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NAS120v, Workshop 5, November 2010

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WS5-1
BRIDGE TRUSS
WORKSHOP 5
NAS120v, Workshop 5, November 2010
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NAS120v, Workshop 5, November 2010
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Workshop Objectives
Mesh curve geometry to generate CBAR elements
Set up CBAR orientation vector and section properties
Set up multiple load cases
View CBAR stress components in Patran
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Problem Description
The preliminary design of a steel truss bridge has been completed.
You are asked to evaluate the structural integrity of this bridge.
The truss is made from steel with E = 30 x 10
6
psi and n = 0.3
The truss members are I-beams with H = 18 in, W = 12 in, T
f
= 0.5 in,
and T
w
= 0.5 in
The bridge needs to be able to support a 23,000 lb truck traveling
over it. The truck weight is supported by two planar trusses. Model
one planar truss with half the truck weight applied to it.
One end of the truss is pinned while the other end is free to slide
horizontally.
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11,500 lb
(Subcase 1)
x
y
11,500 lb
(Subcase 2)
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Suggested Exercise Steps
1. Create a new database named bridge_truss.db
2. Create the geometry of the truss using the table on the previous
page
3. Set Picking preference.
4. Create a mesh seed of 6 elements per curve along the bottom of
truss (Y = 0) and of 2 elements per curve for the rest of the truss
(Y > 0)
5. Create a finite element mesh of 2-noded bars and equivalence the
model
6. Create a material property for steel: elastic modulus = 30e6 and
Poissons ratio = 0.3
7. Create a 1D beam physical property
Apply the isotropic material to the model
Create an I-beam with dimensions as shown on page WS5-4
Orient the bars so the strong axis is vertical
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Suggested Exercise Steps (Cont.)
8. Create boundary conditions
Constrain all degrees of freedom except rotation about the z-axis at the
left end of the truss
Constrain all degrees of freedom except translation along the x-axis and
rotation about the z-axis at the right end of the truss.
9. Create loads.
Create 11500 lb force in the negative Y direction on the node: X = 840, Y
= 0
Create another 11500 lb force in the negative Y direction, apply this load
to the midpoint of the truss.
10. Create two load cases.
For first load case, select the displacement constraints and the load at X
= 840.
For the second load case, select the displacement constraints and the
load at the mid-span.
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Suggested Exercise Steps (Cont.)
11. Run a linear static analysis with two subcases using the load cases
created in the previous step.
12. Create fringe and deformation plots for both subcases. Record
maximum and minimum axial stresses, combined stresses, and
deformations.
13. Examine the .f06 file. Verify that the displacement and stress
results agree with the graphical results shown in Patran.
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Step 1. Create New Database
a
Create a new database called
bridge_truss.db:
a. Under the Home tab click the
New icon in the Defaults
group.
b. Enter bridge_truss as the
File name.
c. Click OK.
d. Select Default for Tolerance.
e. Select MD Nastran as the
Analysis Code.
f. Select Structural as the
Analysis Type.
g. Click OK.
d
f
g
e
b c
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Step 2. Create Geometry
a
b
c
Create the first point:
a. Under the Geometry Tab click
XYZ in the Points group.
b. Enter [0 0 0] for the Point
Coordinate List.
c. Click Apply.
d. Under the Home tab, click the
Point Size icon in the Misc.
group.
d
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Finish creating all 12 points with
the data from the table below

Step 2. Create Geometry (Cont.)
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b
c
Step 2. Create Geometry (Cont.)
Create curves to represent the
truss members:
a. Under the Geometry Tab click
Point in the Curves group.
b. Screen pick the bottom left
point as shown.
c. Screen pick the top left point.
A curve will automatically be
created, if Auto Execute is
checked; else click Apply.


a
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Step 2. Create Geometry (Cont.)
a. Finish creating all 21 curves.

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b
Step 3. Set Picking Preferences
Set Picking Preference:
a. Preferences / Picking
b. Select Enclose entire entity
under Rectangle/Polygon
Picking.
c. Click Close.


a
c
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Step 4. Create Mesh Seeds
Create mesh seeds:
a. Under the Meshing Tab click
Uniform in the Mesh Seeds
group.
b. Enter 6 for the Number of
Elements.
c. Click in the Curve List box.
d. Click and drag mouse to
rectangular select the bottom
of the truss.
e. Click Apply, if Auto Execute
is not selected.
c
e
d
a
b
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c
e
d
f
Step 4. Create Mesh Seeds
Create another mesh seed:
a. Reverse the setting made in
Step 3. Select Enclose any
portion of entity under
Rectangle/Polygon Picking,
then click Close.
b. Under the Meshing Tab click
Uniform in the Mesh Seeds
group.
c. Enter 2 for the Number of
Elements.
d. Click in the Curve List box.
e. Rectangular pick the rest of
the truss, as shown.
f. Click Apply
b
a
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b
c
d
e
Step 5. Create Mesh
Create a finite element mesh:
a. Under the Meshing Tab click
Curve in the Meshers group.
b. Set Topology to Bar2.
c. Click in the Curve List box.
d. Rectangular pick all of the
curves, as shown.
e. Click Apply.
a
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b
Step 5. Create Mesh (Cont.)
Equivalence the model:
a. Under the Meshing Tab click
Equivalence in the FEM
Actions group.
b. Click Apply.
a
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Step 6. Create Material Properties
Create an isotropic material:
a. Under the Properties tab click
Isotropic in the Isotropic
group.
b. Enter steel as the Material
Name.
c. Click on Input Properties.
d. Enter 30e6 for Elastic
Modulus and 0.3 for Poisson
Ratio.
e. Click OK.
f. Click Apply.
d
e
b
c
f
a
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b
f
c
d
Create element properties:
a. Click Beam in the 1D
Properties group.
b. Enter i_beam as the Property
Set Name.
c. Click on Input Properties.
d. Click on the Select Material
icon.
e. Select steel as the material.
f. Click on the Beam Library
button.


Step 7. Create Physical Properties
d
a
e
f
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a
c
d
Step 7. Create Physical Properties (Cont.)
Define the beam section:
a. Enter i_section for the New
Section Name.
b. Enter the appropriate values
as shown to define the
beams dimensions.
c. Click Calculate/Display to
view the beam section and its
section properties.
d. After verifying that the section
is correct, click OK.
b
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Note: Any vector in the
XY plane that is not
parallel to any truss
member would work as
well.
a
b
Step 7. Create Physical Properties (Cont.)
Define the bar orientation:
a. Enter <1 2 0> for the Bar
Orientation.
b. Click OK.
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a
b
d
e
c
f
Select application region:
a. Click on Select Application
Region.
b. Click in the Select Members
box.
c. Rectangular pick the entire
truss, as shown.
d. Click Add.
e. Click OK.
f. Click Apply.

Step 7. Create Physical Properties (Cont.)
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b
e
g
c h
Step 7. Create Physical Properties (Cont.)
Verify the beam section:
a. Display : Load/BC/Element
Props.
b. Set Beam Display to 3D:Full-
Span.
c. Click Apply.
d. Right-click in the viewport and
select Viewport Display >
Smooth Shaded from the
context menu.
e. Rotate the model and zoom
in to verify that the I-beams
are oriented correctly.
f. Right-click in the viewport and
select Model Orientation >
Orthographic > Front View
from the context menu.
g. Set Beam Display back to
1D:Line.
h. Click Apply again.
a
f
d
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b
d
e
c
Step 8. Create Boundary Conditions
Create a boundary condition:
a. Under the Loads/BCs Tab
click Displacement
Constraint in the Nodal
group.
b. Enter left_side as the New
Set Name.
c. Click on Input Data.
d. Enter <0, 0, 0> for
Translations and <0, 0, > for
Rotations.
e. Click OK.
a
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e
c
d
Apply the boundary condition:
a. Click on Select Application
Region.
b. Select the bottom left point
as the application region.
c. Click Add.
d. Click OK.
e. Click Apply.

Step 8. Create Boundary Conditions (Cont.)
a
b
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b
c
d
e
Step 8. Create Boundary Conditions (Cont.)
a
Create another boundary
condition:
a. Click Displacement
Constraint in the Nodal
group again.
b. Enter right_side as the New
Set Name.
c. Click on Input Data.
d. Enter < ,0,0> for Translations
and <0,0, > for Rotations.
e. Click OK.
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a
b
c
Apply the boundary condition:
a. Click on Select Application
Region.
b. Select the bottom right point
as the application region.
c. Click Add.
d. Click OK.
e. Click Apply.

Step 8. Create Boundary Conditions (Cont.)
d
e
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c
b
d
e
Step 9. Create Loads
Create the mid span load:
a. Click Force in the Nodal
group.
b. Enter mid_span_load as the
New Set Name.
c. Click on Input Data.
d. Enter <0 -11500 0> for Force.
e. Click OK.
a
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a
d
e
f
b
Step 9. Create Loads (Cont.)
Apply the mid span load:
a. Click on Select Application
Region.
b. Set the geometry filter to
FEM.
c. For the Application Region,
select the node in the middle
of the span to the right of the
center, as shown.
d. Click Add.
e. Click OK.
f. Click Apply.
c
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b
c
Step 9. Create Loads (Cont.)
a
d
e
Create the truss joint load:
a. Click Force in the Nodal
group again.
b. Enter truss_joint_load as
the New Set Name.
c. Click on Input Data.
d. Enter <0 -11500 0> for Force.
e. Click OK.

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a
b
d
e
f
Apply the load:
a. Click on Select Application
Region.
b. Set the geometry filter to
Geometry.
c. For Application Region,
select the point at the center
of the bridge, as shown.
d. Click Add.
e. Click OK.
f. Click Apply.

Step 9. Create Loads (Cont.)
c
c
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b
c
d
e
f
Step 10. Set up Load Cases
Create a load case:
a. Click Create Load Case
under Load Cases.
b. Enter mid_span as the Load
Case Name.
c. Click on Input Data.
d. Click on Displ_left_side,
Displ_right_side, and
Force_mid_span_load to
add them to the Load Case.
e. Click OK.
f. Click Apply.
a
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a
b
c
d
e
Step 10. Set up Load Cases (Cont.)
Create another load case:
a. Enter truss_joint as the Load
Case Name.
b. Click on Input Data.
c. Click on Displ_left_side,
Displ_right_side, and
Force_truss_joint_load to
add them to the Load Case.
(if mid_span_load is still an
assigned load / BC, click, and
remove selected row)
d. Click OK.
e. Click Apply.
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b
Step 11. Run Linear Static Analysis
Analyze the model:
a. Under the Analysis tab click
Entire Model in the Analyze
group.
b. Click on Solution Type.
c. Select Linear Static as the
Solution Type.
d. Click OK.
a
c
d
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a
c
b
d
e
Step 11. Run Linear Static Analysis (Cont.)
Analyze the model:
a. Click on Subcase Select.
b. Select Unselect All to
deselect any existing
Subcase.
c. Click on mid_span and
truss_joint to add them to
the Subcases Selected list.
d. Click OK.
e. Click Apply.
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Step 11. Run Linear Static Analysis (Cont.)
Review the Nastran input file.
a. Open the file
bridge_truss.bdf
b. Review the two subcases.
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b
c
e
d
Step 12. Plot Displacements and Stresses
a
Attach the results file:
a. Click XDB in the Access
Results group.
b. Click on Select Results File.
c. Select the results file,
bridge_truss.xdb.
d. Click OK.
e. Click Apply.
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d
e
b
c
Step 12. Plot Displacements and Stresses (Cont.)
Create a deformation plot for the
mid span result case:
a. Under the Results tab, click
Deformation in the Result
Plots group.
b. Select the mid_span Result
Case.
c. Select Displacements,
Translational as the
Deformation Result.
d. Check Animate.
e. Click Apply.
f. Record the maximum
deformation.
g. Click Pause Animation and
Refresh Results Tools.
Max Deformation =
____________


a
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b
c
d
f
g
Step 12. Plot Displacements and Stresses (Cont.)
Create a Fringe Plot of X
Component Axial Stress:
a. Click Fringe in the Result
Plots group.
b. Select the mid_span Result
Case.
c. Select Bar Stresses, Axial
as the Fringe Result.
d. Select X Component as the
Fringe Result Quantity.
e. Click on the Plot Options
icon.
f. Set the Averaging Definition
Domain to None.
g. Click Apply.

a
e
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Step 12. Plot Displacements and Stresses (Cont.)
View the results:
a. Record the maximum and
minimum X component axial
stress.
Max X Axial Stress =
_________________
Min X Axial Stress =
__________________
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b
c
d
Step 12. Plot Displacements and Stresses (Cont.)
a
Create Fringe Plots of maximum
and minimum combined bar
stresses:
a. Click on the Select Results
Icon.
b. Select the mid_span Result
Case.
c. Select Bar Stresses,
Maximum Combined as the
Fringe Result.
d. Click Apply.
e. Record the Maximum
combined stress.
Max Stress= _______
f. Repeat the procedure with
Bar Stresses, Minimum
Combined as the Fringe
Result and record the
Minimum Stress.
Min Stress = _______
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c
d
b
f
Step 12. Plot Displacements and Stresses (Cont.)
a
e
Create a deformation plot for the
truss joint result case:
a. Click Deformation in the
Result Plots group.
b. Select the truss_joint Result
Case.
c. Select Displacements,
Translational as the
Deformation Result.
d. Check Animate.
e. Right-click in the viewport and
select Reset Graphics from
the context menu.
f. Click Apply.
g. Record the maximum
deformation.
h. Click Stop Animation and
Refresh Results Tools.
Max Deformation =
____________

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Step 12. Plot Displacements and Stresses (Cont.)
f
a
b
c
d
e
g
Create a Fringe Plot of X
Component Axial Stress:
a. Click Fringe in the Result
Plots group.
b. Select the truss_joint result
case.
c. Select Bar Stresses, Axial
as the Fringe Result.
d. Select X Component as the
Fringe Result Quantity.
e. Click on the Plot Options
icon.
f. Set the Averaging Definition
Domain to None.
g. Click Apply.
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Step 12. Plot Displacements and Stresses (Cont.)
View the results:
a. Record the maximum and
minimum X component axial
stress.
Max X Axial Stress =
_________________
Min X Axial Stress =
__________________

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a
b
Step 12. Plot Displacements and Stresses (Cont.)
Create Fringe Plots of maximum
and minimum combined bar
stresses:
a. Select Bar Stresses,
Maximum Combined as the
Fringe Result.
b. Click Apply.
c. Record the Maximum
combined stress.
Max Stress= _______
d. Repeat the procedure with
Bar Stresses, Minimum
Combined as the Fringe
Result and record the
Minimum Stress.
Min Stress = _______
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Step 13. Examine the .f06 File
Examine the .f06 file
a. Open the directory in which
your database is saved.
b. Find the file titled
bridge_truss.f06.
c. Open this file with any text
editor.
d. Verify that the displacement
and stress results agree with
the graphical results shown in
Patran.
This completes the workshop.

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