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Health & Safety

Management

Health & Safety Management for Quarries

Topic Four
Objectives of this Section
To define the concepts and components of a
health and safety management system.
To outline recent developments in health and
safety management including the
development of OHSAS18001 and
accreditation.
H&S Management System:
Definition

The means by which an organisation
controls risk through the management
process.

Health & Safety Executive
Part of the overall management system that
facilities the management of the OH&S risks
associated with the business of the
organisation.

This includes the organisational structure,
planning activities, responsibilities, practices,
procedures, processes and resources for
developing and achieving, reviewing and
maintaining the organisations OH&S policy.

British Standards Institute
Safety Programmes
Traditional approach is the use of safety
programmes.
Programmes are focused on compliance with
standards/regulations
Programmes do not have strong or any feedback
mechanisms
The performance of a programme is measured using
(reactive) indicators such as the number of accidents,
injuries etc.
Systems Approach
Four elements common to general systems theories
are input, process, output and feedback.
Systems are also classed as being either open or
closed.
Open systems interacts with the external environment and is
subject to external influences.
Closed systems do not interact with the environment and so
their ability to adapt or respond to changing internal
conditions is limited.
Systems Approach
INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT
FEEDBACK
Organisation
External Environment
Key Elements of a H&S
Management System (1)
HSE Model
(HSG65)


Policy
development
Organisational
development
Developing
techniques of
planning,
measuring and
reviewing

P Po ol li ic cy y
O Or rg ga an ni is si in ng g
P Pl la an nn ni in ng g & &
I Im mp pl le em me en nt ti in ng g
M Me ea as su ur ri in ng g
P Pe er rf fo or rm ma an nc ce e
R Re ev vi ie ew wi in ng g
P Pe er rf fo or rm ma an nc ce e
A Au ud di it t
Key Elements of a H&S
Management System
Policy
Effective health and safety
policies set a clear
direction for the
organisation to follow.


P Po ol li ic cy y
O Or rg ga an ni is si in ng g
P Pl la an nn ni in ng g & &
I Im mp pl le em me en nt ti in ng g
M Me ea as su ur ri in ng g
P Pe er rf fo or rm ma an nc ce e
R Re ev vi ie ew wi in ng g
P Pe er rf fo or rm ma an nc ce e
A Au ud di it t
Organising

An effective management
structure and
arrangements are in place
for delivering the policy.
P Po ol li ic cy y
O Or rg ga an ni is si in ng g
P Pl la an nn ni in ng g & &
I Im mp pl le em me en nt ti in ng g
M Me ea as su ur ri in ng g
P Pe er rf fo or rm ma an nc ce e
R Re ev vi ie ew wi in ng g
P Pe er rf fo or rm ma an nc ce e
A Au ud di it t
Key Elements of a H&S
Management System
Planning
There is a planned and
systematic approach
to implementing the
health and safety
policy through an
effective health and
safety management
system.




P Po ol li ic cy y
O Or rg ga an ni is si in ng g
P Pl la an nn ni in ng g & &
I Im mp pl le em me en nt ti in ng g
M Me ea as su ur ri in ng g
P Pe er rf fo or rm ma an nc ce e
R Re ev vi ie ew wi in ng g
P Pe er rf fo or rm ma an nc ce e
A Au ud di it t
Key Elements of a H&S
Management System
Measuring
Performance

Performance is measured
against agreed standards
to reveal when and where
improvement is needed.
P Po ol li ic cy y
O Or rg ga an ni is si in ng g
P Pl la an nn ni in ng g & &
I Im mp pl le em me en nt ti in ng g
M Me ea as su ur ri in ng g
P Pe er rf fo or rm ma an nc ce e
R Re ev vi ie ew wi in ng g
P Pe er rf fo or rm ma an nc ce e
A Au ud di it t
Key Elements of a H&S
Management System
Auditing and
Reviewing of
Performance
The organisation learns
from all relevant
experience and applies
the lessons.
P Po ol li ic cy y
O Or rg ga an ni is si in ng g
P Pl la an nn ni in ng g & &
I Im mp pl le em me en nt ti in ng g
M Me ea as su ur ri in ng g
P Pe er rf fo or rm ma an nc ce e
R Re ev vi ie ew wi in ng g
P Pe er rf fo or rm ma an nc ce e
A Au ud di it t
Key Elements of a H&S
Management System
Standardisation
A standard is defined by the BSI as:
A document, established by consensus and
approved by a recognised body, that provides for
common and repeated use, rules, guidelines, or
characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at
the achievement of the optimum degree of order in a
given context

Recent International Standards

ISO 9000 Series: Quality Management Systems

ISO 14000 Series: Environmental Management
Systems

Standards consist of
Specifications and Guidance

A specification is a detailed set of requirements to be
satisfied by a product, material, process or system,
indicating the procedures for checking conformity to
these requirements.
A guidance document provides advice rather than a
set of verifiable requirements and is designed as an
internal management tool.
Recent Developments in H&S

In 1997 the ISO decided not to develop an OHSMS
standard.

As a result many countries have developed their own.
A recent survey identified 31 such standards.

BS 8800
Produced by the BSI in 1996
Written as a guidance document.
Based on the management systems models from
both the HSE and ISO 14001.

BS 8800
Gives advice on:
How to evaluate shortcomings with an existing health
& safety management system (OHSMS).
What an adequate system should comprise of.
How to progress from existing system to an adequate
system.

Over 7000 copies of BS8800 were sold in the first
twelve months.
BS 8800: Management System
Models (1)
Status
Review Review
OHS OHS
Policy Policy
Plannin Plannin
gg
OHS Policy
OHS Policy
Planning
Planning
Implementation
& Operation
Implementation
& Operation
Checking
&
Correctiv
e
Actio
n
Checking &
Corrective
Action
Continu
al
Improvem
ent
Continual
Improvement
Manageme
nt
Revie
w
Management
Review
ISO 14001
BS 8800: Management System
Models (2)

P Po ol li ic cy y
O Or rg ga an ni is si in ng g
P Pl la an nn ni in ng g & &
I Im mp pl le em me en nt ti in ng g
M Me ea as su ur ri in ng g
P Pe er rf fo or rm ma an nc ce e
R Re ev vi ie ew wi in ng g
P Pe er rf fo or rm ma an nc ce e
A Au ud di it t
HSE
(HSG65)
OHSAS 18001
Status
Review Review
OHS OHS
Policy Policy
Plannin Plannin
gg
OHS Policy
OHS Policy
Planning
Planning
Implementation
& Operation
Implementation
& Operation
Checking
&
Correctiv
e
Actio
n
Checking &
Corrective
Action
Continu
al
Improvem
ent
Continual
Improvement
Manageme
nt
Revie
w
Management
Review
1. OH&S Policy
1.1. The Health & Safety Policy
2. Planning
2.1. Planning for hazard identification, risk
assessment and control
2.2. Legal and other requirements
2.3. Objectives
2.4. OH&S management programme(s)
3. Implementation and Operation
3.1. Structure and responsibility
3.2. Training, awareness and competence
3.3. Consultation and Communication
3.4. Documentation
3.5. Document and data control
3.6. Operational Control
3.7. Emergency preparedness and response
4. Checking and Corrective Action
4.1. Performance measurement and monitoring
4.2. Accidents, incidents, non-conformances
and corrective and preventative action
4.3. Records and record management
4.4. Audit
5. Management Review
5.1. Management Review
OHSAS 18001
Produced in 1999.
Specification produced by several organisations (both
from the UK and internationally) led by the BSI.
The management system model used in OHSAS
18001 is the ISO 14001 model.
As a specification, OHSAS 18001 lists a number of
management system requirements using shall
statements such as the organisation shall establish
and maintain documented health and safety
objectives, at each relevant function and level within
the organisation.

OHSAS 18002
Produced in 2000.
Provides generic guidance on the application of
18001.
This document describes the intent, typical inputs,
processes and typical outputs, against each
requirement of 18001.
Purpose is to aid the understanding and
implementation of OHSAS 18001.

P Po ol li ic cy y
O Or rg ga an ni is si in ng g
P Pl la an nn ni in ng g & &
I Im mp pl le em me en nt ti in ng g
M Me ea as su ur ri in ng g
P Pe er rf fo or rm ma an nc ce e
R Re ev vi ie ew wi in ng g
P Pe er rf fo or rm ma an nc ce e
A Au ud di it t
Practical Aspects of a H&S
Management System
The Health & Safety Policy (1)
An OH&S policy establishes an overall sense of
direction and sets the principles of action for an
organisation.
It sets goals for the level of OHS responsibility and
performance required from the mine.
It demonstrates the formal commitment towards good
OH&S management, particularly that of the
organisations top management.
The Health & Safety Policy (2)
BS8800 sets out nine specific commitments
that must be included to develop a
comprehensive policy statement.

Recognising that OH&S is an integral particle of its
business performance.
Achieving a high level of OH&S performance, with
compliance to legal requirements as a minimum, and
to continual cost-effective improvement in
performance.
Provide adequate and appropriate resources to
implement the policy.
The Health and Safety Policy (2a)
The setting and publishing of OH&S objectives, even
if only by internal notification.

Place the management of OH&S as a prime
responsibility of line management, from the most
senior executive to first line supervisory level.

To ensure that the policy statement is understood,
implemented and maintained at all levels in the
organisation.

The Health & Safety Policy (2b)
Employee involvement and consultation to gain
commitment to the policy and its implementation.

Periodic review of the policy, the management
system and audit of compliance to policy.

Ensure that employees at all levels receive
appropriate training and are competent to carry out
their duties and responsibilities.

P Po ol li ic cy y
O Or rg ga an ni is si in ng g
P Pl la an nn ni in ng g & &
I Im mp pl le em me en nt ti in ng g
M Me ea as su ur ri in ng g
P Pe er rf fo or rm ma an nc ce e
R Re ev vi ie ew wi in ng g
P Pe er rf fo or rm ma an nc ce e
A Au ud di it t
Planning for Health & Safety
Management
Planning for OH&S involves:

Identifying requirements for the system -
what needs to be done
Setting clear performance criteria -
what is to be done
Identifying who is responsible -
who gets it done
Setting time scales -
when it should be done by
Identifying the desired outcome -
what should be the result
Both BS8800 and OHSAS 18001 identify
three key areas which need to be addressed
during the planning stage.

(1) Risk Assessment and Management
The intent of this requirement is so that the
organisation can appreciate all significant OH&S
hazards facing it using the process of risk
management.


(2) Legal requirements
The organisation should identify all legal
requirements applicable to it as well as any other
industry or company specific requirements to which it
subscribes.
(3) Health & Safety Objectives and
Programmes
Health and safety objectives are defined as the
goals in terms of H&S performance that an
organisation sets itself to achieve and should be
quantified wherever practicable.

Examples of Types of OH&S objective

The introduction of additional features into the OH&S
management system (e.g. permit to work systems for
specific tasks, strategic OH&S safety training for
supervisors etc.).
The improvement of existing features, or the
constancy of their application across the Quarry (e.g.
accident reporting, communication of standard
procedures etc.).
The elimination or the reduction in frequency of
particular undesired incidents (e.g. reduce accidents
by 20%, remove all hazardous material etc.)
Suitable indicators should be defined for each
objective to allow for the monitoring of the
implementation of the objectives.
Formal action plans should be drawn up for
each OH&S objective that has been
identified. These should identify the:
Individuals who are responsible for the deliverance of the
objectives across the quarry and/or within each operation.
Various tasks that need to be undertaken in order to meet
each objective.

Implementing Objectives
Implementation & Operation
Roles and Responsibilities
At all levels within the organisation, people
need to be aware of their roles and
responsibilities.
Individual OH&S responsibilities should be
clearly defined.
All personnel should be given the authority
and resources necessary to carry out their
responsibilities.

Roles and Responsibilities contd
Appropriate arrangements should exist
whereby people are held accountable for
discharging their responsibilities.
Reporting relationships should be clear and
unambiguous.
Where personnel appraisal systems exist
OH&S responsibilities should be included.
Training & Competence

The organisation should have effective procedures
for ensuring the competence of personnel to carry out
their designated functions.
Systematic identification of the competencies
required by each employee.
Provision of training identified as being necessary.
Assessment of individuals to ensure that they have
acquired and maintain the knowledge and skills
necessary for the level of competence required.
The maintenance of appropriate training/skills
records.

Implementation and Operation (2)
Consultation & Communication
The organisation should encourage
participation in a process of consultation and
communication. This involves:

Identifying and receiving relevant OH&S
information from outside the organisation
including:
New, or amendments to legislation;
Information necessary for the identification of hazards
and evaluation and control of risks;

Information and developments in OH&S management
practice.
Ensuring that pertinent OH&S information is
communicated to all people in the organisation who need
it. This requires arrangements to:
Ensure that information does not just flow from the top
down, but also from the bottom up.
Avoiding restricting OH&S items to dedicated OH&S
meetings.
Report hazards and shortcomings in OH&S
arrangements.
Ensuring that relevant information is communicated to
people outside the organisation who require it.
Encouraging feed-back and suggestions from employees
on OH&S matters.

Implementation and Operation (2)
Documentation
The organisation should document, and maintain up-
to-date sufficient documentation on its OH&S
management system.

This requirement is analogous to Regulation 7 of the
Quarries Regulations, 1999 which require the
production of a health and safety document.

Operational Control
The organisation should establish and maintain
arrangements to ensure that activities are carried out
safely.

These arrangements should be based on the results
of the risk assessment, and any health and safety
objectives that have been defined.

The organisation should also plan and prepare for all
foreseeable accident, incident and emergency
situations.


P Po ol li ic cy y
O Or rg ga an ni is si in ng g
P Pl la an nn ni in ng g & &
I Im mp pl le em me en nt ti in ng g
M Me ea as su ur ri in ng g
P Pe er rf fo or rm ma an nc ce e
R Re ev vi ie ew wi in ng g
P Pe er rf fo or rm ma an nc ce e
A Au ud di it t
Measuring Performance (1)
The key purposes of measuring performance
are to:
Determine whether OH&S plans have been implemented
and objectives achieved;
Check that risk control measures are in place and are
effective;
Learn from system failures such as areas of non-
compliance, accidents and incidents.
Promote the implementation of plans and risk controls by
providing feedback to all parties
Provide information that can be used to review, and if
necessary to improve aspects of an OH&S management
system.
An organisations performance measurement
system should incorporate both active and
reactive monitoring data.
Measuring Performance (2)
Active measuring systems
Used to check compliance with the
organisations OH&S activities.
Examples of active monitoring data are:
The extent to which plans and objectives have been set
and achieved.
Whether a director for OH&S has been appointed.
Whether a safety policy has been published.
The numbers trained in OH&S.
Number of risk assessments completed.
Extent of compliance with risk controls.
Active Measuring systems contd

Extent of compliance with statutory requirements
Frequency of OH&S audits.
Frequency and effectiveness of OH&S committee
meetings.
OH&S specialist reports.
Health Surveillance reports.
Workplace exposure levels.
Personal protective equipment use.
Reactive monitoring Systems
Should be used to investigate, analyse and
record OH&S management system failures
including:
Unsafe Acts
Unsafe conditions
Lost time accidents
Major accidents & fatalities
Sickness absences
Criticisms made by regulatory agency staff
Complaints made by members of the public.

Measuring Performance (3)
Investigating Accidents and Incidents

Organisations should have procedures for both the
reporting and investigating of accidents and
incidents.

The prime purpose of these procedures should be to
prevent further occurrence of the situation by
identifying and dealing with the root causes.

P Po ol li ic cy y
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P Pl la an nn ni in ng g & &
I Im mp pl le em me en nt ti in ng g
M Me ea as su ur ri in ng g
P Pe er rf fo or rm ma an nc ce e
R Re ev vi ie ew wi in ng g
P Pe er rf fo or rm ma an nc ce e
A Au ud di it t
Auditing

OH&S auditing is a process whereby an organisation
can review and continuously evaluate the
effectiveness of their OH&S management system.

Safety auditing is a positive and proactive means of
checking the safety performance of an organisation.

Key Requirements of Auditing (1)
Scheduling
An annual plan should be prepared for carrying out
internal safety audits.

Management Support
To be of value, senior management should be fully
committed to the concept of auditing and its effective
implementation within the organisation.
Audits
Audits provide a comprehensive and formal
assessment of the organisations compliance with
OH&S procedures and practices.
The end result of an audit should include a detailed
written assessment of OH&S procedures, the levels
of compliance with procedures and practices and
should where necessary identify corrective actions.

Auditors
One or more persons may undertake audits. A team
approach may widen the involvement and improve
co-operation. They should be independent of the
part of the organisation or the activity that is to be
audited.
Key requirements of Auditing (2)
Data collection and interpretation
Relevant documentation should be examined.
This may include.
OH&S management system documentation.
OH&S policy statement.
OH&S emergency procedures.
Permit to work systems and procedures.
Minutes of OH&S meetings.
Accident/Incident reports and records.
Training records.
Reports or communication with the enforcing authority.
Audit results

At the end of the audit, and before submitting their
report, the auditor or the Audit team should hold a
meeting with the responsible manager of the audited
area.

The main purpose of such a meeting is to
communicate the results of the audit to the
responsible manager in order to ensure that it is
understood and agreement is reached.
Key requirements of Auditing (2)
Content of the Report
The content of the final audit report should,
depending on the case, contain the following
elements:
The audit objectives and scope
The particulars of the audit plan, identification of the
members of the auditing team and the audited
representative, dates of audit and identification of the
area subject to audit;

Content of the Report contd
The identification of reference handbooks used to
conduct the audit;
The cases of non conformance.
The auditors assessment of the degree of conformity to
OHSAS 18001
The ability of the OH&S management system to achieve
the stated OH&S objectives