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Advanced IT Project Management

Quality Management
LING Zong, Ph. D. IBM Software Group San Jose, California, U.S.A.

2014/4/22

Contents
Quality Management

Quality Assurance
Quality Audit

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Why, What, How?

Quality is not an absolute requirement


It is wrong to assume that maximum quality is desirable.
Should every car be built to the same quality as a Rolls Royce?

Should every computer system be held back until there is not one single flaw remaining?

Required quality should be considered as part of the overall Project Definition work.
It will impact upon such things as the estimates and benefit case.

Such things are business decisions. They can only be taken by the Project Sponsor and senior management team of the organization.
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Quality is not an absolute requirement


Quality decisions are not just a matter of the reliability of the end product - they can also affect the scope and project approach.
This is particularly an issue with e-solutions: Do you want something magnificent, or do you want something fast before your competitors get ahead?

Do you want a complete solution, or will you settle for a partial solution and come back to finish it at a later date?

You need to make it clear that these are mutually exclusive alternatives you cannot together do magnificent, complete and fast.
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Quality is not an absolute requirement

Very often, commercial pressures mean that the best business decision is to achieve an "80%" solution fast.
Many early e-commerce business-to-consumer solutions looked great to the customer but involved staff re-keying data into the sales order systems or manually processing credit card transactions.
Case Study A company decided to achieve a rapid deployment by focusing on 80% solutions and breaking their requirements into five phases of development and deployment. A project reviewer asked if they had considered how functional the end result would be. Would it be 80% x 80% x 80% x 80% x 80%? That would be 33% - one third what you need. 2014/4/22 Advanced IT Project Management

Definition of Quality
Quality - Is the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements Quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs

Stated and implied needs are the inputs to developing project requirements
A critical element of quality management in the context of a project is to turn the needs, wants, and expectations of stakeholders into requirements by performing a stakeholders analysis, performed as part of project scope management
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Definition of Project Quality Management


Project Quality Management processes include all the activities of the performing organization that determine quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities so that the project satisfies the needs for which it was undertaken It implements the quality management system through the policy, procedures, and processes of quality planning, quality assurance, quality control, with continuous process improvement activities conducted throughout, as appropriate
Some goals of quality programs include:

- Fitness for use. (Is the product or service capable of being used?)
- Fitness for purpose. (Does the product or service meet its intended purpose?) - Customer satisfaction. (Does the product or service meet the customer's expectations?) - Conformance to the requirements. (Does the product or service conform to the Requirements?)
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How to Achieve Quality


Quality becomes achievable when:
A project quality management system that includes processes such as quality planning, quality assurance, and quality control is established Both the management of the project and the product of the project are addressed Customers' requirements are carefully managed and reviewed to meet customer satisfaction and the project schedule Project reviews are conducted
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Project Quality Management Processes


Quality Planning - Is the process of identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them Quality Planning is one of the key processes during the development of the project management plan and should be performed in parallel with the other project planning processes Perform Quality Assurance (QA) - Is the process of applying the planned, systematic quality activities to ensure that the project employs all processes needed to meet requirements Quality Assurance provides an umbrella for another important quality activity, continuous process improvement Perform Quality Control (QC) - Is the process of monitoring specific project results to determine whether they comply with relevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance Quality Control should be performed throughout the project with quality standards which include project processes and product goals
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Why, What, How?


Aspects of Quality Management
Here is a summary of the various aspects of Quality Management. Different organizations will use different expressions for these concepts and may package them into other activities. This description follows the logical requirements.

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Aspects of Quality Management


Aspect Quality Plan Summary Define and agree the needs for quality and the specific approaches to meet them. Phase Quality For each phase, what specific things will be done and what Requirements specific deliverables will be produced. Apply Quality Throughout the work the defined approach to quality will be Methods followed. Work or deliverables falling short of the standards will need to be re-worked to achieve an acceptable standard. Phase Quality Before each phase can be closed, a review is performed to Review ensure that acceptable quality standards have been achieved. Project Quality Before the project can be completed, the overall conformance to Review Quality Methods and requirements should be assessed and approved.
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Why, What, How?


Responsibilities for quality
The Project Manager will, of course, have overall responsibility for the quality of the project.
It is equally true that all participants have a role to play in delivering good results. Developing a quality culture amongst the team will normally generate greater value and satisfaction. Encourage the belief that the right level of quality is more important than getting things done fast. If there is a choice to be made between quality and progress it should be a matter for the Steering Committee to decide
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Responsibilities for quality


Other managers will also be involved in the Quality Management process.
In larger projects there may be a Quality Manager and Quality Team. Team Leaders and other senior staff will also be involved in the processes. In some environments, certain Quality Management functions may be performed by independent reviewers from outside the Project Team. Responsibilities for quality should be agreed and communicated to all participants.
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Quality Management Plan


Quality Management Plan - Describes how the project management team implements the performing organization's quality policy Provides input to the overall project management plan and must address quality control (QC), quality assurance (QA), and continuous process improvement for the project Should include efforts at the front end of the project to ensure that the earlier decisions are correct

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Goals of Quality Management Planning


Identify which quality standards are relevant to the project and determine how to satisfy them Develop and document a quality management plan which:
Describes how the project management team will implement its quality policy, the project quality system Provides input to the overall project plan Must address quality control, quality assurance, and quality improvement for the project Develop very specific operational definitions (metrics), describing what something is and how it is to be measured by the quality control process Develop checklists to verify that a set of required steps has been performed

Quality is planned in, not inspected in


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Quality Management Plan


Quality Management Plan is a broad concept covering many aspects of achieving quality. In many projects these might be covered in an array of different deliverables. In particular, procedures and standards might be documented separately from quality goals and controls.
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Inside Quality Management Plan


Here are some types of thing you should consider.
Type of content
Objectives

Description
What are the objectives of Quality Management? To what extent is quality a requirement in preference to timescales, costs, functionality etc? What specific requirements are to be addressed What approaches and methods What format and detail should deliverables be in Specified procedures for project tasks

Examples
Acceptable levels of functionality to achieve Acceptable levels of security, bugs etc Investment in testing Review and sign-off of specific deliverables or work by specified people types and depth of testing required Availability of specified functions Iterative development in specified stages Methodology to be followed Peer review of all deliverables web page layout & navigation standards coding standards documentation standards check-in and check-out of code documentation control procedure issues management procedure

Requirements

Quality Methods Standards Procedures

Quality Management Plan is often an evolving document. As the project progresses it will need to adapt to changes and decisions. For example, detailed website design and navigation is unlikely to be defined at the start of the project unless you are adding to an existing solution.
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Preparing for Quality Management at the start of each phase


One basic approach is to create two lists:
all the work that should be done (including the methods, techniques and procedures to be used) all the deliverables that should be produced (including the formats and standards that should be applied)

This provides a guide for the people conducting the work and a checklist for the phase-end review.
It is good project management practice, as well as a Quality Management process, to identify in advance all the anticipated deliverables.
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Preparing for Quality Management at the start of each phase


For each one, you should identify:
nature, description and purpose of the deliverable, quality standard (e.g. discussion draft, final quality, reviewed or tested for external publication) dependencies (what must be completed prior and what further deliverables depend upon this one) date required, author/creator, people who have to review it, people who have to approve it, people who should receive it for information or use (but who do not get the opportunity to review or approve) other distribution (e.g. third parties, auditors, publishing, filing) security/secrecy requirements - i.e. who can not see or use it currency information (e.g. must be maintained, updateable, one-off, temporary, final project deliverable)

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Bringing about quality during the work


The best Quality Methods will depend on the type of project - the team, application, language, technology, participants, environment, etc. They will also be affected by strategic decisions about the investment in quality. Here are some examples:
all requirements should be prototyped iteratively in collaboration with the responsible user manager
designers are expected to consider any reasonable alternative approaches and discuss them with the responsible user manager before creating a detailed design any anticipated impact on timescales, resourcing, deliverables, or benefits should be communicated to the project manager as soon as possible and before any revised action is taken all documents should include control information such as version numbers, issue dates, status, authors, reviewers etc all designs should be reviewed by someone from a different sub-team and by the overall solution architect
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Bringing about quality during the work


Here are some more examples:
any aspect of a deliverable which could impact upon another deliverable should be noted in the issues management system

only one person can have update access to a document or system component at any one time - access will be controlled through the configuration management and/or documentation control procedures
all completed work will be signed off by the responsible user manager once a deliverable is completed, signed off and closed it can only be re-opened by following the change control procedure

developers are not allowed to test their own work


appropriate end users must be involved in all systems tests - each test must be signed off by the responsible user manager where any correction is applied to a deliverable, all other deliverables which could be affected must be re-examined and/or re-tested all components should be sized and tested for absolute peak usage developers cannot access live components directly - they need to check them out using the configuration management and/or documentation control procedures.
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Bringing about quality during the work


There will also be a number of rules, standards and procedures, e.g.:
format of documents

techniques to use (e.g. estimating technique, modeling technique)


language (s) to use

naming conventions
documentation standards procedures to follow (e.g. documentation control, configuration management, issues management, bug reports, testing).
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rules, standards and procedures


It will be easier to manage quality if the application of Quality Methods and controls is tracked continuously through the project, rather than relying solely on reviews at the end of each phase. The status of work and deliverables can be tracked against the lists prepared for the Phase. The tracking information should show the stage of progress (e.g. not started, in progress, completed, signed off), and the status of specific controls, reviews, signatures etc.

In particular, completion should be logged and a check made to ensure that the correct methods, controls and approvals were completed.
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rules, standards and procedures


One final thing to note about these Quality Methods:

they are all rules for people to follow.


In fact, most people do not respond well to being given rules. The most significant thing the Project Manager and Team Leaders can do to ensure appropriate quality is to take a personal interest in the quality of work being done, providing coaching and feedback as appropriate.
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Reviewing quality at the end of a phase


Before the phase can truly be considered to be complete, you should review that you have:
done everything you said you would do in the way you said you would do it, produced everything you said you would produce to an acceptable standard. There will, of course, be deviations. In each case it should be clear whether:
the change was agreed and its impact has been dealt with the shortcoming was not desirable but is acceptable in terms of delivering the overall benefit from the project the failure will be remedied at a later (defined) stage the fault must be remedied now before the phase can be completed.

The phase-end Quality Review should be agreed and signed off by the Project Sponsor and/or senior leadership representing the organization.
There should be little to do at the end of the phase - if there are significant problems it is too late to do anything without an adverse impact on costs and timescales.
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Reviewing quality at the end of the project


The senior leadership will consider the extent to which the project has adequately completed the planned work and deliverables (subject to agreed changes during its course).
As well as the Quality Management aspect of such a review, there will also be many other reasons to examine the success of the project, for example,

learning lessons, planning further improvements, improving estimating techniques, paying contractors and suppliers etc.
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Contents
Quality Management

Quality Assurance
Quality Audit

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Goals of Quality Assurance


Project managers and the quality assurance group work together to ensure adherence to the defined management processes and procedures Results of quality assurance reviews should be shared and discussed with project managers and teams, and reviewed periodically with senior project management The project manager and QA resource should jointly obtain decisions and guidance from senior management on all unresolved noncompliance issues

Leads to taking actions to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the project to provide added benefits to the project stakeholders (Quality Improvement)
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Continuous Improvement
Continuous Improvement (CI) - Adopting new activities and eliminating those which are found to add little or no value The goal is to increase effectiveness by reducing inefficiencies, frustrations, and waste (rework, time, effort, material, and so forth) The Japanese term is Kaizen, which is taken from the words Kai meaning change and zen meaning good The Plan- Do-Check-Act cycle of activities is designed to drive continuous improvement and is the basis for quality improvement

The concept is simple to teach and understand:


Plan: Plan the work, Do: Carry out the plan, Check: Check on the result, and

Act: Then take action to improve performance


Repeat the cycle to improve continuously

This cycle is linked by results with the results of one part of the cycle becoming the input to another part of the cycle
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Quality Control (Assurance) Overview


Quality control is performed throughout all phases of the project life cycle Quality control is usually conducted by a quality control department or by other kinds of control groups that have been given the responsibilities

Results include both product results, such as deliverables, and management results, such as cost and schedule performance
Project management teams should have a working knowledge of statistical quality control, especially sampling and probability, to help them evaluate quality control outputs
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Goals of Quality Control


Quality improvement Rework actions to bring defective or nonconforming items into compliance with requirements or specifications Completed checklists which become part of the project's records Process adjustments, which involve immediate corrective or preventive action as a result of quality control measurements
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Cost of Quality
Cost of quality is the total cost of all efforts to achieve product or service quality which includes all work to ensure conformance to the requirements as well as all work resulting from nonconformance to the requirements Prevention and appraisal costs (cost of conformance) include costs for quality planning, quality control (QC), and quality assurance to ensure compliance to requirements (that is, training, QC systems, etc..) Failure costs (cost of non-conformance) include costs to rework products, components, or processes that are non-compliant, costs of warranty work, waste, and loss of reputation

Cost of a quality system is often viewed as a negative cost because errors in work have been traditionally accepted as a cost of doing business
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Quality and People in Project Management (1 of 2)


Management defines type and amount of work The employee can only assume responsibility for meeting the requirements of completing the work when the employee:
Knows what's expected to meet the specifications Knows how to perform the functions to meet the specifications Has adequate tools to perform the function Is able to measure the performance during the process Is able to adjust the process to match the desired outcome

Project quality team consists of:


Senior Management Project Manager

Project Staff
Customer Vendors, suppliers, and contractors Regulatory Agencies
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Quality and People in Project Management (2 of 2)


Project Manager has the ultimate responsibility for Quality Control and Quality Assurance Customer sets the requirement for acceptable quality level Reviews and Audits:
Management reviews determine the status, progress made, problems, and solutions Peer reviews determine whether proposed or completed work meets the requirements

Competency center reviews are used to validate documentation, studies, and proposed technical solutions to problems
Fitness reviews and audits determine the fitness of a product or part of a project (addresses specific issues)

The collection of quantitative data for statistical analysis is the basis for proactive management by FACT rather than by EXCEPTION
Management by exception lets errors and defects happen before management intervention

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Contents
Quality Management

Quality Assurance
Quality Audit

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Quality Management vs. Quality Audit


By Quality Management, we mean all the activities that are intended to bring about the desired level of quality. By Quality Audit we mean the procedural controls that ensure participants are adequately following the required procedures.

These concepts are related, but should not be confused.


In particular, Quality Audit relates to the approach to quality that is laid down in quality standards such as the ISO-900x standards.

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Quality Audits Help Ensure Quality


A quality audit is a structured, independent review to determine whether project activities comply with the organizational and project policies, processes, and procedures Objective of a quality audit is to identify inefficient and ineffective policies, processes, and procedures in use on the project The subsequent effort to correct these deficiencies should result in a reduced cost of quality and an increase in the percentage of acceptance of the product or service by the customer or sponsor within the performing organization Quality audits confirm the implementation of approved change requests, corrective actions, defect repairs, and preventive action Additional Project reviews include: Estimate review Project plan review

Ongoing project review


Project completion review Special review

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Quality Audit Summary Example


Under control CLASS A:
Minor problems might exist, but the project manager has an effective plan for resolution; no major existing potential problems have been identified

CLASS B:

Currently under control


Existing or potential problems must be resolved to avoid deterioration

Significant problems CLASS C:


Corrective plans required immediately. Probably will exceed estimates or budgets; aggressive management action essential to regain control

Major problems CLASS D:


Definite financial impact, serious problems with client acceptance, or negative impact on client's business.; thorough management evaluation required; executive call on client

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The principle behind Quality Audit


The principles of Quality Audit, in the sense we mean it here, are based on the style of quality standards used in several formal national and international standards such as the ISO-900x international quality standards. These standards do not in themselves create quality. The logic is as follows.
Every organization should define comprehensive procedures by which their products or services can be delivered consistently to the desired level of quality. As was discussed in the section on Quality Management, maximum quality is rarely the desired objective since it can cost too much and take too long. The average product or service provides a sensible compromise between quality and cost. The principle is that each organization should create thorough, controlled procedures for each of its processes. Those procedures should deliver the quality that is sought.
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The principle behind Quality Audit


The Quality Audit, therefore, only needs to ensure that procedures have been defined, controlled, communicated and used.
Processes will be put in place to deal with corrective actions when deviations occur.
This principle can be applied to continuous business process operations or recurring project work. It would not be normal to establish a set of quality controlled procedures for a one-off situation since the emphasis is consistency.
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Preparing for Quality Audit


Thorough procedures need to be defined, controlled, communicated and used.
Thorough Procedures should cover all aspects of work where conformity and standards are required to achieve desired quality levels. For example, one might decide to control formal program testing, but leave the preliminary testing of a prototype to the programmer's discretion. Any recurring aspect of work could merit regulation. The style and depth of the description will vary according to needs and preferences, provided it is sufficiently clear to be followed. A major tenet is that the defined procedures are good and will lead to the desired levels of quality. Considerable thought, consultation and trialing should be applied in order to define appropriate procedures. Procedures will often also require defined forms or software tools. As with any good quality management, the procedures should be properly controlled in terms of accessibility, version control, update authorities etc. All participants need to know about the defined procedures - which they exist, where to find them, what they cover. Quality reviewers are likely to check that team members understand about the procedures. The defined procedures should be followed. Checks will be made to ensure this is the case. A corrective action procedure will be applied to deal with shortcomings. Typically the corrective action would either be to learn the lesson for next time, or to re-work the item if it is sufficiently important.

Procedures

Defined

Controlled

Communicated

Used

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Operating Quality Audit


A Quality Audit approach affects the entire work lifecycle:
Pre-defined standards will impact the way the project is planned Quality requirements for specific work packages and deliverables will be identified in advance Specific procedures will be followed at all stages Quality Methods must be defined and followed

Completed work and deliverables should be reviewed for compliance.

This should be seen as an underlying framework and set of rules to apply in the project's Quality Management processes.

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Quality Audit reviews


Although the impact of Quality Audit will be across all parts of the lifecycle, specific Quality Audit activities tend to be applied as retrospective reviews that the Project Team correctly followed its defined procedures.

Such reviews are most likely to be applied at phase end and project completion.
Of course, the major drawback of such a review is that it is normally too late to affect the outcome of the work. The emphasis is often on learning lessons and fixing administrative items.
In many ways, the purpose of the review is to encourage conformity by the threat of a subsequent bad experience with the quality police.
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Key Messages
Quality is planned in, not inspected in The development and maintenance of a project quality team facilitates work that is performed appropriately and that conforms to the customer's requirements The use of tools is essential to the execution of quality programs; these tools assist and support the project manager in the identification of deviations from standards Cost of Quality includes the cost of conformance and the cost of nonconformance The Plan- Do-Check-Act cycle of activities is designed to drive continuous improvement and is the basis for quality improvement
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Contents
Quality Management

Quality Assurance
Quality Audit

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The End !
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