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The Progressive Presidents

Theme 1: The strong progressive movement successfully demanded that the powers of government be applied to solving the economic and social problems of industrialization. Progressivism first gained strength at the city and state level, and then achieved national influence in the moderately progressive administrations of Theodore Roosevelt.

Theme 2: Roosevelt’s hand-picked successor, William H. Taft, aligned himself with the Republican Old Guard, causing Roosevelt to break away and lead a progressive third-party crusade.

  • I. Progressive Roots

I. Progressive Roots From Jacob Riis’s How the Other Half Lives , 1890 A. Evolution of

From Jacob Riis’s How the Other Half Lives, 1890

  • A. Evolution of Ideas

    • 1. Green, Pop, Mugwumps, Middle Class

    • 2. Activists

      • a. Henry Lloyd pioneer in investigative journalism

      • b. Jacob Riis (How the Other Half Lives)

      • c. Charlotte P. Gilman more involvement for women

  • B. “Muckrakers” exposed corruption directly to public

    • 1. Lincoln Steffens (The Shame of the Cities)

    • 2. Ida Tarbell (History of Standard Oil)

    • 3. David Phillips (The Treason of the Senate)

    • 4. Ray Stannard (Following the Color Line)

    • 5. Upton Sinclair (Jungle)

  • C. Goals

    • 1. Trusts, political machines, socialism, consumer protection, voting reform, conservation, banking, alcohol, female suffrage, and living conditions

  • D. Political Reformers

    • 1. Robert La Follette pioneer political reform

    • 2. Hiram Johnson and Southern Pacific

  • E. Women

    • 1. Settlement House movement

    • 2. Florence Kelley and National Consumer’s League

    • 3. Muller v. Oregon, 1906

    • 4. Triangle Shirtwaist C. fire, 1911

  • II. TR’s “Square Deal”

    II. TR’s “Square Deal” A. Control of Corporations 1. Anthracite Coal Strike, 1902 2. Dept. of
    • A. Control of Corporations

      • 1. Anthracite Coal Strike, 1902

      • 2. Dept. of Commerce and Labor

      • 3. Northern Securities, 1902

      • 4. Elkins (rebates) and Hepburn (bad trusts) Acts

  • B. Consumer Protection

    • 1. Meat Inspection Act, 1906

    • 2. Pure Food and Drug Act, 1906

  • C. Conservation

    • 1. Gifford Pinchot

      • a. John Muir (preserve) v. Pinchot (conserve)

    • 2. Newlands Reclamation Act

  • D. Challenge to “Square Deal”

    • 1. Panic of 1907

      • a. Inelasticity of money

    • 2. Lochner v. New York, 1905

  • “He always wanted to be the bride at every wedding and the corpse at every funeral”

    III.

    Taft

    • A. Election 1908

      • B. “Dollar Diplomacy”

      • C. Progressive Legislation

        • 1. 90 Anti-trust suits

          • a. “rule of reason” limited regulation

        • 2. Bureau of Mines

        • 3. Mann-Elkins Act, 1910

        • 4. Postal Savings

  • D. Split in GOP, 1910

    • 1. Payne-Aldrich Tariff, 1909

    • 2. Ballinger-Pinchot

      • a. Ballinger (corporate use) v

  • Pinchot (“rational use”)

    • 3. “Uncle Joe Cannon”

    • 4. Suit against US Steel

    • 5. Osawatomie Speech, 1910

    • 6. Republican Convention, 1911

    III. Taft A. Election 1908 B. “Dollar Diplomacy” C. Progressive Legislation 1. 90 Anti-trust suits a.

    Election of 1912

     

    Demos

    Progressive

    Socialists

    “New Freedom”

    “New Nationalism”

    Philosophy

    Small business,

    Consolidation of trusts and

    Not Marxist, but wanted

    entrepreneurship, and

    labor unions, paralleled by

    alternative to corrupt 2-

     

    free functioning, unregulated & unmonopolized markets.

    growth of powerful regulatory agencies

    party system.

    Campaign

    Campaigned for

    Campaigned for women’s

    Got ownership RR,

    Promises

    stronger anti-trust legislation, banking reform, and lower tariffs. States rights and shunned social welfare

    suffrage, graduated income tax, lower tariffs, welfare/labor reform, minimum wage, social insurance

    efficient govt, labor reform

    Supporters

    Woodrow Wilson, Louis Brandeis, William Jennings Bryan

    Teddy Roosevelt, Jane Addams, Herbert Croly

    IWW

    IV. Wilson

    IV. Wilson Other People’s Money and How the Bankers Use It (1913) A. Tariffs, Banks, Trusts

    Other People’s Money and How the Bankers Use It (1913)

    • A. Tariffs, Banks, Trusts

      • 1. Underwood Tar, 1913

      • 2. Income Tax, 1913

      • 3. Federal Reserve Act

        • a. “Roosevelt Recession”

    1907

    • b. Pujo Committee

    • c. L.B. Other People’s…

    • 4. Federal Trade Com.

    • 5. Clayton Act

      • a. Danbury Hatters Case

    • 6. Labor Laws

    B.

    Society

    • 1. 17 th Amendment

    • 2. 18 th Amendment

    • 3. 19 th Amendment

    IV. Wilson (cont.)

    IV. Wilson (cont.) RMS Lusitania sunk on May 7, 1915 C. Challenges 1. Free Speech a.

    RMS Lusitania sunk on May 7, 1915

    C. Challenges

    • 1. Free Speech

      • a. Schenck v. U.S., 1919

    • 2. Woman’s Suffrage

      • a. Carrie Chapman Catt

      • b. Alice Paul

  • 3. African Americans

    • a. Race Riots

    • b. Niagra Movement

    • c. NAACP

    • D. Foreign Policy

      • 1. Anti-Imperialist in Asia

      • 2. Imperialist in LA

      • 3. Isolationist

        • a. Lusitania, Arabic, Sussex

  • E. Election 1916

    • 1. “He kept us out of war!”

  • Putting Things In Order

    (use the information in chapter 28 to answer these

    questions)

    .________ 1

    A

    former president opposes his handpicked successor for the

    Republican presidential nomination

    .________ 2

    Sensational

    journalistic accounts of corruption and abuse of power in

    politics and business spur the progressive movement.

    .________ 3

    A

    progressive forestry official feuds with Taft’s secretary of interior,

    deepening the division of the Republican party.

    .________ 4

    A

    novelistic account of Chicago’s meatpacking industry sparks new

    federal laws to protect consumers.

    Putting Things In Order

    A.) 5

    B.) 1

    C.) 4

    D.) 2

    E.) 3

    Answers

    Putting Things In Order

    (use the information from chapter 29 to answer these questions)

    ._____ 1

    Wilson

    extracts a dangerously conditional German agreement to halt

    submarine warfare

    ._____ 2

    Wilson’s

    superb leadership pushes major reforms of the tariff and

    monetary system through Congress

    .______ 3

    The

    bull moose and the elephant are both electorally defeated by the

    donkey bearing the banner of “New Freedom”

    .______ 4

    The

    heavy loss of American lives to German submarines nearly leads

    United States into war with Germany

    .______ 5

    Despite

    efforts to avoid involvement in the Mexican revolution,

    Wilson’s occupation of a Mexican port raises the threat of war

    Answers to Putting Things In

    A.5

    B.2

    C.1

    D.4

    E.3

    Order