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PRIMARY HEALTH CARE 1

CONCEPT OF MAN
The Human as the Biosocial

 Man as Biological
being
 Man as a social
being
• Contemporary science considers the
human being on the basis of two
different dimensions of his existence:
the biological and the social. Human
beings appeared on earth as a result
of a long process of development. As
biological creatures, they still retain a
close genetic connection with the
animal world. Man's organism has
many features in common with the
higher animals
• Man got ahead of the mammals to the
intensive development and differentiation
of the cerebral cortex. The characteristic
anatomical and physiological features of
the human being are erect posture, free
upper extremities, adapted for using and
making tools, and advanced development
of the means of communication. The need
to maintain balance in the erect posture
caused a certain curvature of the spinal
column and a shift in the general centre of
gravity
DEFINITION OF
TERMS
Culture :

• The system of shared beliefs,


values, customs, behaviours, and
artifacts that the members of
society use to cope with their
world and with one another, and
that are transmitted from
generation to generation through
learning.
PERSONALITY
• “PERSONALITY is a STABLE set of
INTRAPSYCHIC (INTERNAL)
characteristics and tendencies that
determines the psychological
behavior of people. The behavior
determined by personality is
RELATIVELY CONSISTENT over
time.”
Family
• A family is a primary social group
in any society, typically consisting
of a man and a woman, or any
two individuals who wish to share
their lives together in a long-term
commitment to one another, bring
up offspring and usually reside in
the same dwelling.
Religion
• Religion originates in an attempt to
represent and order beliefs, feelings,
imaginings and actions that arise in
response to direct experience of the
sacred and the spiritual. As this
attempt expands in its formulation
and elaboration, it becomes a
process that creates meaning for
itself on a sustaining basis, in terms
of both its originating experiences
and its own continuing responses.
Society
1. the aggregate of people living
together in a more or less
ordered community.

2. a particular community of
people living in a country or
region, and having shared
customs, laws, and
organizations.
3. (also high society) people who are
fashionable, wealthy, and influential,
regarded as a distinct social group. an
organization or club formed for a particular
purpose or activity. the situation of being in
the company of other people.

4. an organization or club formed for a


particular purpose or activity.

5. the situation of being in the company of


other people.
Disease

• DISEASE [disease] impairment


of the normal state or
functioning of the body as a
whole or of any of its parts.
• diseases are acute, producing
severe symptoms that terminate
after a short time, e.g.,
pneumonia; others are chronic
disorders, e.g., arthritis, that last
a long time; and still others
return periodically and are
termed recurrent, e.g., malaria.
• One of the most common bases for
classifying disease is according to
cause. External factors that produce
disease are infectious agents,
including both microscopic
organisms ( bacteria , viruses , and
protozoans ) and macroscopic ones (
fungi and various parasitic worms ).
Only infectious diseases can be
transmitted—by humans, certain
animals and insects, and infected
objects and substances (see
communicable diseases ).
• Other external agents that can cause
disease are chemical and physical
agents (drugs, poisons, radiation),
which can be encountered in specific
work situations, deficiency of
nutrients in the environment, and
physical injury. Diseases that arise
from internal (endogenous) causes
include hereditary abnormalities
(disorders inherited from one or both
parents),
• congenital diseases (disturbances in the
development of a normal embryo),
allergies (hypersensitive reactions to
substances in the environment), endocrine
disorders (generally either overfunctioning
or underfunctioning of an endocrine
gland), circulatory disorders (diseases of
the heart and blood vessels), and
neoplasms, or tumors (masses of
abnormally proliferating cells).
• Degenerative diseases occur as a result
of the natural aging of the body tissues.
Finally, a wide range of diseases are
attributed to, or at least influenced by,
emotional disturbances. Psychoses and
neuroses result in disturbed behavior; the
so-called psychosomatic diseases
(certain kinds of colitis, many forms of
headaches) are thought to be brought
about by emotional stress.
WHO definition of Health

• Health is a state of complete


physical, mental and social
well-being and not merely the
absence of disease or
infirmity.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs

• Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs motivational


model
• Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of
Needs model in 1940-50's USA, and the
Hierarchy of Needs theory remains valid today
for understanding human motivation,
management training, and personal
development

• Indeed, Maslow's ideas surrounding the


Hierarchy of Needs concerning the
responsibility of employers to provide a
workplace environment that encourages and
enables employees to fulfil their own unique
potential (self-actualization) are today more
relevant than ever.
• Abraham Maslow's book Motivation and
Personality, published in 1954 (second
edition 1970) introduced the Hierarchy of
Needs, and Maslow extended his ideas
in other work, notably his later book
Toward A Psychology Of Being, a
significant and relevant commentary,
which has been revised in recent times
by Richard Lowry, who is in his own right
a leading academic in the field of
motivational psychology.
• Abraham Maslow was born in New York
in 1908 and died in 1970, although
various publications appear in Maslow's
name in later years. Maslow's PhD in
psychology in 1934 at the University of
Wisconsin formed the basis of his
motivational research, initially studying
rhesus monkeys. Maslow later moved to
New York's Brooklyn College. Maslow's
original five-stage Hierarchy of Needs
model is clearly and directly attributable to
Maslow; later versions with added
motivational stages are not so clearly
attributable. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
• has been extended through interpretation of
Maslow's work by other people, and these
augmented models and diagrams are shown
as the adapted seven and eight-stage
Hierarchy of Needs models below. There is
some uncertainty as to how and when these
additional three stages (six, seventh and
eighth - 'Cognitive', 'Aesthetic', and
'Transcendence') came to be added, and by
whom, to the Hierarchy of Needs model,
and many people consider Maslow's
'original' five-stage Hierarchy Of Needs
model to be the definitive (and perfectly
adequate) concept.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs

• Each of us is motivated by needs.


Our most basic needs are inborn,
having evolved over tens of
thousands of years. Abraham
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs helps
to explain how these needs
motivate us all.
• Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs states
that we must satisfy each need in
turn, starting with the first, which
deals with the most obvious needs
for survival itself.

• Only when the lower order needs of


physical and emotional well-being
are satisfied are we concerned with
the higher order needs of influence
and personal development
• Conversely, if the things that satisfy our
lower order needs are swept away, we are
no longer concerned about the
maintenance of our higher order needs.

• Maslow's original Hierarchy of Needs model


was developed between 1943-1954, and
first widely published in Motivation and
Personality in 1954. At this time the
Hierarchy of Needs model comprised five
needs. This original version remains for
most people the definitive Hierarchy of
Needs.
Self-actualization
personal growth and
fulfilment

Esteem needs
achievement, status,
responsibility, reputation
Belongingness and Love needs
family, affection, relationships, work
group, etc

Safety needs
protection, security, order, law, limits,
stability, etc
Biological and Physiological needs
basic life needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex,
sleep, etc.
1970's adapted hierarchy of needs
model, including cognitive and
aesthetic needs
Self-
actualisation
personal growth
and fulfilment

Aesthetic needs
beauty, balance, form, etc

Cognitive needs
knowledge, meaning, self-awareness

Esteem needs
achievement, status, responsibility, reputation

Belongingness and Love needs


family, affection, relationships, work group, etc

Safety needs
protection, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc

Biological and Physiological needs


basic life needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.
Adapted 8 level
Hierarchy of Needs diagram, based
on Maslow's theory

1990's adapted hierarchy of


needs including
transcendence needs
Transcendence
helping others to self-actualise

Self-actualisation
personal growth, self-fulfilment

Aesthetic needs
beauty, balance, form, etc

Cognitive needs
knowledge, meaning, self-awareness

Esteem needs
achievement, status, responsibility, reputation

Belongingness and Love needs


family, affection, relationships, work group, etc

Safety needs
protection, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc

Biological and Physiological needs


basic life needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.
THE END