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CHAPTER 2: BASIC

LAW
• Kirchhoff’s Law
• Series Parallel Circuit
• Voltage and Current Division
• Wye-Delta Transformations
Nodes, Branches & Loops
• Elements of electric circuits can be
interconnected in several way.

• Need to understand some basic concepts


of network topology.

• Branch: Represents a single element


(i.e. voltage, resistor
& etc)

• Node: The meeting point between


two or more branches.

• Loop: Any closed path in a circuit.

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Nodes, Branches & Loops
• Example 3:
• Determine how many branches and nodes for the
following circuit.

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Nodes, Branches & Loops
• Example 4:
• Determine how many branches and nodes for the
following circuit.

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KCL
• KCL : the algebraic sum of currents entering a node (or
a closed boundary) is zero.

∑i
• N : number of branches connected
n =1
n =0 to the node
• in : the nth current entering (or leaving) the node

NH BEE1113 Chapter 2 : Basic Laws 5


Kirchoff’s Laws

• .

• Current enters = +ve

• Current leaves = -ve

• ∑ current entering = ∑ current


leaving

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KCL
• sum of currents entering the node =
sum of current leaving the node

iin = iout
i1 + i3 + i4 = i2 + i5

i1 + (−i2 ) + i3 + i4 + (−i5 ) = 0

NH BEE1113 Chapter 2 : Basic Laws 7


Kirchoff’s Laws
• Example 5:
• Given the following circuit, write the equation for
currents.

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Kirchoff’s Laws
• Example 6:
• Current in a closed boundary

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Kirchoff’s Laws
• Example 9:
• Use KCL to obtain currents i1, i2, and i3 in the circuit.

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KVL
• KVL : the algebraic sum of all voltages around a
close loop path (or loop) is zero.

∑v
m =1
m =0
• M : number of voltages in the loop (or the number
of branches in the loop)
• vm : the mth voltage

NH BEE1113 Chapter 2 : Basic Laws 11


KVL
• sum of voltage drop = sum of voltage rise
vdrop = vrise
• KVL can be applied either in clockwise or
anti-clockwise around the loop

v2 + v3 + v5 = v1 + v4

− v1 + v2 + v3 − v4 + v5 = 0

NH BEE1113 Chapter 2 : Basic Laws 12


Kirchoff’s Laws
• Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)

• Applied to a loop in a circuit.

• According to KVL The algebraic sum of voltage (rises


and drops) in a loop is zero.

+ v1 - +
+
vs V2
-
- v3 + -

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Kirchoff’s Laws
• Example 10:
• Use KVL to obtain v1, v2 and v3.

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Kirchoff’s Laws
• Example 11:
• Use KVL to obtain v1, and v2.

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Kirchoff’s Laws
• Example 12:
• Calculate power dissipated in 5Ω resistor.

10

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Series Resistors & Voltage
Division
• Series resistors  same current flowing
through them.

 v1= iR1& v2 = iR2


 KVL:
 v-v1-v2=0
 v= i(R1+R2)
 i = v/(R1+R2 ) =v/Req
 or v= i(R1+R2 ) =iReq
 iReq = R1+R2

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Series Resistors & Voltage
Division

• Voltage Division:

• Previously:
• v1 = iR1 & v2 = iR2
• i = v/(R1+R2 )

• Thus:
• v1=vR1/(R1+R2)
• v2=vR2/(R1+R2)

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Parallel Resistors & Current Division

• Parallel resistors  Common voltage across it.

 v = i1R1 = i2R2
 i = i1+ i2
= v/R1+ v/R2
= v(1/R1+1/R2)
 =v/Req
 v =iReq
 1/Req = 1/R1+1/R2
 Req= R1R2 / (R1+R2 )

19/40 11/21/09
Parallel Resistors & Current Division

• Current Division:

• Previously:
• v = i1R1 = i2R2
• v=iReq = iR1R2 / (R1+R2 )
• and i1 = v /R1 & i2 =v/ R2

• Thus:
• i1= iR2/(R1+R2)
• i2= iR1/(R1+R2 )

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Conductance (G)

• Series conductance:
• 1/Geq = 1/G1 +1/G2+…

• Parallel conductance:
• Geq = G1 +G2+…

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Voltage and Current Division
• Example 13:
• Calculate v1, i1, v2 and i2.

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Voltage and Current Division
• Example 14:
• Determine i1 through i4.

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Voltage and Current Division
• Example 15:
• Determine v and i.

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Voltage and Current Division
• Example 16:
• Determine I1 and Vs if the current through 3Ω
resistor = 2A.

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Voltage and Current Division
• Example 17:
• Determine Rab.

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Voltage and Current Division
• Example 18:
• Determine vx and power absorbed by the 12Ω
resistor.

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Wye-Delta Transformations
• Given the circuit, how to combine R1 through R6?
• Resistors are neither in series nor parallel…

• Use wye-delta transformations

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Wye-Delta Transformations

Y network T network

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Wye-Delta Transformations

Δ network π network

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Wye-Delta Transformations

• Delta (Δ) to wye (y) conversion.

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Wye-Delta Transformations
• Thus Δ to y conversion ::

• R1 = RbRc/(Ra+Rb+Rc)

• R2 = RaRc/(Ra+Rb+Rc)

• R3 = RaRb/(Ra+Rb+Rc)

# Each resistors in y network is


the product of two adjacent
branches divide by the 3 Δ
resistors

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Wye-Delta Transformations
• Y to Δ conversions:

• Ra = (R1R2 +R2 R3 +R1R3)/R1

• Rb = (R1R2 +R2 R3 +R1R3)/R2

• Rc= (R1R2 +R2 R3 +R1R3)/R3

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Wye-Delta Transformations
• Example 19:
• Transform the circuit from Δ to y.

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Wye-Delta Transformations
• Example 20:
• Determine Rab.

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Wye-Delta Transformations
• Example 21:
• Determine Io.

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Series Connection

• R1 and R2 in series
• Same current i flows in R1 and R2

NH BEE1113 Chapter 2 : Basic Laws 37


Series Connection
iR1 = iR2 = i
v1 = iR1
v2 = iR 2
v = v1 + v2
v = i ( R1 + R2 )
v = iR eq
Req = R1 + R2

NH BEE1113 Chapter 2 : Basic Laws 38


Series Connection

N
Req = R1 + R2 + .... + RN = ∑ Rn
n =1

• Req connected in series : the sum


of individual resistances

NH BEE1113 Chapter 2 : Basic Laws 39


Parallel Connection

• R1 and R2 in parallel
• Same voltage across R1 and R2

NH BEE1113 Chapter 2 : Basic Laws 40


v R1 =v R2 =v
Parallel
v
Connection i1 =
R1
v
i2 =
R2
i =i1 +i2
v v
i = +
R1 R2
v
i =
Req
R1 R2
Req =
R1 +R2

NH BEE1113 Chapter 2 : Basic Laws 41


Parallel Connection
R1 R2
Req =
R1 + R2
1 1 1 1
= + +... +
Req R1 R2 RN

• Req connected in parallel : the


product of their resistances divided
by their sum

NH BEE1113 Chapter 2 : Basic Laws 42


Voltage Divider

R1
v1 = v
R1 + R2
R2
v2 = v
R1 + R2
Rn
vn = v
R1 + R2 + .... + RN

NH BEE1113 Chapter 2 : Basic Laws 43


Current Divider

R2
i1 = i
R1 + R2
R1
i2 = i
R1 + R2

NH BEE1113 Chapter 2 : Basic Laws 44


Delta – Wye Conversion

NH BEE1113 Chapter 2 : Basic Laws 45


Delta – Wye Conversion

Rb Rc
R1 =
Ra + Rb + Rc
Rc Ra
R2 =
Ra + Rb + Rc
Ra Rb
R3 =
Ra + Rb + Rc

NH BEE1113 Chapter 2 : Basic Laws 46


Wye – Delta Conversion

NH BEE1113 Chapter 2 : Basic Laws 47


Wye-Delta Conversion

R1 R2 + R2 R3 + R3 R1
Ra =
R1
R1 R2 + R2 R3 + R3 R1
Rb =
R2
R1 R2 + R2 R3 + R3 R1
Rc =
R3

NH BEE1113 Chapter 2 : Basic Laws 48


Conversion Formulas

• The Y and ∆ networks are


balanced when;
R1 = R2 = R3 = RY
Ra = Rb = Rc = R∆
R∆
RY = R∆ = 3RY
3

NH BEE1113 Chapter 2 : Basic Laws 49