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# DCS5028: DISCRETE STRUCTURE

CHAPTER 1
(PART 2)
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Introduction to Logic
Differentiate and write the Predicates and
Quantifiers .
Write Proposition Equivalences; Truth
tables; Implication and equivalence;
Write the Negation Quantifiers Expressions
and determine its truth values

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CONSTRUCT TRUTH TABLE
A compound proposition may have many
component parts, each of which is itself a
proposition, represented by some
propositional variable.
The proposition s: p (q r) involves three
propositions, p,q and r.
If a compound statement s contains n
proposition variables, there will need to be 2
n

rows in the truth table for s.
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CONSTRUCT TRUTH TABLE
s: p (q r)
3 variables, therefore need 2
3
= 8 rows

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p q r q r p (q r)
T T T
T T F
T F T
T F F
F T T
F T F
F F T
F F F

T

F

F
F
T
F
F
F
T

T

T
T
T
F
F
F
EXERCISE:
Make a truth table for the proposition
(p q) (~p)

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Propositional Equivalence consist of
three types;
Tautology
Contingency

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TAUTOLOGY
A tautology occurs when a compound proposition
that is true for all possible values of its
proposition variables.

Example:
(p . q ) p

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(p . q ) p

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p q p . q (p . q ) p
T T T T
T F F T
F T F T
F F F T
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A contradiction occurs when a compound
proposition is always false.

Example:
((p q).q).p

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((p q).q).p

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p q p q (p q).q ((p q).q).p
T T F F F
T F T F F
F T T T F
F F F F F
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CONTINGENCY
A contingency occurs when a compound
proposition is neither a Tautology nor a
Contradiction (consists both true and false
value for different combination of
propositions that involve)
Example

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(( ) ) p q q p .
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(( ) ) p q q p .
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p q pq (pq).q

((pq).q)p

T T T T T
T F F F T
F T T T F
F F T F T
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QUESTION
State whether the proposition below is
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) ( ) ( q p q p .
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SOLUTION
) ( ) ( q p q p .
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p q
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Two different compound propositions are
logically equivalent if they have the same
truth-values no matter what truth-values their
constituent propositions have.
The notation p q denotes that p and q are
logically equivalent if p q is tautology.
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Example
Prove or disprove that and
is a logical equivalence.

It is not a logical equivalence

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)) ( ( q p q
)) ( ( q p p .
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PROPERTIES
The operations for propositions have the
following properties.

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Commutative Properties
1. p q q p
2. p q q p
Associative Properties
3. p ( q r) (p q) r
4. p ( q r) (p q) r
Distributive Properties
5. p ( q r) (p q) (p r)
6. p ( q r) (p q) (p r)
PROPERTIES

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Idempotent Properties
7. p p p
8. p p p
Properties of Negation
9. ~(~p) p
10. ~(p q) (~ p) (~q)
11. ~(p q) (~ p) (~q)
De Morgans Laws
PROPERTIES (IMPLICATION)
The implication operation also has a number
of important properties.
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Properties for implication operation
1. p q ( (~ p) q )
2. p q (~ q ~p )
3. (p q) ((p q) (q p))
4. ~ (p q) (p ~q )
4. ~ (p q) ((p ~q ) (q ~p))
LOGICAL EQUIVALENCE
Exercise:
1. Show the following De morgans Law for
Logic are logically equivalence.

2. Prove the conditional (or implication)
proposition p q and its contrapositive
are logically equivalence.

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q p
q p q p . v ) (
q p q p v . ) (
Predicate and quantifiers are usually used
when involved in mathematical equation in
computer programs such as x> 3, x=y+3
and x + y=z.
This is usually involved one variable (or more
variables).
These statements are either true or false as
it depends on the values of variables.

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PREDICATES
An element of {x | P(x)} is an object t for
which the statement P(t) is true.
Such a sentence P(x) is called a predicate.
P(x) is also called a propositional function
because each choice of x produces a
proposition P(x) that is either true or false.

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EXAMPLE
Let A = {x | x is an integer less than 8}.
P(x) is the sentence x is an integer less than 8
The common property is is an integer less than
8
x =1, P(1) is the statement 1 is an integer less
than 8which is true.
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A. Single Variable
Let P(m) denote the statement (m + 80 * m) /
m = 81. What are the truth values of P(8) and
P(6)?

Solution:
P(8), replace m with 8 in the (8 + 80 * 8) / 8 =
81 statement. FALSE
P(6), replace m with 6 in the (6 + 80 * 6) / 6 =
81 statement. TRUE

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B. Multiple Variables
Let Q(x,y) denote the statement x = y + 8
What are the truth values of the propositions
Q(15,7) and Q(20,8)?

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SOLUTION

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C. n variables
Let R(x,y,z) denote the statement (y + 2) -
(x * 6) = z what are the truth values of the
propositions R(1,2,3) and R(5,32,4).

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SOLUTION
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QUANTIFIER
When all variables assigned with values, the
resulting statement becomes a proposition
with certain truth-value.

But there is another way to make the
statement becomes proposition with certain
truth-value, called Quantification.

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QUANTIFIERS
There are two types of quantifiers;
A. Universal Quantifier
B. Existential Quantifier

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A. UNIVERSAL QUANTIFIER
A logical quantifier(operator containing a
variable) of a proposition that asserts that the
proposition is true for every element in a domain
of discourse or of a type.

The universal quantification of P (x) is the
proposition

P (x) is true for all values of x in the universe of discourse

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The notation xP(x) denotes the universal
quantification of P (x).
-Called universal quantifier

The proposition xP(x) is read as
for all x, P(x)
for every x, P(x)
for any x, P(x)

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Example 1:
Let P(x) be the statement x likes Discrete
Structure where the universe of discourse
consists of a set of students. Write x P(x) in
words:

All students like Discrete Structure
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Example 2:
Let P(x) be the statement x
2
+1>x. What is the
truth value of the quantification x P(x), where
the universe of discourse consists of all positive
integers

Since P(x) is true for all positive integers x, the
quantification x P(x) is TRUE.
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B. EXISTENTIAL QUANTIFIER
A logical quantifier of a proposition that asserts the
existence of at least one thing for which the
proposition is true

The existential quantification of P (x) is the
proposition where there exist an element x in the
universe of discourse such that P (x) is true

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We use the notation -xP(x) for the existential
qualification of P(x).
- is called existential quantifier.

The existence quantification -xP(x) is read
as
There is an x such that P (x)
There is at least one x such that P (x)
For some x, P(x)
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Example 1:
Let P(y) be the statement y likes Discrete
Structure where the universe of discourse
consists of a set of students. Write -y P(y) in
words:

Some students like Discrete Structure
Or
Not all Students like Discrete Structure
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Example 2:
Let P(x) be the statement x > 5 . What is the
truth value of the quantification -x P(x),
where the universe of discourse consists of a
set of positive integers

Since P(6) is true, the quantification -x P(x) is
TRUE.

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Quantifiers
Statement When True? When False?
x P(x)
(Conjunction)
P(x) true for every x
(All x must be true)
There is an x for
which P(x) is false
(At least one x is
false)
-xP(x)
(Disjunction)
There is an x for
which P(x) is true
(At least one x is
true)
P(x) false for every x
(All x must be false)
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QUESTION
Let P(x) be x has taken a course in Program
Design and the domain of discourse consist
of the students in the class. Write the
universal quantifiers and existential
quantifiers for the P(x). What is the truth
value of the statement for Universal
Quantifier and Existential Quantifier in your
class?

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SOLUTION
x P(x) = All student in the class has taken a
course in Program Design, FALSE/ TRUE
-xP(x) = Some students in the class has
taken a course in Program Design, TRUE

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NEGATION QUANTIFIERS EXPRESSIONS
Sometimes we need to negate a quantified
expression. Let us look at the effect of
negation to the Universal and Existential
Quantifiers.

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UNIVERSAL QUANTIFICATION
Example:
Every student in the class wear black colour T-
Shirt
This statement is a universal
quantification, named with x P(x), where
P(x)- x wear black colour T-Shirt
Question:
What is the negation quantifier
expression?

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Solution:
Negation to the Universal Quantification:
(x P(x)) = - x P (x)

It is not the case that every student in the class
wears black colour T-Shirt
OR
There is a student in the class who is not
wearing a black colour T-Shirt

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EXISTENTIAL QUANTIFICATION
Example:
At least one student in Discrete Structures class
has taken Mathematical Techniques 1

This statement is an existential quantification,
named with - x P (x) where P(x)- x has taken
Mathematical Techniques 1

Question:
What is the negation quantifier expression?

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Solution:
Negation to the Existential Quantification:
(- x P(x)) = x P(x)
Every student in Discrete Structures class has
not taken Mathematical Techniques 1
OR
All student in Discrete Structures class has not
taken Mathematical Techniques 1.

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The rules for negations for quantifiers are called De
Morgans Law for Quantifiers.

Negation Equivalent
Statement
When is
Negation
True?
When False?
(-x P(x)) x P(x)

For every x,
P(x) is false.
There is an x
for which
P(x) is true
(x P(x)) -x P(x) There is an x
for which
P(x) is false
P(x) is true
for every x
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COUNTEREXAMPLE
To conclude that a statement of the form x
P(x) is false, where P(x) is a propositional
function, we need only to find a value of x in
the universe of discourse for which P(x) is
false.
Such a value of x is called the
counterexample to the statement x P(x).
For example, the prime number 2 is a
counterexample to the statement "All prime
numbers are odd."

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QUESTION
Let q(x) denotes x
2
10. What are the truth
values of the quantifications x q(x) and -x
q(x), where the domain of discourse consists
of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4?
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SOLUTION
When the domain of discourse is {0, 1, 2, 3,
4}, a counterexample to the statement x (x
2

10) is 4, since 4
2
= 16 is not 10.
Hence the statement x (x
2
10) is false.
But the statement -x q(x), is true.

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SUMMARY
Propositional Equivalence consist of three
types;
Tautology
Contingency
Predicates - involved one variable (or more
variables)
Quantifiers (Universal Quantifier , Existential
Quantifier)
Negations Quantifiers Expressions

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REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Build a truth table to verify that the proposition
( p q ) . ( p . q ) is a contradiction.
2. Show that ( p q ) . ( q p ) is
logically equivalent to p q
3. Let P(x) denote the statement x + 1 > 7.
What are the truth values for these
propositions?
P(1)
P(8)
P(6)

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REVIEW QUESTIONS
4. Let P(n) be the propositional function n < 66. Write each
proposition below in words and tell whether its true or
false. The domain of discourse is a set of positive
integers.
n P(n)
-n P(n)

5. Let P(x) denote the statement x spends more than 3
hours every weekend in the library, where the universe
of discourse for x consists of all students. Write each
propositions below in words:
x P(x)
-x P(x)

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REVIEW QUESTIONS
6. Let P(m) denote the statement m is taking an IT course,
where the universe of discourse for m is a set of students.
Translate each of these statements into logical expression
using predicates and quantifiers.

Some students are taking an IT course.
All students are taking an IT course.

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REVIEW QUESTIONS
7. Let P(x) denote the statement x spends more than 3
hours every weekend in the library, where the
universe of discourse for x consists of all students.
Write each propositions below in words:
x P(x)
-x P(x)

8. Let P(m) denote the statement m is taking an IT
course, where the universe of discourse for m is a set
of students. Translate each of these statements into
logical expression using predicates and quantifiers.
All students are not taking an IT course.
There is a student who is not taking an IT course.

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REVIEW QUESTIONS
9. Let P(y) be the propositional function y+1 > y. The
domain of discourse is the set = {y | 0 < y < 5}
Write each proposition below in words and tell whether
each proposition below is true or false.

(a) y P(y)
(b) -y P(y)
(c) (yP(y))
(d) (-y P(y))

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