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Figure 1 6

th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
Considerations for COREX

Adoption
Development
FINEX

Operation Philosophies
COREX

Presentation - Kurt Wieder
OPERATION COMPARISON AND DEVELOPMENT
Figure 2 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003


Considerations
for
COREX

Adoption
Figure 3 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
Contents


- Basic Considerations
- Present Status COREX

Technology
- Future Targets
COREX

-Considerations for Adoption


Figure 4 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
Basic Considerations for Adoption

High raw material flexibility
- 0 % coke
- high lump ore rates
- utilisation of raw materials available locally

Hot metal quality comparable to BF easy integration
Lower hot metal production costs compared to BF route
Exportgas utilization
Environmental benefits
Obtain Know How
COREX

-Considerations for Adoption


Figure 5 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003



Present Status COREX

Technology
COREX

-Considerations for Adoption


Figure 6 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
COREX

PLANTS WORLDWIDE
SALDANHA
1 x C-2000
650,000 t/a
ISCOR
1 x C-1000
350,000 t/a
JINDAL
2 x C-2000
1,600,000 t/a
HANBO
2 x C-2000
1,500,000 t/a
POSCO
1 x C-2000
700,000 t/a
Figure 7 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
COREX

POSCO
-
implemented in a large integrated steel mill with BOF
-
7 years in operation
-
export gas utilization in CPP
COREX

SALDANHA
-
implemented in an integrated compact mill with EAF
-
combined operation with DR plant
-
mainly local raw materials
-
highest lump ore rate
-
more than 3 years in operation
COREX

JINDAL
-
2 COREX

plants implemented in an integrated steel mill with BOF


-
high flexibility on imported and local raw materials
-
high production level (3037 tHM/day peak production at No. 1)
-
use of up to 15% ore fines, partial use of coal fines
-
export gas utilization in pellet plant and CPP
-
3,5 years in operation
COREX

operation successful under different circumstances


COREX

-Considerations for Adoption


COREX

- total accumulated hot metal production so far approx. 13 mill. t


Figure 8 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
Present Status COREX

Technology (1)

Small / medium capacity (operational s 1 mio. t/y, offered s 1,4 mio.t/y)
HM quality satisfying up to excellent: A, T, tap mass instable
Raw material qualities!
Plant availability: 93 - 95 %
Concern: refractory / stave system at char bed, shaft emptying,
wear DRI screws, tapping problems
Coals
- Wide range of coals usable
- Limited availability of best suitable qualities (coke rate, consumption,
hot metal quality)
- Utilization of undersize material important (30 - 50 %)
partial use in situ, coal briquetting - use in situ, cement industry, PCI,
power plants
- Consumption rather high (C
fix
~ 600 kg/t
HM
)
COREX

-Considerations for Adoption


Figure 9 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
Present Status COREX

Technology (2)

Iron oxide
- High lump ore rates possible (80 85 %)
- Total undersize fraction can be used in situ

Coke consumption (0) 5 - 15 %, average too high, lower quality
requirements

Valuable export gas - economic utilization of utmost importance
- thermal utilization (steel plant, pelletizing plant, calcination plant, ......)
- generation of electric energy (CPP realised, CCPP gas quality suitable)
- production of DRI
COREX

-Considerations for Adoption


Figure 10 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
Present Status COREX

Technology (3)

Slag rate high - utilization comparable to BF

High sludge rate (35 50 kg/t
HM
) - sludge granulation
technology developed
(partial recycling, cement industry, sinter and pellet feed)

Environment
- low emissions compared to BF route
hardly any bonus considered yet (soft fact)
- CO
2
emission as for BF route (gas utilization !)

COREX

-Considerations for Adoption


Figure 11 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
Present Status COREX

Technology (4)

Campaign life (2) 5 years
defined by damages to stave system in char bed zone
upgrade installed: Reline POSCO/SALDANHA,
Upgrade JINDAL Mod. 2
Expected campaign life approx. 10 years

Operation costs are competitive

Higher investment compared to BF stand alone (European basis)
COREX

C-2000 / C-3000 175 / 225 million EURO
(ASU, gas utilization, coal briquetting, infrastructure excluded)
BF 1 / 1,4 million t/a 150 / 190 million EURO
(coking plant, sinter plant, infrastructure excluded)
COREX

-Considerations for Adoption


Figure 12 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Annual hot metal production [million tons]
H
o
t

m
e
t
a
l

o
p
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

c
o
s
t
s

[
$
/
t
H
M
]

COREX

C-2000
SALDANHA
Southafrica
ISCOR
South Africa
Vanderbijlpark
POSCO
South Korea
Pohang
Tata Iron & Steel
India
Jamshedpur
COREX C-2000
POSCO
South Korea
2 x COREX

C-2000
JINDAL
India
Blast furnace data are based on year 2000
POSCO
South Korea
Kwangyang
CST
Brazil
Vitoria
Bethlehem steel
USA
Burns harbor
CORUS
Netherlands
IJmuiden
KOBE steel
Japan
Kagogawa
Baosteel
China
Shanghai
COREX

- Economy
Comparison of Hot Metal Operation Costs Blast Furnace vs. COREX


Blast furnace data are based on year 2000
Figure 13 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
Present Status COREX

Technology (5)


Project realization time: 32 months

No Risk:

COREX

= Proven Technology

COREX

-Considerations for Adoption


Figure 14 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003



Future Targets
COREX

-Considerations for Adoption


Figure 15 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
Future Targets (1)

Upscaling of COREX

and DR plant
- C 3000 / DR: 1,4 / 1,1 mio. t/y already offered
- C 4000 / DR: 1,8 / ? mio. t/y under investigation

Average availability: > 95 %
(elimate shaft cleaning, screw- / down pipe blockages, ...)

Campaign life > 15 years

Wider spectrum of usable raw materials
- Quality
- Fines charging

COREX

-Considerations for Adoption


Figure 16 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
Future Targets (2)

Utilization of recycle- / waste material

Average coke rate s 5 %

Improved operation
- Lower consumption figures (coal, oxygen, ...)
- Improved stability
- Lower sludge rate

Exportgas utilization
- Injection in BF
- CCPP
- Increase of DR plant capacity
COREX

-Considerations for Adoption


Figure 17 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
Future Targets (3)

Decrease of CO
2
emissions

Reduced investment

Successful development of hot metal production with oxide fines
based on COREX

: FINEX




Result:
Significantly Lower Operation and Production Costs than BF
COREX

-Considerations for Adoption


Figure 18 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003





COREX

Development
Figure 19 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003



Projects: Fit for Use / Design to Cost
Exportgas Utilization
Utilization of Recycle- / Waste Material
Upscaling
FINEX



COREX

Development
Figure 20 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
COREX

Development
COREX


Development of Technology
Process
Plant
Pilot Plant
8 t/h
Kehl
(1980)
Test Results
Optimisation
Engineering
Bench Scale
Laboratory
C-1000
40 t/h
ISCOR
Commercial Plant
(1987)
C 2000 + DR
1
st
Generation
POSCO,
JINDAL
HANBO,
SALDANHA
Commercial Plants
80 100 t/h 100 110 t/h
C 2000 + DR
2
nd
Generation
80 -125 t/h 100 -125t/h
Available for Market
C 3000 + DR
145 -170 t/h 125 -140 t/h
Available for Market
+
+ +
Figure 21 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003


Development Projects:

Fit for Use
and
Design to Cost
COREX

Development
Figure 22 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
Fit for Use (FfU) and Design to Cost (DtC) (1)

General Goals: Improved Operation and Reduced Investment

Analyse system for unnecessary allowances and weaknesses
Adapt and optimize overall design to meet requirements on
basis of operation experience
Start with general concepts, progress down to details
Allow upgrades !

COREX

Development
Figure 23 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
FfU / DtC - COREX


Results

+ COREX

C-2000 2
nd
Generation Design
- Optimized / upgraded equipment
- Increased capacity C-2000 125 t/h
- Reduced weight
+ Reduced total investment (- 20 % !)
+ COREX

C-2000 2
nd
Generation = Basis for Upscaling
COREX

Development
Figure 24 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
FfU/DtC COREX

Tower Equipment Modifications



COREX

Development
COREX

Tower
Mass Flow Bins
Simplified Coal Line (1 Coal Screw)
Optimized Duct Dimensions
Optimized Lining Thickness
Scrubber with internal Demister
Redesign Cast Houses
Double Pocket Lift
etc.

Melter Gasifier )
Reduction Shaft ) refer separate slides
Dust Recycling )
Figure 25 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
FfU / DtC COREX

Examples for Equipment Modifications (2)


Material Handling
- coal blending in stock house
- coal screening in 3 fractions and drying of mean fraction only (1 drier)
- dosing belt conveyors instead of vibro feeders
- mass flow bins
- double pocket lift for combined coal / ore feeding
- etc.
Compact Lay Out
- General reduction of structrual steel and civils (pipe bridges, ...)
Miscellaneous
- Water systems, electric, instrumentation, ......)
COREX

Development
Figure 26 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
Main Focus for Development

Targets Plant Area / Equipment

Raw material flexibility, less coke gasifier, (shaft, briquetting)
Lower consumption gasifier
Higher availability gasifier, shaft, dust recycling
Longer campaign life gasifier

Utilisation recycle/waste material briquetting, injection, etc.
Utilisation of export gas DR plant, CCPP, BF injection
Reduced investment overall
Upscaling COREX

, DR plant

COREX

Development
Figure 27 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003



+ Melter Gasifier
+ Reduction Shaft
+ Dust Recycling

COREX

Development
Figure 28 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
Melter Gasifier - Comparison of Design Generations
COREX

Development
First
Generation
Second
Generation
Dust Burner LeveL
Freeboard Zone
Char Bed
Hearth
Tuyere Belt
Main Modifications:
Coal Distribution
1
1
DRI Distribution
2
2
Smaller Freeboard Zone
3
3
Addional Oxygen Burners
4
4
Fines/Waste Injection
5
5
Higher Char Bed
6
6
Upgraded Stave System
Cast Iron Stave State-of-the-Art
Refractory Supports
Copper Staves lower Char Bed
7
7
Bosh Angle 11 22
8
8
24 longer Tuyeres
9
9
Increased Hearth Diameter
10
10
Spray- /Chamber Cooling Hearth
11
11
Longer Tap Hole
12
12
Deeper Sump
13
13
Figure 29 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
Melter Gasifier Valuation of Modifications











COREX

Development





Equipment

Raw Material
Flexibility
Lower
Consumption
Less
Coke
Campaign
Life
+
Coal distribution ++ + ++ +
+
DRI distribution + + + +
+
Bosh angle + ++ ++
+
Char bed height +
oxygen burners
+ +
+
Sump + tap length ++




Figure 30 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
COREX

Development
Melter Gasifier - Dynamic DRI Distribution

Tiltable Distribution Flap
Figure 31 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
COREX

Development
Melter Gasifier - Dynamic Coal Distribution

Collecting Chute 1
1
Tiltable Rotating Chute 3
3
Drive Unit 4
4
Leverage for Chute Adjustment 2
2
2
Figure 32 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
COREX

Development
Melter Gasifier Profile - Bosh Angle
1
st
Generation
Design
2
nd
Generation
Design
Hot Face of
Staves in Conflict
with Rules:
12 x 5 ft
22 aw shit
Hot Face of
Staves under
Consideraton of
Rules:
12 x 5 ft
22 aw shit
12 ft 12 ft 22
5 ft
5 ft
22
Area of
critical
Attack
Figure 33 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
Reduction Shaft
COREX

Development
1
Improved Material Distribution
Rotating Feeding Bin
Mass Flow
min. 12 Distributor Legs
1
2
One Top Gas Duct
2
3
Upper Shaft Inclination
3
4
Gas Inlet (2
nd
Bustle, Areal Gas Load,...)
4
5
Lower Shaft
ADM + ADW
Shorter Screws
5
Figure 34 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
COREX

- Development
Dust Recycling - Basic Flow Sheet
Closed
Dust Line
Open
Dust Line
Hot Gas Cyclone
Shut-off Valve
COREX

Disc Gate
Lock Bin
Burner
Melter
Gasifier
T-Piece
O
2
N
2
Lock Bin +
Screen (fine)
Shut-off Valve
COREX

Disc Gate
Dust Control Valve
Cyclone Bin +
Screen (coarse)
Optimized
Hot Gas Cyclone
Shut-off Valve
Automatic Valve
Burner
Melter
Gasifier
T-Piece-
Particle
Separation
O
2
N
2
, CG

Lock Bin +
Screen (fine)
optional
Shut-off Valve
Automatic Valve
Cyclone Bin +
Screen (coarse)
Figure 35 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003


COREX

Development
Export Gas Utilization
Figure 36 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
Export Gas Utilization Main Focus


Fit for Use Project for DR Plant
Export Gas Injection into BF
Industrial Scale R & D Project at BF 5/6 voestalpine Stahl Linz
Export Gas Utilization in Combined Cycle Power Plant (CCPP)


COREX

Development
Figure 37 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
Fit for Use Project for DR Plant
COREX

- Development
High Pressure
Buffer
Export
Gas
Compressor
COREX

Export Gas
Gas Heater
Gas Cleaning
Reduction
Shaft
DRI
Reduction
Shaft
Melter
Gasifier
Gas Cleaning
DR
Export Gas
DR Recycle Gas I
DR Plant COREX

Plant
Hot Metal
and Slag
O
2
Coal
Additives/
Ore/Pellets
Ore/
Pellets
Top Gas
CO
2

Removal
DR Recycle Gas II
Figure 38 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
FfU DR plant

Measures
+ Optimized VPSA System / compressor station
- Higher adsorbption pressure
- Simplified vacuum system (less / smaller vacuum pumps)
- 2-stage centrifugal compressors
+ Elimination of High Pressure Buffer System
+ Additional Gas Recycle System for utilization of combined exportgas
+ Optimized Gas Heater
- Preheating of combustion air with heater flue gas
- Heat exchanger pipes in ALLOY 690 (first two bundles)
- Material pretests to maximize crossover temperature planned
+ Simplified Product Gas System
COREX

Development
Figure 39 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
FfU DR plant


Results

+ Higher production 100 t/h 125 t/h
Same reduction shaft diameter as at SALDANHA Steel
+ Optimized / upgraded equipment (heater, ...)
+ Simplified gas system
+ Lower specific investment (- 20 %)

COREX

Development
Figure 40 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
Concepts for Export Gas Addition to Blast Furnace
COREX

- Use of Export Gas
May 2000 \COR_ALLG\MR\04Export Gas\A006EF_04_1HOCH02.ppt
COREX

Plant Gas Treatment Blast Furnace


COREX

Export Gas
PSA
Flue Gas

O
2
800C
400C
Hot Blast
Tail
Gas
(CO
2
,etc.)
Refined
COREX


Gas

Heater

Compressor

Figure 41 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
Combination of COREX

and a Combined Cycle Power Plant


Gas Turbine Steam Turbine
Reduction
Shaft
Melter
Gasifier
Hot Metal
Slag
Export Gas
Filter
G
Combined Cycle
Power Plant
COREX

Plant
Buffer
G
COREX

- Use of Export Gas
Figure 42 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003




Utilization of Recycle- / Waste Material



COREX

Development
Figure 43 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
COREX
-
PROCESS
Waste and Recycling Materials; Charging Possibilities
shredded
granular
Tires
Plastics
EAF or LD
Drop Out
Fine Iron
granulated
granulated
briquetted
briquetted
briquetted
Sludge
Dusts
Mill Scale
lumpy
Fine Ore
LD Slag
Drillings
briquetted
*) treated de-S slag
Fine Coal
Kish*
)

(briquetted)
Figure 44 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
Use of Recycle and Waste Materials

Reduction Shaft
- Steel plant recycle materials (oxide briquetts)
Significant higher Zn load acceptable
CX: 5000 gr/T
HM
BF: 200 gr/t
HM
Labor tests and basket tests at DR shaft SALDANHA successful

Melter Gasifier
- Coal line
- Ore / coal undersize material
- External wastes: plastic, tires, etc.
- Sludge granules
- Injection of fines into freeboard zone via burners
- (TG dust, metallic / oxidic / carbonaceous materials, etc.)
COREX

Development
Figure 45 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
COREX
-
PROCESS
Waste and Recycling Materials; Criteria
Chemical Components
Zn: up to 5000 g/t
HM

Cl: up to 500 g/t
HM
*
)


Melter Gasifier
Max. 150 kg/t
HM
undersize material (< approx. 8 mm)
Mean size min. 1 mm

Reduction Shaft
Iron carrier replacement by max. 30% briquettes
Lumpy and stable material free of hydrocarbons
*
)
further increase with special equipment and measures possible
Figure 46 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
Comparison Zn/Alkali Accumulation Blast Furnace vs. COREX

General
Blast Furnace COREX

Zn
s
Zn
g
Zn
s
Zn
g
80% 20%
Cooling Gas
Export Gas
ZnO
Topgas
Figure 47 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
0.8
5
0.3
Melter Gasifier
Dome
0.7
0.2 2
Coal
Input
Ore
Input
Top Gas
Dust
Recycling
Reduction
Shaft
COREX

Process
Sankey Diagram for Zn in the COREX

Process
nFactor
Figure 48 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003





COREX

Upscaling
COREX

Development
Figure 49 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
COREX


Up - scaling of COREX


\
C
3.5 m
C
2 m
C
5.5 m
C
5 m
C
7.3 m
C
7 m
C
8.8 m
C
8.3 m
C-1000 C-2000 Pilot Plant
C-3000
6 - 8 t/h
145 - 170 t/h 80 - 125 t/h 40 - 50 t/h
60,000 t/a
300,000 -
400,000 t/a
600,000 -
1,000,000 t/a
1,200,000 -
1,400,000 t/a
Figure 50 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
0,0
1,5
3,0
4,5
6,0
7,5
9,0
10,5
12,0
13,5
15,0
16,5
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
Hot Metal Rate [t/h]
H
e
a
r
t
h

D
i
a
m
e
t
e
r

[
m
]
Hot Metal Production Capacities
C-2000 (1.0 Mio t/a)
C-3000 (1.4 Mio t/a)
Vision C-4000 (2.0 Mio t/a)
Blast Furnace
(worldwide)
COREX


Figure 51 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003





FINEX


COREX

Development
Figure 52 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
Prereduction Reactor
Fine Ore, Additives
Melter Gasifier
Lump Coal
Preheating Reactor
Hot Metal and Slag
Basic Process Flow Sheet
FINEX

R1
R2
R3
Export Gas
O
2

Oxygen
Reduction Reactor
DRI/Add.
Fines
Figure 53 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
FINEX

Process - Development Targets


Development Targets

FINEX: Commercial feasible process for production of hot metal with
direct use of fine ore and non coking coal

Premisses for process development
Direct use of sinter feed ore -8 mm
Direct use of non coking coal, quality comparable to COREX coals

Benchmarks for feasibility
Consumption figures:
Coal s 1070 kg/t
HM

Oxygen s 630 m/t
HM

Fine ore s 1500 kg/t
HM

Availability > 90 %
Product: same quality as BF and COREX hot metal
Operating costs s 100 EUR/t
HM

Investment costs s 245 mio. EUR for F3000
(for location Central Europe)
Figure 54 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
Development of FINEX

Technology (1)

FINEX

= Joint Development of VAI / POSCO / RIST



Hot Lab Scale Tests
Cold Bench Scale Tests - 4 t/h (fluid bed) 1993
Hot Bench Scale Tests - 15 t/d (fluid bed) 1995 1998
Pilot Plant Campaigns - 6 t/h (fluid bed) 1999 2002
Demo Plant F-2000 - 85 t/h (fluid bed + smelting)
- Go Decision June 2000
- Start Up May 2003

FINEX


Figure 55 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
FINEX

F-2000 Demonstration Plant


Dryer
Fine Ore &
Fine Additives
DRI Fines Hot Compacting
and Transport
R1
R4
Coal
Briquetting
Heat Recovery (optional)
2 x
Backup Gas
Generator
O
2

Light Oil
Coal Fines
H
2
O
O
2

O
2

O
2

O
2

O
2

Plant Concept - DRI Fines Hot Compacting
R3
R2
Lump
Coal
Export
Gas
Hot Metal
Slag
Figure 56 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
COREX

and FINEX

Demo Plant
FINEX

Demo Plant
COREX

C-2000
Figure 57 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
Development of FINEX

Technology (2)

Important Development Steps
- Fluidized bed reduction Demo Plant
- Hot DRI fines handling
1
st
step: Hot briquetting Demo Plant
2
nd
step: Pneumatic conveying / fines charging (?)
- Melter Gasifier operation
1
st
step: DRI briquettes, coal briquettes Demo Plant
2
nd
step: DRI fines (?)

FINEX


Figure 58 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
Development of FINEX

Technology (3)

Status = FINEX

Demonstration Plant POSCO Pohang
- Commissioning May 2003
- Achieve stable industrial production 2004/5
- Major challanges - Operation practice
- Availability
- Sticking behaviour of metallic fines
- (Melter gasifier operation with HCI)

Vision = FINEX

Commercial Plant 1 mio.t/y Direct Hot
Fines Charging
- Precondition for development: Successful Demo Plant operation
- Add. major challanges: - Pneumatic transport of hot DRI-fines
- Melter gasifier operation with 100 %
DRI-fines
FINEX


Figure 59 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
Dryer
(optional)
Fine Ore &
Fine Additives
R 1
R 2
R 3
Coal
Briquetting
Backup Gas
Generator
O
2

Fuel
Coal Fines
H
2
O
O
2

O
2

O
2

O
2

O
2

Pneumatic Conveyer
and Material Splitter
Heat Recovery (optional)
Lump
Coal
Feed Gas
R4 (optional)
Plant Concept - Direct Charging of DRI Fines
FINEX

Commercial Plant
Export Gas
Hot Metal
Slag
Figure 60 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
COREX

versus FINEX



Economic Evaluation







COREX

C-2000
FINEX

F-2000
HCI
FINEX

Vision
F-2000
Direct Charg.
Investment Millon EUR 175 270 230 *)
HM Operation Cost EUR/tHM
(excl. Capital Charges)
105 - 3 % - 8 % *)
HM Production Cost EUR/tHM
(incl. Capital Charges)
115 + 3 % - 4 % *)
*) Target figures
Basis: Europe
Export Gas credit: 5,6 EUR / GJ
FINEX Demo Plant: Adapted COREX

unit plus FINEX

reactor building, HCI, etc.


Vision F-2000: First commercial FINEX plant, direct hot fines charging, etc.
Figure 61 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003


COREX

Operation Philosophy and
Process Control
Figure 62 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
COREX

Operation
Operation Philosophies (1)


POSCO JINDAL SALDANHA
+
Production rate
moderate (90 t/h) maximised (110 t/h) relativ max. (85 t/h)
+
Raw material


-
Philosophy


best qualities

(min. coke rate)
max. local portion

(min. coke rate)
max. local portion
max. lump ore rate
min. coke rate

-
Availability coal
coke
lump ore
pellet
additives

own production


local


local
local, own production
local
local

local

local
+
Fines utilization

-
coal, coke

-
oxide
-
coking plant, PCI,
briquetting
-
sinter plant
-
CPP, part. in situ

-
pellet plant, in situ
-
cement-/brick
industry
-
export, (part. in situ)
+
Export gas utilization



-
CPP



-
CPP, pellet plant,
heating, lime
calcination plant

-
DR plant , heating
-
max./stabilized
production for
DR plant


Figure 63 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
COREX

Operation
Operation Philosophies (2)


POSCO JINDAL SALDANHA
+
General operation

-
Oxygen input
total (m
3
/tHM) STP
to tuyeres (m
3
/tHM) STP
to burner (m
3
/tHM) STP
additional oxygen burners

570
440
130
---

530
380
150
in progress

620 (95 %)
450 (95 %)
170 (95 %)
planned

-
Coke rate (%)
addition to
(< 5) 12 - 18
gasifier
13 - 20
shaft / gasifier
10 - 15
shaft / gasifier

-
Material distribution
coal
DRI
shaft


in progress
(adj. radius), 6 legs

static
basic, static
(adj. radius), 6 legs

static
enhanced, (dynamic)
(adj. radius), 12 legs

-
Steam / water addition
to tuyeres
to generator gas

steam
(steam)

---
water

water
water


Figure 64 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
COREX

Operation
Operation Philosophies (3)


POSCO JINDAL SALDANHA
+
Tapping pratice
alternating tapping alternating tapping alternating tapping
+
Dust line operation
open line open line open line
+
Specialities

-
tuyere brightness measurement

---



-
longer tuyeres ---

(tests)

-
coal briquetting

--- ---

-
coal particle size measurement

--- ---

-
sludge granulation / utilization --- / cement industry ---

/ cement industry

-
minimized N2 consumption --- ---

(CG booster)

-
iron granualtion --- ---



-
TG / EXG recycling --- ---



-
elevated exportgas pressure ---



-
fines charging
- coal ---

---
- oxide ---

)

-
development towards FINEX

--- ---

Figure 65 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
Comparison of Operation Results (1)











COREX

Operation

POSCO (2002) JINDAL 1 (2002) JINDAL 2 (2002)
SALDANHA (after
relining)
Melting rate 80 100 t/h 85 110 t/h 100 115 t/h 85 90 t/h
Plant pressure 2,8 3,6 barg 3,3 3,6 3,4 3,6 3.3 3.5 bar g.
Spec. Fuel consumption 1000 1100 kg /tHM 1000 1100 kg /tHM 980 1060 kg/tHM 1150 kgtHM
Coke rate 10 20 % 10 - 20 13 20 % 10 15 %
Ore rate 0 % 80 83 %
Spec. O2 total
560 - 580 m
3
/tHM
(99 % O2)
520 550 m3/tHM
(99 % O2)
510 - 550 m
3
/tHM
(99 % O2)
620 m3/tHM
(95 % O2)

Spec. O2 tuyeres 430 450 m3/tHM 370 400 m3/tHM 360 400 m3/tHM 430 460 m3/tHM
O2 Dust burner 2800 3200 each 3800 4200 each 3800 4200 each 3900 4000 each
Dome temperature 1000 1030 1050 1080 C
Reduction gas temp. 750 (- 800) C 820 840 C (800) 850 C 845 C
CO2 CG 6 8 8 11 % 7 10 % 7 10 %
Spec. TG Flow 1050 m3/tore 10801130 m
3
/tore 10601150 m
3
/tore 1100 1150 m3/tore
Fine ore addition 0 kg/tHM 50 200 kg/tHM 50 200 kg/tH0 - 6. 0 20 kg/tHM
Grainsize of fine ore 0 6.3 mm 0 6.3 mm 6 12 mm
Hot metal: T 1500 1520 C 0.4 0.7 %
Si 0.8 2 %
Figure 66 6
th
COREX

Know-how Exchange Meeting


February 25 - 27, 2003, Toranagallu
Presentation: A036_14Pub00 COREX Adoption_Wieder.ppt Date: February 2003
COREX

JINDAL COREX

POSCO COREX

SALDANHA
The Success of COREX



Realization of
taylor-made Plant Concepts and specific Operation Philosophy