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Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd


PowerPoint slides to accompany Croucher, Introductory Mathematics and Statistics, 5e

Chapter 1

Basic Mathematics
Introductory Mathematics
& Statistics
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Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd
PowerPoint slides to accompany Croucher, Introductory Mathematics and Statistics, 5e

Learning Objectives

Carry out calculations involving whole numbers
Carry out calculations involving fractions
Carry out calculations involving decimals
Carry out calculations involving exponents
Use and understand scientific notation
Use and understand logarithms

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Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd
PowerPoint slides to accompany Croucher, Introductory Mathematics and Statistics, 5e

1.1 Whole numbers
The decimal system consists of
Numerals
Symbols, i.e. 0, 1, 2, 3 are numerals
Represent natural numbers or whole numbers
Used to count whole objects or fractions of them

Integers
Another name for whole numbers
A positive integer is a number greater than zero
A negative integer is a number less than zero

Digits
Numerals consist of one or more digits
Example: a three-digit number (e.g. 841) lies between 100
and 999

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Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd
PowerPoint slides to accompany Croucher, Introductory Mathematics and Statistics, 5e

Basic mathematical operations
There are four basic mathematical operations that can be
performed on numbers:

Multiplication: represented by

Division: represented by either or

Addition: represented by

Subtraction: represented by

/
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Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd
PowerPoint slides to accompany Croucher, Introductory Mathematics and Statistics, 5e

Rules for mathematical operations
Order of operations:

Multiplication and Division BEFORE Addition and Subtraction

However, to avoid any ambiguity, we can use parentheses (or
brackets), which take precedence over all four basic operations

For example can be written as to remove this
ambiguity.
As another example, if we wish to add numerals before
multiplying, we can use the parentheses as follows:

9 4 5 + ) 9 4 ( 5 +
39
3 13 3 ) 9 4 (
=
= +
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Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd
PowerPoint slides to accompany Croucher, Introductory Mathematics and Statistics, 5e

Rules for mathematical operations
(cont)
Multiplication
There are several ways of indicating that two numbers are to
be multiplied
E.g. 4 multiplied by 6 can be expressed as





Multiplying the same signs gives a positive result

Multiplying different signs gives a negative result



30 6 5 + = + +
20 4 5 =
6 ) 4 ( or ) 6 ( 4
) 6 )( 4 (
6 4
4 6 or 6 4


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Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd
PowerPoint slides to accompany Croucher, Introductory Mathematics and Statistics, 5e

Rules for mathematical operations
(cont)
Division
There are several ways of indicating that two numbers are to be divided.

E.g.

The number to be divided (6) is called the numerator or dividend
The number that is to be divided by (3) is called the denominator or
divisor
The answer to the division is called the quotient

Dividing the same signs gives a positive result

Dividing different signs gives a negative result

3
6
, 3 / 6 , 3 6
2
3
6
+ =

2
1
6
3
=

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Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd
PowerPoint slides to accompany Croucher, Introductory Mathematics and Statistics, 5e

Rules for mathematical operations
(cont)
Addition
Addition does have symmetry

E.g.

like signsuse the sign and add
unlike signsuse sign of greater and subtract

Subtraction
Two signs next to each other
minus and a minus is a plus ( 3) = 3
minus and a plus is a minus (+3) = 3
5 6 6 5 + = +
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Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd
PowerPoint slides to accompany Croucher, Introductory Mathematics and Statistics, 5e

1.2 Fractions
A fraction can be either proper or improper:

Proper fractionnumerator less than denominator

E.g.
Improper fractionnumerator greater than denominator


The number on top of the fraction is called the numerator and
the bottom number is called the denominator
The denominator cannot be zero, because if it is, the result is
undefined
238
156
,
52
23
,
9
6
249
856
,
32
56
,
2
3
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Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd
PowerPoint slides to accompany Croucher, Introductory Mathematics and Statistics, 5e

Addition & subtraction of fractions
Same denominators

Step 1: Add or subtract the numerators to obtain the new
numerator
Step 2: The denominator remains the same

Different denominators

Step 1: Change denominators to lowest common multiple (LCM)



LCM is the smallest number into which all denominators will divide

Step 2: Add or subtract the numerators to obtain the new
numerator.


18
7
1
18
25
18
15 4 6
6
5
9
2
3
1
= =
+ +
= + +
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Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd
PowerPoint slides to accompany Croucher, Introductory Mathematics and Statistics, 5e

Multiplication & division of fractions
Multiplication
Step 1: Multiply numerators to get new numerator

Step 2: Multiply denominators to get new denominator

Step 3: Use any common factors to divide the numerator
and denominator, to simplify the answer.
Division
Step 1: Invert the second fraction

Step 2: Multiply it by the first fraction


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Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd
PowerPoint slides to accompany Croucher, Introductory Mathematics and Statistics, 5e

1.3 Decimals
Any fractions can be expressed as a decimal by dividing the
numerator by the denominator.

A decimal consists of three components:
an integer
then a decimal point
then another integer
E.g. 0.3, 1.2, 5.69, 45.687

Any zeros on the right-hand end after the decimal point and
after the last digit do not change the numbers value.
E.g. 0.5, 0.50, 0.500 and 0.5000 all represent the same number.
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Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd
PowerPoint slides to accompany Croucher, Introductory Mathematics and Statistics, 5e

Rules for decimals
Addition and subtraction
Align the numbers so that the decimal points are directly
underneath each other.
Example of an addition




Step 1: align



Step 2: add

672 . 1 34 . 0 3 . 2 : + + Add Question
312 . 4
672 . 1
34 . 0
3 . 2
{
{
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Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd
PowerPoint slides to accompany Croucher, Introductory Mathematics and Statistics, 5e

Rules for decimals (cont)
Multiplication
Step 1: Count the number of digits to the right of each decimal
point for each number
Step 2: Add the number of digits in Step 1 to obtain a number, say x
Step 3: Multiply the two original decimals, ignoring decimal points
Step 4: Mark the decimal point in the answer to Step 3 so that there
are x digits to the right of the decimal point

Division
Step 1: Count the number of digits that are in the divisor to the right of
the decimal point. Call this number x
Step 2: Move the decimal point in the dividend x places to the right
(adding zeros as necessary). Do the same to the divisor
Step 3: Divide the transformed dividend (Step 2) by the
transformed divisor (which now has no decimal point)
The quotient of this division is the answer
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Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd
PowerPoint slides to accompany Croucher, Introductory Mathematics and Statistics, 5e

1.4 Exponents
An exponent or power of a number is written as a superscript to
a number called the base

The base number is said to be in exponential form

This tells us how many times the based is multiplied by itself

E.g.

Exponential forma
n
where a is the base
where n is the exponent or power
8 2 2 2 2
3
= =
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Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd
PowerPoint slides to accompany Croucher, Introductory Mathematics and Statistics, 5e

Rules for exponents
Positive exponents
If numbers with same base, , then product
will have the same base. The exponent will be the sum
of the two original exponents



For the quotient, if the two numbers have the same
base, the exponent will be the difference between the
original exponents

m n
a and a
m n m n
a a a
+
=
n m n m
a a a

=
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Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd
PowerPoint slides to accompany Croucher, Introductory Mathematics and Statistics, 5e

Rules for exponents (cont)
Positive exponents (cont)
A number in exponential form is raised to another exponent;
the result is the original base raised to the product of the
exponents




Negative exponents
A number expressed with a negative exponent is equal to the
reciprocal of the same number with the negative sign removed.

n
n
a
1
a =

( )
nm
m
n
a a =
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Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd
PowerPoint slides to accompany Croucher, Introductory Mathematics and Statistics, 5e

Rules for exponents (cont)
Fractional exponents
Exponents can be expressed as a fraction

n is of the form (where k is an integer)

is said to be the kth root of a. The kth root of a number is
one such that when it is multiplied by itself k times, you get that number





Zero exponent
Any base raised to the power of 0 equals 1



Except for , which is undefined
k
1
k
1
a
k
k
1
a a =
( ) ( )
n
1
m
m
n
n
m
a a a = =
1 a
0
=
0
0
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Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd
PowerPoint slides to accompany Croucher, Introductory Mathematics and Statistics, 5e

1.5 Scientific notation
Scientific notation is a shorthand way of writing very large
and very small numbers
It expresses the number as a numeral (less than 10)
multiplied by the base number 10 raised to an exponent
The rule for writing a number N in scientific notation is:


where

N = the digit before the reference position, followed by
the decimal point and the remaining digits in
number N.
c = the number of digits between the reference position
and the decimal point
c '
10 N N =
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Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd
PowerPoint slides to accompany Croucher, Introductory Mathematics and Statistics, 5e

1.5 Scientific notation (cont)
When c is positive
If the decimal point is to the right of the reference position,
the value of c is positive
e.g. 6325479.3 in scientific notation =



When c is negative
If the decimal point is to the left of the reference position, the
value of c is negative
e.g. 0.0005849 in scientific notation =
6
10 3254793 . 6
4
10 849 . 5

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Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd
PowerPoint slides to accompany Croucher, Introductory Mathematics and Statistics, 5e

1.6 Logarithms
Definition
The logarithm of a number N to a base b is the power to
which b must be raised to obtain N





E.g.

Characteristics and mantissa
Suppose that the logarithm is expressed as an integer plus
a non-negative decimal fraction. Then:
the integer is called the characteristic of the logarithm
the decimal fraction is called the mantissa of the logarithm
N log
b
x
b
b N then , N log x if , is That = =
64 4 , 3 64 log
3
4
= = so
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Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd
PowerPoint slides to accompany Croucher, Introductory Mathematics and Statistics, 5e

1.6 Logarithms (cont)
Antilogarithms

The antilogarithm is the value of the number that
corresponds to a given logarithm

E.g. Find the antilogarithm of 2.8756

From Table 5, the mantissa of 0.8756 corresponds to
N = 7.51. The characteristic of 2 corresponds to a
factor of 10
2
.

Hence, the required number is 7.51 10
2
= 751.
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Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd
PowerPoint slides to accompany Croucher, Introductory Mathematics and Statistics, 5e

1.6 Logarithms (cont)
Calculations involving logarithms
Using the following properties we can find solutions to
problems containing logarithms

| | B log A log B A log + =
| | B log A log B A log =
B log n A log
n
=
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Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd
PowerPoint slides to accompany Croucher, Introductory Mathematics and Statistics, 5e

Summary
A thorough knowledge of fractions, decimals and
exponents is essential for an understanding of basic
mathematical principles.

You should not be too reliant on modern technology to
solve every problem.

You are far better prepared if you are also aware of the
processes that the calculator is undertaking when
performing calculations.