear in the forward direction, the amount of water striking the runner reduces
to zero. But the runner due to inertia goes on revolving for a long time. To stop
the runner in a short time, a small nozzle is provided which directs the jet of
water on the back of vanes. This jet of water is called breaking jet.
Video Showing The Details Of a Pelton Turbine

Velocity diagram of Pelton Turbine
Work done per unit wt of water striking per sec


=
Hydraulic Efficiency of Pelton Turbine


=
DESIGN OF PELTON WHEEL
Design of Pelton wheel means the following data is to
be determined:
1. Diameter of the jet (d),
2. Diameter of wheel (D),
3. Width of the buckets which is =5*d,
4. Depth of the buckets which is =1.2*d,
5. Number of buckets on the wheel.
Size of the buckets mean the width and depth of the
buckets.

DESIGN OF PELTON TURBINE RUNNER
A Pelton turbine runner is designed to develop a known power P, when running at
a known speed N r.p.m. under a known head H. The various steps involved in
the design are :
1.Determine the required discharge Q
P = n ( WH ) = n ( wQH )
2.Calculate velocity V of the jet.
3.Calculate total area of the jets by a = ( Q/V)
4.Calculate pitch circle diameter D.
5.Obtain the number of jets required by dividing total area of jets by area of each
jet.
6.The fractional number of jets is rounded upto the appropriate integral number
and the corresponding diameter of each jet is calculated.
7.Calculate the number of buckets to be provided and the bucket dimensions.
DESIGN RULES
Specific speed
The specific speed ns of a turbine dictates the turbine's
shape in a way that is not related to its size. This allows a
new turbine design to be scaled from an existing design of
known performance. The specific speed is also the main
criterion for matching a specific hydro-electric site with the
correct turbine type.
The formula suggests that the Pelton turbine is most
suitable for applications with relatively high hydraulic
head, due to the 5/4 exponent being greater than unity, and
given the characteristically low specific speed of the Pelton.
TURBINE PHYSICS
Energy and initial jet velocity
In the ideal (frictionless) case, all of the hydraulic
potential energy (P.E = mgh) is converted into
kinetic energy (K.E = mv2/2). Equating these two
equations and solving for the initial jet velocity
(Vi) indicates that the theoretical (maximum) jet
velocity is Vi = (2gh) . For simplicity, assume that
all of the velocity vectors are parallel to each other.
Defining the velocity of the wheel runner as: (u),
then as the jet approaches the runner, the initial
jet velocity relative to the runner is: (Vi u).
Optimal wheel speed
We know that the ideal runner speed will cause all of
the kinetic energy in the jet to be transferred to the
wheel. In this case the final jet velocity must be zero. If
we let Vi + 2u = 0, then the optimal runner speed will
be u = Vi /2, or half the initial jet velocity.
Power
The power P = Fu = T, where is the angular
velocity of the wheel. Substituting for F, we have
P = 2Q(Vi u)u. To find the runner speed at
maximum power, take the derivative of P with
respect to u and set it equal to zero, [dP/du =
2Q(Vi 2u)]. Maximum power occurs when u =
Vi /2. Pmax = QVi2/2. Substituting the initial jet
power Vi = (2gh), this simplifies to Pmax = ghQ.
This quantity exactly equals the kinetic power of
the jet, so in this ideal case, the efficiency is 100%,
since all the energy in the jet is converted to shaft
output
TYPES OF TURBINE
The Turbine is a Prime Mover in which a Rotary Motion is
obtained by Centrifugal Force brought into action
by changing the Direction of Jet of a Fluid escaping from a
Nozzle at High Velocity.
This Turbines are classified by several ways.The most
important and common division being with respect to the
action of the Steam and they are as,
01)Impulse Turbine
02)Reaction Turbine
03)Combination of Impulse and Reaction Turbine
IMPULSE TURBINE
Impulse turbines change the velocity of a water jet. The jet pushes on the
turbine's curved blades which changes the direction of the flow. The resulting
change in momentum (impulse) causes a force on the turbine blades. Since
the turbine is spinning, the force acts through a distance (work) and the
diverted water flow is left with diminished energy.
Prior to hitting the turbine blades, the water's pressure (potential energy) is
converted to kinetic energy by a nozzle and focused on the turbine. No
pressure change occurs at the turbine blades, and the turbine doesn't require
a housing for operation.
Impulse turbines are most often used in very high (>300m/984 ft) head
applications
THEORY OF OPERATION
Flowing water is directed on to the blades of a turbine
runner, creating a force on the blades. Since the runner is
spinning, the force acts through a distance (force acting
through a distance is the definition of work). In this way,
energy is transferred from the water flow to the turbine
Water turbines are divided into two groups; reaction
turbines and impulse turbines.
The precise shape of water turbine blades is a function of
the supply pressure of water, and the type of impeller
selected.
REACTION TURBINE
Reaction turbines are acted on by water, which changes
pressure as it moves through the turbine and gives up its
energy. They must be encased to contain the water
pressure (or suction), or they must be fully submerged in
the water flow.
Newton's third law describes the transfer of energy for
reaction turbines.
Most water turbines in use are reaction turbines and are
used in low (<30m/98 ft) and medium (30-300m/98
984 ft)head applications. In reaction turbine pressure drop
occurs in both fixed and moving blades.
REACTION TURBINE
RADIAL FLOW TURBINE
RADIAL FLOW TURBINE
STEAM TURBINE
STEAM TURBINE
A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy
from pressurized steam, and converts it into rotary motion. Its modern
manifestation was invented by Sir Charles Parsons in 1884.[1]
It has almost completely replaced the reciprocating piston steam
engine primarily because of its greater thermal efficiency and higher
power-to-weight ratio. Because the turbine generates rotary motion, it
is particularly suited to be used to drive an electrical generator about
80% of all electricity generation in the world is by use of steam
turbines. The steam turbine is a form of heat engine that derives much
of its improvement in thermodynamic efficiency through the use of
multiple stages in the expansion of the steam, which results in a closer
approach to the ideal reversible process.
FRANCIS TURBINE
James B Francis

Reaction turbine

Previously Radial now is Mixed Flow

PARTS OF FRANCIS TURBINE
Casing

Guide Mechanism

Runner

Draft Tube
SECTIONAL VIEW OF FRANCIS TURBINE
WORK DONE




weight of water per second the runner.
acceleration due to gravity.
Velocity of flow at inlet
velocity of flow at outlet
velocity of vane at inlet
velocity of vane at outlet

HYDRAULIC EFFICIENCY
It is defined as the ratio of power available to RUNNER
to power provided at inlet.




Net head available at inlet to runner.
MECHANICAL EFFIFCIENCY
It is defined as the ratio of SHAFT POWER to power
available to the RUNNER.




Shaft power
IMPACT OF WATER STRIKING RUNNER
BLADES
WORKING OF FRANCIS TURBINE
WORKING PROPORTIONS IN FRANCIS
TURBINE.
It is the ratio of width of runner to the diameter of runner



FLOW RATIOIt is the ratio of flow velocity to spouting velocity.




SPEED RATIOIt is the ratio ofvelocity of vane to spouting velocity.
WORKING OF FRANCIS TURBINE
It is a reaction turbine in which water enters the runner
radially
At its outer periphery and leaves axially at its centre.
The water from penstock enters a scroll casing.

From the scroll casing the water passes through speed ring.

From the speed ring water passes through a series of guide
vanes.
The change in direction of flow from radial to axial, as it passes
through the runner, produces a circumferential force on the
runner, which make the runner to rotate.
The torque produced by the runner is transmitted to the
generator through the shaft which is connected to the generator
shaft.
POWER GENERATION
For power generation using francis turbine the turbine is
supplied with high pressure which enter the turbine
radially inflow and leaves axially throughout draft tube.
The energy from water flow is transferred to the shaft of
the turbine in form of torque and rotation.
The turbine shaft is coupled with dynamos or alternators
for power generation.

Francis Turbine Power Plant : A Continuous Hydraulic
System
WORKING PROPERTIES
The ratio of the width B to the diameter D of the runner
represented by n, that is
n = (B/D)
The value of n ranges from 0.10 to 0.45
The ratio of velocity of flow at inlet tip of the vane to the
spouting velocity is known as flow ratio which value
ranges from 0.15 to 0.3.

DRAFTING TUBE
The piping system for a reaction-type hydraulic turbine that allows the turbine to
be set safely above tail water and yet utilize the full head of the site from head
race to tail race.
The Hydro
Turbine
Output
Draft Tube
Example of a conical draft tube coupled to a
horizontal shaft turbine with a cast iron
quarter turn (90 degree) elbow
THE PURPOSE OF DRAFT TUBE IN HYDRAULIC
TURBINES
Draft tube has following purpose
It makes possible the installation of the turbine above the tail race level
without the loss of head.

The velocity of water at the runner outlet is very high. By employing a draft
tube of increasing cross sectional area, the discharge takes place at a much
lower velocity and thus, a part of the kinetic energy that was going as a waste is
recovered as a gain in the pressure head, and this increases the efficiency of the
turbine.

The draft tube prevents the splashing of water coming out of the runner and
guides the water to the tail race.
DRAFT TUBE INSTALL, Technical Animation

DIFFERENT TYPE OF DRAFT TUBES
DRAFT TUBE THEORY AND EFFICIENCY
Out let of draft tube
I
n
l
e
t

o
f

d
r
a
f
t

t
u
b
e


H
s


y

Turbine casing
Tale race
1
1
2

2

Efficiency Of the Draft Tube :
The efficiency of draft tube is defined as the ratio of actual conversion of
kinetic head into pressure head in the draft tube to the kinetic energy head
At the inlet of the draft tube . It is denoted by d .
Kaplan turbine
The Kaplan turbine is a propeller-type water turbine which has
adjustable blades. It was developed in 1913 by the Austrian
professor Viktor Kaplan, who combined automatically-adjusted
propeller blades with automatically-adjusted wicket gates to
achieve efficiency over a wide range of flow and water level.

The Kaplan turbine was an evolution of the Francis turbine. Its
invention allowed efficient power production in low-head
applications that was not possible with Francis turbines.

Kaplan turbines are now widely used throughout the world in
high-flow, low-head power production.
A Bonneville Dam Kaplan turbine after 61 years
of service
DESIGN OF KAPLAN TURBINE
To generate substantial amount of power
from small heads of water using Kaplan
Turbine it is necessary to have large flow rates
through the turbine. Kaplan Turbine is
designed to accommodate the required large
flow rates. Except the alignment of the blades
the construction of the Kaplan Turbine is very
much similar to that of the Francis Turbine.
The overall path of flow of water through the
Kaplan Turbine is from radial at the entrance
to axial at the exit. Similar to the Francis
Turbine, Kaplan Turbine also has a ring of
fixed guide vanes at the inlet to the turbine.
Theory of operation
The Kaplan turbine is an inward flow reaction turbine, which
means that the working fluid changes pressure as it moves
through the turbine and gives up its energy. The design combines
radial and axial features.

The inlet is a scroll-shaped tube that wraps around the turbine's
wicket gate. Water is directed tangentially through the wicket gate
and spirals on to a propeller shaped runner, causing it to spin.

The outlet is a specially shaped draft tube that helps decelerate the
water and recover kinetic energy
. The turbine does not need to be at the lowest point of water flow,
as long as the draft tube remains full of water. A higher turbine
location, however, increases the suction that is imparted on the
turbine blades by the draft tube. The resulting pressure drop may
lead to cavitation.
Variable geometry of the wicket gate and turbine blades
allow efficient operation for a range of flow conditions.
Kaplan turbine efficiencies are typically over 90%, but may
be lower in very low head applications.

Current areas of research include CFD driven efficiency
improvements and new designs that raise survival rates of
fish passing through.

Because the propeller blades are rotated by high-pressure
hydraulic oil, a critical element of Kaplan design is to
maintain a positive seal to prevent emission of oil into the
waterway. Discharge of oil into rivers is not permitted
Vertical Kaplan Turbine (courtesy Voith-
Siemens).
WORKING OF KAPLAN TURBINE
The working head of water is low so large flow rates are
allowed in the Kaplan Turbine. The water enters the
turbine through the guide vanes which are aligned such as
to give the flow a suitable degree of swirl determined
according to the rotor of the turbine. The flow from guide
vanes pass through the curved passage which forces the
radial flow to axial direction with the initial swirl imparted
by the inlet guide vanes which is now in the form of free
vortex.
The axial flow of water with a component of swirl applies
force on the blades of the rotor and looses its momentum,
both linear and angular, producing torque and rotation
(their product is power) in the shaft. The scheme for
production of hydroelectricity by Kaplan Turbine is same as
that for Francis Turbine.
Applications

Kaplan turbines are widely used throughout the world
for electrical power production. They cover the lowest
head hydro sites and are especially suited for high flow
conditions.
Inexpensive micro turbines are manufactured for
individual power production with as little as two feet
of head.Kaplan turbine is low head turbine.
Large Kaplan turbines are individually designed for
each site to operate at the highest possible efficiency,
typically over 90%. They are very expensive to design,
manufacture and install, but operate for decades.

Variations
The Kaplan turbine is the most widely used of the
propeller-type turbines, but several other variations exist:
Propeller turbines have non-adjustable propeller vanes.
They are used in where the range of head is not large.
Commercial products exist for producing several hundred
watts from only a few feet of head. Larger propeller turbines
produce more than 100 MW.
Bulb or Tubular turbines are designed into the water
delivery tube. A large bulb is centered in the water pipe
which holds the generator, wicket gate and runner. Tubular
turbines are a fully axial design, whereas Kaplan turbines
have a radial wicket gate.
Pit turbines are bulb turbines with a gear box. This
allows for a smaller generator and bulb.
Straflo turbines are axial turbines with the generator
outside of the water channel, connected to the
periphery of the runner.
S- turbines eliminate the need for a bulb housing by
placing the generator outside of the water channel.
This is accomplished with a jog in the water channel
and a shaft connecting the runner and generator.



KAPLAN TURBINE
It is axial flow reaction turbine.
In it fraction of available hydraulic energy is converted into kinetic
energy before fluid enters the runner.
Both pressure and velocity changes as the fluid passes through the
runner, at inlet much higher than the outlet.
Runner must be enclosed with water tight casing.
Water is admitted over entire circumference.
Water completely fills the passage between blades and while flowing
between the inlet and outlet section does not work on the blades.
The turbine connects the tail race through draft tube, it maybe
installed above or below the tail race.
The flow regulation is carried out by means of guide vane assembly.
Other component parts are scroll casing, stay ring, runner and draft
tube.
Kaplan Turbine
PELTON TURBINE
It is an Impulse turbine.
The water flows in through a nozzle and it is the jet so produced
which strikes the runner.
In it velocity rate changes and the pressure remains constant
(atmospheric).
It is not necessary to enclose runner water tight, it just prevents
splashing and guides water to tail.
Water is admitted in form of jets.
The turbine does not run full and air has a free access to bucket.
The turbine is installed above the tail race and there is no draft
tube used.
The flow regulation is done by means of needle valve fitted into
the nozzle.
Pelton Turbine
In order to predict the behavior of a turbine
working under varying conditions of head
,speed, output and gate opening, the results are
expressed in terms of quantities which may be
obtained when the head on the turbine is
reduced to unity.
The following are three important unit
quantities which must be studied under unit
head.
1.Unit speed
2.Unit power
3.Unit discharge

Unit Speed :
It is defined as speed of the turbine working under a unit head.
It is denoted by Nu. The expression for unit speed is obtained
as.
N=speed of a turbine under a head H,
H=Head under which turbine is working,
U=Tangential velocity
The tangential velocity absolute velocity of water and head on
turbine are related as
uv
H
Also u=DN/60
So nH
N=K1H
here K1 is constant of proportionality
If Head on turbine becomes unity or H=1,N=NU
Substituting we get NU =K11=K1
So N=NUH

Unit discharge :
It is defined as the discharge passing through the
turbine. It is denoted by the symbol QU. The expression
for unit discharge is given as
Let H=head of water on turbine
Q= discharge passing through turbine when head is H
on turbine
a= area of flow of water
The discharge passing through a given turbine under a
head H Is given by Q= area of flow *velocity
But for a turbine area of flow is constant and velocity is
proportional to H
So Q=K2H
K2 being the constant of proportionality
If H=1 Q=QU
Substituting these values we get
Q=K21=K2
Substituting the value of K2
Q=QUH

Unit Power :
It is defined as power developed by a turbine working under a unit head . It
is denoted by the symbol Pu . The expression for unit power is obtained as
Let H= Head of water on the turbine
P=Power developed by turbine under a head of H
Q=Discharge through turbine under a head H
The overall efficiency o=power developed/water power
=P/(*g*H*Q/1000)
P=o**g*Q*H/1000
Q*H
(H*H)
H^3/2
SO,P=K3H^3/2
K3 being the constant of proportionality
When H=1, P=Pu
So, Pu=K3
Substituting the value of K3,
P=PuH^3/2


Use of unit quantities:
If a turbine is working under different heads, the behavior of the
turbine can be easily known from the values of the unit quantities,
i.e., from the values of unit speed, unit discharge and unit power.
H1,H2,are the heads under which a turbine works,
N1,N2,are the corresponding speeds,
Q1,Q2,are the discharge, and
P1,P2,are the power developed by the turbine.
Using the above equations
Nu = N1/(H1)=N2/(H2)
Qu = Q1/(H1)= Q2/(H2)
Pu = P1/(H1^3/2)= P2/(H2^3/2)
Hence, if the speed discharged and power developed by a turbine
under a head are known, then by using above equations, the speed,
discharge and power developed by the same turbine under a
different head can be obtained easily.
Cavitation
Cavitation is formation of vapour bubbles in the liquid
flowing through any Hydraulic Turbine. Cavitation
occurs when the static pressure of the liquid falls
below its vapour pressure. Cavitation is most likely to
occur near the fast moving blades of the turbines and
in the exit region of the turbines


Cavitation in Francis turbine
Causes of Cavitation

The liquid enters hydraulic turbines at high pressure; this pressure is a
combination of static and dynamic components.
Dynamic pressure of the liquid is by the virtue of flow velocity and the
other component, static pressure, is the actual fluid pressure which the
fluid applies and which is acted upon it.
Static pressure governs the process of vapour bubble formation or
boiling.
Cavitation can occur near the fast moving blades of the turbine where
local dynamic head increases due to action of blades which causes
static pressure to fall.
Cavitation also occurs at the exit of the turbine as the liquid has lost
major part of its pressure heads and any increase in dynamic head will
lead to fall in static pressure causing Cavitation.


Detrimental Effects of Cavitation

The bubbles collapsing near the machine surface
are more damaging and cause erosion on the
surfaces called as cavitation erosion.
The collapses of smaller bubbles create higher
frequency waves than larger bubbles. So, smaller
bubbles are more detrimental to
the hydraulic machines.


Avoiding Cavitation

To avoid cavitation while operating Hydraulic Turbines
parameters should be set such that at any point of flow
static pressure may not fall below the vapor pressure of the
liquid.
These parameters to control cavitation are pressure
head, flow rate and exit pressure of the liquid.
The control parameters for cavitation free operation of
hydraulic turbines can be obtained by conducting tests on
model of the turbine under consideration.
The parameters beyond which cavitation starts and turbine
efficiency falls significantly should be avoided while
operation of hydraulic turbines.


CHARACTERISTIC
CURVES OF HYDRAULIC
TURBINE
six parameters varied during a test on
turbine are speed (N), head (H), discharge (Q),
power (P), overall efficiency (
0
) and gate
opening.
variations of dependent parameters wrt
independent parameters (N, H, Q) are plotted to
obtain characteristic curves.
To determine the exact behaviour of turbines under
varying conditions.
TYPES OF
CHARACTERISTIC CURVES
Main characteristic curves or Constant head curve
Operating characteristic curves or Constant speed
curve
Muschel curves or Constant efficiency curve

MAIN CHARACTERISTIC
CURVES
Maintaining a constant head at particular gate opening
the speed of the turbine is varied by admitting
different rates of flow and power P is measured
mechanically.
From each test the unit power P
u
, the unit speed N
u
,
the unit discharge Q
u
and the overall efficiency
o
are
determined.
Curves plotted between N
u
(as abscissa) and Q
u
, P
u
or

0 ,
head(H) and gate opening kept constant
Also called Constant Head Curves
Constant Head Characteristics
for Pelton Wheel
100% GO
75% GO
50% GO
25% GO
N
u

o

100% GO
75% GO
50% GO
25% GO
N
u

P
u


N is constant
Main Characteristic curves of a Pelton turbine



Constant Head Characteristics
for Francis Turbine
Constant Head Characteristics
for Kaplan Turbine
OPERATING
CHARACTERISTIC CURVES

Tests are conducted at a constant speed varying the head
H and suitably adjusting the discharge Q. The power
developed P is measured mechanically.
The curves drawn are
P vs Q

o
vs Q

o
vs P
u


o max
vs % Full load
Curves plotted between discharge (Q) and power (P) or
efficiency (
0
) , speed is kept constant
Also called Constant Speed Curves
Constant Speed Curves




Constant Speed Curves

ISO-EFFICIENCY CURVES
Plotted from data which can be obtained from the constant
head and constant speed curves.

To determine the zone of constant efficiency so that we can
always run the turbine with maximum efficiency.

Gives a good idea about the performance of the turbine at
various efficiencies

These are curves obtained between speed (N) versus
discharge (Q) and speed versus efficiency (
0
) for different
gate openings.

Also called Muschel Curves.
Iso-efficiency Curves
Constant Efficiency
Curves
Governing of hydraulic turbines
Regulation of discharge with a view to maintain a
synchronous speed of the turbine runner is called
governing of turbine.
Done automatically by means of a governor
Components of A Governor
1. Pendulum or actuator
2. Servo motor.
3. Relay valve
4. Oil Pump
5. Oil Supply Pipes
Governing of Impulse Turbine
Sudden drop in load
Speed increases
the deflector is brought
between nozzle and
buckets
Spear and deflector are
operated automatically
by means of a centrifugal
governer

Load increases
Speed decreases
The piston of servomotor
moves spear to the left
This causes increase in
annular area i.e.
increases discharge

Governing Of Reaction Turbine
The Guide vanes are pivoted and connected by levers and
links to the regulating ring.
The motion of the servo motor piston is transmitted to
the regulating ring which causes all the guide vanes to
turn simultaneously in one direction through the same
angle
Thus the area of flow passage is increased or reduced
according to the load on the turbine.
SURGE TANKS
Surge tank is an additional storage space or reservoir
fitted between the main storage reservoir and the power
house

Usually provided in high or medium-head plants when
there is a considerable distance between the water source
and the power unit

The main functions of the surge tank are
1)To control the pressure variations , due to rapid changes
in the pipeline flow , thus eliminating water hammer
possibilities.

2)To regulate the flow of water to the turbine by
providing necessary retarding head of Water.

Surge tank
TYPES OF SURGE TANKS
1)Simple Surge Tank

2)Restricted Orifice type Surge Tank

3)Differential Surge Tank.

NEW TYPES OF TURBINES

DERIAZ / DIAGONAL TURBINE

TUBULAR TURBINE

BULB TURBINE
DERIAZ TURBINE
Is named after its inventor Paul Deriaz, a hydraulic designer

Water passes through the runner at angle of 45 to the axis, hence
also called diagonal turbine

Similar to a Kaplan turbine as the blades are adjustable but has
inclined blades to make it more suitable for heads between 20m to
150m

Advantages:
(1) smooth and efficient operation over a wide range of head and
load
(2) uniform distribution of pressure and load across the blade
(3) freedom from development of cavitation across the entire
operating range.

Major Deriaz turbine system are installed at plants on both the
Canadian and U.S. sides of Niagara Falls.



Vertical Deriaz turbine
Takami Power Station
TURBINE
A TURBINE is a rotary engine that
Extracts energy from a fluid flow and
Converts it into useful work
TYPES OF TURBINES
1. REACTION TURBINE
2. IMPULSE TURBINE
PELTON TURBINE

FRANCIS TURBINE
TYPES OF TURBINES
1. Tangential flow turbine
2. Radial flow turbine
3. Axial flow turbine
4. Mixed flow turbine

USES OF TURBINES
1. Most get engines rely on turbines
2. In generation of electricity
3. In space shuttles as turbo pumps
4. As turbo charger in aircraft engines
5. In turbo expanders
THANK YOU