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Performance Analysis of SG Furnace

P M V Subbarao
Associate Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department
I I T Delhi
Thermal Performance analysis of A complex Geometry..
Analysis of the Last but One Effect
Final effect : T
fl
gets changed to Furnace Exit
GasTemperature.
Due to energy lost by hot gases.
Loss due to Environment
Energy absorbed by water walls
Energy lost by hot gasses from flame to exit.
{ } kW T T C m Q
FEGT ad p
g
loss g

,
=
- -
{ } kW T T C
F
A
m Q
FEGT ad p
act
fuel
loss g
1
,

|
.
|

\
|
+ =
- -
T
flame

T
fe

(

=
- - -
fe ad loss g
Q Q Q
,

i j
Pj Pj Ri Ri
h Y h X
Mixed Adiabatic Temperature of the Gases

i j
Pj Pj Ri Ri
h Y h X

} }

i j
T
T
P Pi p Pj
T
T
R Ri p Ri
ad
ref
R
ref
dT c Y dT c X
, ,
kgK kJ
T
C
T
C
T
C C c
p
/
1000 1000 1000
3
3
2
2 1 0
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
Analyses of Coal
Computation of Adiabatic Temperature
Ey
i
p
i

kJ/kmol.K
Moles of Products of Combustion
Heat absorbed = (energy liberated energy of gas at furnace exit).
(

=
- - -
fe ad abs
Q Q Q
T
flame

T
fe

is a loss factor.
{ } kW h h m Q
fw steam
steam
abs
=
- -
Analysis of the Last Effect
loss g
abs
Q
Q
,
-
-
=
Define
| | { } 1
4 4
FEGT ad p
act
fuel
wa fl eff abs
T T C
F
A
m kW T T AF Q
|
.
|

\
|
+ = =
- -
oc
Finally the successful radiative action to the water walls:
| | { }
4 4
fw steam
steam
wa fl eff abs
h h m T T AF Q = =
- -
oc
Divide thought by T
ad
4
:
Define :
& ,
ad
wa
wa
ad
FEGT
FEGT
ad
fl
fl
T
T
T
T
T
T
= = = u u u
1 1
3 4
4
4
4
)
`

|
.
|

\
|
+ =
(
(

=
- -
ad
FEGT
ad
p
act
fuel
ad
wa
ad
fl
eff abs
T
T
T
C
F
A
m kW
T
T
T
T
AF Q oc
| | { } 1 1
3
4 4
FEGT
ad
p
act
fuel
wa fl eff abs
T
C
F
A
m AF Q u u u oc
|
.
|

\
|
+ = =
- -
| |
1
1
4 4
3
wa fl
ad
p
act
fuel
eff
FEGT
T
C
F
A
m
AF
u u

oc
u
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
-
Furnace exit temperature is proportional to Flame Temperature.
n
FEGT fl
u u
n
fl
n
wa
u u << &
Furnace Exit Gas Temperature
Temperature of gasses leaving the furnace.
An important furnace performance parameter.
Defines the ratio of furnace heat absorption to later (convective) heat
absorption.
High FEGT Compact furnace.
Due to increase in fouling of water wall tubes:
FEGT < Ash Deformation Temperature.
FEGT = AST 100
FEGT < 1100
0
C Strong slag
FEGT < 1200
0
C Moderate slag
1225


1200

1175


1150


1125


1100
0
C

It is very essential to know the mass flow rates of
Fuel, Air and various flue gases for further
Performance Analysis!
Computation of FEGT for Indian SG & Coals
Performance of Analysis of Furnace
Get Fuel Ultimate Analysis.
Compute Equivalent Chemical Formula.
Select recommended Exhaust Gas composition.
Carry out first law analysis to calculate Adiabatic
Combustion Temperature.
Total number of moles of wet exhaust gas for 100 kg of
fuel : n
ex.gas
HV of fuel +n
air
h
air
= En
ex. Gas
h
f,gas

Calculate Adiabatic Flame Temperature.
Calculate total heat transfer area of furnace, A
fur
& cross
sectional area of furnace A
cross

FEGT of A Clean Furnace : A Correlation
Thermal efficiency factor, .
M Temperature Field Coefficient
T
ad
Adiabatic combustion temperature
T
FEGT
Furnace Exit Gas Temperature
A
fur
Total surface area of furnace
m
c
Flow rate of fuel
6 . 0 / 1
3
1
1
1
(

)
`

|
.
|

\
|
+
= +
-
FEGT
ad
ad fu
p
c
cross fur
T
T
M T
C m
F
A
A A
oc
|
Economizer
Feed Water
Thermal Structure of Steam Generator
Final Super Heater
TIT
FEGT : A Measure of Instantaneous Cleanliness of Furnace
Walls
Turbine Inlet Steam Temperature Control System
In practice, the turbine governing system maintains
required main steam flow rate for a given load on the
turbine.
An appropriate control system is used to maintain turbine
inlet temperature(TIT) within specified safe limits.
The control of TIT is generally carried out by injecting
water in the path of super heaters.
This mixing chamber (attemperator) is placed at upstream
of final super heater.
TI
m

attemp
m

sat
m

attemp TI sat
m m m

=
attemp
m

Flow controller
( ) ( )
PSH n evaporatio spray mainsteam act abs
h h m m Q A + =

,
{ } 1
, , act FEGT ad p
act
fuel
loss g
T T C
F
A
m Q
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
- -
loss g
abs
Q
Q
,
-
-
=
( ) ( )
PSH n evaporatio spray mainsteam
T
T
p
act
fuel
h h m m dT c
F
A
m
act FEGT
ad
A + =
|
.
|

\
|
+
}
-

,
1
Furnace Cleanliness Factor
( ) ( )
}
A +
= =
FEGT
ad
T
T
p gas
PSH n evaporatio spray mainsteam
cap abs
act abs
dT c m
h h m m
Q
Q
CF

,
,
Thus the Real FEGT and capacity FEGT can be calculated using
the plant data and instantaneous cleanliness factor can be calculated
using following formula:
Uses of Actual FEGT Calculations for Performance
Monitoring and Analysis
Superheat steam temperature control : The final steam
temperature is maintained by keeping the FEGT within the
allowable limit.
Coal ash corrosion control: Maintaining the FEGT a minimum
of 60
0
C, below the ash softening temperature can reduce the
potential of super heater coal ash corrosion .
Control of NOx production : It is essential for the operator to
maintain the original design FEGT to minimize other side
effects.
Effect of FEGT on NO
x
Emissions
1504 1550
16% rise in NO
x
due to 3% increase in FEGT.
Uses of Real FEGT Calculations for Performance
Monitoring and Analysis
Soot blowing :FEGT can be used as the primary indicator to
establish the scheme for automatic soot blowing (cleaning of heat
transfer surfaces) or to alert the operator to start the manual soot-
blowing operation.
If FEGT exceeds the original design value, this indicates that the
furnace is dirty and the operator should initiate the furnace soot
blowing and the soot blowing should be stopped when FEGT has
been reduced below the original design value.
The over-blowing in the furnace is wasting the energy and can
also create soot blower erosion problem in the water wall tube
ARRANGEMENT OF SOOT BLOWERS IN A 500MW
Basic Geometry of A Furnace
A
c
top furnace
q
LHV m
b a A
-
= =
.
2
.
E A
bottm furnace
=
Heat exchange by Radiation Through Top
opening of furnace:
surface bottom top furnace
top furnace
gas ad rad top
A A A
A
Q Q
+ +
=
.
.
, ,