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Philippine Sanitation Alliance

Low-Cost Wastewater Treatment Options
Engineer Carlito Santos, Jr.
Philippine Sanitation
Helping cities and the private sector
implement Clean Water Act
• 3 year project funded by USAID, led by AECOM
International Development
• Promoting low-cost, low-maintenance
wastewater treatment technologies (housing,
markets, hospitals, hotels/restaurants)
• Promoting improved sanitation and hand
washing through information and media
• Working with four new cities (Cagayan de Oro,
Meycauayan, Sta. Rosa, Zamboanga) and six
LINAW cities (Calbayog, Dumaguete, Iloilo,
Malaybalay, Muntinlupa, Naga)
Technology Matrix
• Presents common wastewater
technologies for:
– Pretreatment: grease, grit and
trash control
– Primary treatment: Septic
tanks and other devices
– Secondary treatment: natural
and mechanical systems
• Compares cost of equipment,
operation and maintenance, and
space needed
Pretreatment Device
Grease Interceptor
• Removes grease from
wastewater before
treatment in a septic
• Useful for restaurants,
commercial kitchens
• Install outside of the
facility and size
according to Plumbing
Pretreatment Device
Trash Trap
• Removes solids and
trash from wastewater
• Useful at markets for
meat, fish and vegetable
preparation areas
• Install where it will be
easy to clean and
Pretreatment Device
Bar Screen
• Removes rags, twigs
and other solids from
the wastewater before
entering the treatment
• Some are manual
and some mechanical.
• Always observe
safety procedures.
Turn off power prior to
Primary Treatment System

• Decomposes high
strength organic waste
to generate methane
• Useful for hog and
animal raising, septage
treatment, food
• Methane can be
captured and used as
an energy source
Primary Treatment Device
Septic Tank
• Sealed, multi-
chambered tank used
to partially treat
• Allows heavy solids
to settle to form sludge
• Fats, oil and grease
float to form scum
• Must be cleaned
every 3 to 5 years to
function properly
Primary Treatment Device
Anaerobic Baffled Reactor
g a s / liq u id /s o lid s
P r e - tr e a te d
s o lid m e d ia p h a s e s e p a r a to r
in flu e n t e fflu e n t
u p f lo w
cham ber
( p la s it c
( b e v e r a g e c r a te s ) V e r tic a l b a ff le s
g u tte r • Multi-chambered
s e ttlin g z o n e

tank used to partially

treat sewage
• Sewage flows up
g r a n u la r
s lu d g e
s lu d g e b la n k e t
blanket where solids
are trapped
d o w n flo w
cham ber
B a ffle d M o d u le •U ALow-maintenance,
S B M o d u le

low O&M costs

•Can be built under
Secondary Treatment Device

Sequencing Batch Reactor

• Mechanical system
for larger volumes of
• Performs treatment
processes in one tank
• Lower cost to install
and operate than
mechanical systems
Secondary Treatment
Planted Gravel Filter
• Treats septic tank or
ABR effluent so that it
may be discharged
• All water stays under
the surface of the
gravel so no odor or
• Plants add beauty
and flowers may attract
birds and butterflies
Secondary Treatment
Surface Flow Wetlands
• Used for larger
developments, golf
courses or other large
sources of wastewater
• Require large land
• Can create habitat
for birds, wildlife
Secondary Treatment
Media Filter
• Wastewater flows from
septic tanks to media
filter for further
• Media can be sand,
gravel, cocopeat, or
• Can be above or below
ground depending on
land availability
Secondary Treatment
Sewage Lagoon
• Sewage is treated in
open ponds through
natural processes
• Can be designed
without the need for
electricity or chemicals
• Locate far from houses
as odor and mosquitoes
can be a nuisance
Secondary Treatment
Leach Fields
• Long trenches filled
with gravel to dispose
of septic tank effluent
• Soils must not
contain too much sand
or clay
• Groundwater must be
deep enough to
prevent contamination
Thank you!

Engineer Carito Santos, Jr.

Philippine Sanitation Alliance
AECOM International Development
Suite 4022, Golden Rock Bldg.
168 Salcedo Street
Legaspi Village, Makati City 1229
Tel/Fax (632) 819-0687
Cell: 0922-829-7696