Sei sulla pagina 1di 96

Hooked

Nir Eyal
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

When my
boss tells me
to increase
engagement,
Im like...
Qui ckTi me and a
GIF decompressor
are needed to see thi s pi cture.
Source: runningastartup.tumblr.com
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Why cant we do it
like _______?
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Patterns
Photo Credit: shaire productions
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Vitamins or
painkillers?
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Selling painkillers
- Obvious need - stop pain
- Quantifiable market
- Monetizable
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Selling vitamins
- Emotional need, not efficacy
- Makes me feel good knowing...
- Unknown market
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Vitamins or
painkillers?
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Habit is when
not doing
causes pain.
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Habit-forming technology
Vitamin Painkiller
Pleasure
seeking
Pain
alleviation
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Creating pain?
(more of an itch)
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal


hab it
/habit/

Noun, Def:
A behavior that occurs nearly or
completely without conscious
thought.
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

My goal
If your business model requires habits
...
... a pattern intended to help you form
better product hypotheses ...
... to increase odds of success.
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal


the hook
/T

H ho

ok/

Noun, Def:
An experience designed to connect
a solution to the users problem with
enough frequency to form a habit.
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Hooks
Low
engagement
High
engagement
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

The Hook
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Remember: ATARI
A - A hook has 4 parts:
T - Trigger
A - Action
R - Reward
I - Investment
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Triggers
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

The first step to connect
a solution to the users
problem
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Habits arent created,
they are built upon
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Triggers
External Internal

Alarms
Calls-to-action
Emails
Stores
Authority


Emotions
Routines
Situations
Places
People

What to do next
is in the trigger
What to do next is in
the users head
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Dissatisfied
Indecisive
Lost
Tense
Fatigued
Inferior
Fear of loss
Bored
Lonesome
Confused
Powerless
Discouraged
Emotions are frequent
internal triggers
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal


People with
depression check
email more.
Source: Kotikalapudi et al 2012,Associating Depressive Symptoms in College Students with Internet Usage Using Real Internet Data
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

When I feel... ... I use

Lonely
Hungry
Unsure
Anxious
Lost
Mentally fatigued


Facebook
Yelp, GrubHub
Google
Email
GPS
ESPN, Glam
Internal triggers in tech
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Know your
customers internal
trigger.
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Every time the user
(internal trigger)
they use (product).
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Instagram triggers
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Instagram triggers
External Internal
- FB and Twitter
- App notifications
- App icon


- Fear of losing the
moment
- Bored, lonesome,
fear of missing out

NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

In summary
Triggers are the first step of the hook.
The designer informs what to do next
through external triggers.
The user informs what to do next
through internal triggers.
Emotions provide frequent internal
triggers.
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Actions
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal


when
doing < thinking =
action

NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

trigger
(SUCCESS!)
trigger
(FAIL!)
ability
m
o
t
i
v
a
t
i
o
n

Source: Dr. BJ Fogg, Stanford University
B = m.a.t.
Fogg Behavior Model
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal


mo ti va tion
/mt vSHn/

Noun, Def:
The energy for action
- Edward Deci
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

m
o
t
i
v
a
t
i
o
n

Motivators of behavior
Seek:
Pleasure
Hope
Acceptance
Avoid:
Pain
Fear
Rejection
Source: Dr. BJ Fogg, Stanford University
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal


a bil i ty
/bilit/

Noun, Def:
The capacity to do.

NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

ability
How increase
capacity to do
something?
Source: Dr. BJ Fogg, Stanford University
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

ability
Factors of ability

Time
Money
Physical effort
Brain cycles
Social deviance
Non-routine
Source: Dr. BJ Fogg, Stanford University
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Simple online actions in
anticipation of reward
Log-In (Facebook, Wordpress)
Search (Google, Expedia, Yelp)
Open (Twitter, SMS, email)
Scroll (Pinterest, Instagram)
Play (YouTube, online games)
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Twitter homepage
2009
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

2010
Twitter homepage
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

2013
Twitter homepage
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Evolution of Twitter
2009
2010
2013
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

In summary
Action is the second step of the hook.
The action is the simplest behavior the
user can do before getting rewarded.
To increase behavior:
Ensure a clear trigger is present.
Increase ability by making it easier.
Align with the right motivator.
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Variable rewards
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

The brain and rewards
Source: Olds and Milner, 1945
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Reward system stimulators
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Were Olds and Milner
stimulating pleasure?
(not exactly)
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

The stress of desire
Dopamine system activated by
anticipation of reward
And dampened when reward achieved
Source: Knutson et al 2001
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Supercharge the
stress of desire...

But how?
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Exactly!
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

The unknown is fascinating
Our brains are prediction machines.
We seek to understand cause and effect.
Variability messes with our heads.
Causes us to increase focus and
engagement.
...and oh yes, its habit forming.
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

The endless search
B.F. Skinner showed intermittent
rewards increase response rate.
Dopamine drives the search.
Variability spikes dopamine.
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Variable rewards
the
Hunt
the
Tribe
the
Self
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Search for
social rewards
the
Tribe
- Cooperation
- Competition
- Recognition
- Acceptance
- Sex
- Empathetic joy
Source: Adapted from Malone and Lepper, 1987
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Rewards of the tribe
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Rewards of the tribe
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Search for resources
the
Hunt
- Food
- Money
- Information
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Rewards of the hunt:
search for resources
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Rewards of the hunt:
search for information
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Dare you not to
scroll
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Search for sensation
the
Self
- Mastery
- Consistency
- Competency
- Completion
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Rewards of the self:competency
and mastery
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Rewards of the self:competency
and mastery
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Some words of warning!
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Must still solve pain
Variable rewards are not a free pass.
You still need to give the user what they
came for.
(see internal trigger and motivation)
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

No engagement
without autonomy
People resist being controlled.
Autonomy is a pre-requisite.
If lost, you fail.
Source: See Deci and Ryan on Self-Determination Theory
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Finite rewards decay
As rewards become predictable, they
become less interesting
Finite Variability Infinite Variability
- Single-player games

- Consumption of
media
- Multi-player games

- Creation of content

- Communities


Source: See hedonic treadmill
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

In summary
Variable reward is the third step of the
hook.
Reward types:
Tribe
Hunt
Self
Maintain feeling of autonomy, find
infinite variability and alleviate user pain
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Investments
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Investment
Where user does a bit of
work.
Pays with something of
value: time, money,
social capital, effort,
emotional commitment,
personal data ...
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Done in anticipation of future rewards
Makes next pass through hook more
likely by:
Loading the next trigger
Storing value
Creating preference
Investment increase
likelihood of next pass
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Loading the next trigger
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Pinterest
T A
VR
I
Email notification
Log-in
Communication (Tribe)
Collecting (Hunt)
Pin, Re-Pin,
Like, Comment
Collecting, lonesome,
seeking connection ...
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Storing value
Content
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Storing value
Data
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Storing value
Followers
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Storing value
Reputation
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Creating
preference
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Ease of use
Source: Langer, 1975
People who pick
lottery numbers
assign greater
odds.
Labor increases value
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Labor is love
Value own work almost as much as an experts.
Even if others dont.
Source: Ariely, Mochon and Norton, 2012
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

As we invest ...
we seek to be
consistent with past
behaviors...
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Little investments,
big results
Group 1:
17% accepted
Group 2:
76% accepted
Source: Freedman & Fraser, 1966
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

...investments shape
our tastes,
preferences and
identities.
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

In summary
Investment is the fourth step of the
hook.
Small amounts of work to increase the
likelihood of the user returning by:
Loading the next trigger
Storing value
Creating preference
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal


the hook
/T

H ho

ok/

Noun, Def:
An experience designed to connect
a solution to the users problem with
enough frequency to form a habit.
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Remember: ATARI
A - A hook has 4 parts:
T - Trigger
A - Action
R - Reward
I - Investment
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Hooks create associations
- External triggers
- Low preference
- Low engagement
- Internal triggers
- High preference
- High engagement
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Hook model canvas
Trigger Action
Variable Reward Investment
3. What is the simplest behavior
in anticipation of reward?
1. Internal trigger - What does
the user really want?
2. External trigger - What gets the user
to the product?
4. Is the reward fulfilling, yet
leaves the user wanting more?
5. What is the bit of work done to
increase the likelihood of
returning?
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

What are you going
to do with this?
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Cultivate meaning
The world is full of problems to fix.
Help others find meaning.
Engage them in something important.
Build the change you want to see in the
world.
NIR EYAL
NirAndFar.com
@nireyal

Please raise your
phones
I love feedback.
Please go here: www.OpinionTo.us
Help make this presentation better
and ... get slides.
Thank you!