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ANTIOXIDANTS

SAVING THE LIVER

Submitted by:
Prerna Malhotra
1504446
LIVER
• Largest gland of the body
• Responsible for drug metabolism and
Biotransformation of drugs
• Metabolism of drug and other toxic
substances involve two types of
reactions: Phase 1: detoxification;
Phase 2: synthetic reaction
• Responsible for metabolism of
protein, fat, carbohydrate,
• synthesis of plasma protein, amino
acids, bile acids,
• storage of iron, copper, vitamins and
glycogen
Functions of Liver
Free radicals
• Highly reactive molecular species with an
unpaired electron

• Formed as by products of metabolic reaxtions in


liver

• Radicals react together to form a less reactive


molecule

• Radical rxns are chain reactions


Free Radical Formation and
damage

1. From oxygen obtaining one or more unpaired


electron, forming free radical.
2. Then affects cells or lipids around it.
3. In return, those cells or lipids become a free
radical which then affect other neighboring
cells.
4. This continues until the free radical is stopped.
Causes of free radical formation
• Air pollution,
• Radiation,
• Cigarette smoke,
• Sunlight,
• Environmental chemicals,
• Exposure to metals,
• Biological materials (including food),
• Chemical reactions that take place in our body.
Antioxidant:

• An Agent that prevents or inhibits oxidation.

• Antioxidants are substances that may


protect cells from the damaging effects of
oxygen radicals and highly reactive
chemicals
Dietary Antioxidants
• A substance in foods that signficantly
decreases the adverse effects of reactive
species, such as reactive oxygen and
nitrogen species, on normal physiological
functions in humans
Antioxidant protection
• Antioxidants, like Vitamin E,
donate extra electrons to
unpaired electrons to stop free
radical damage potential.

• As a result, Vitamin E is no longer


active.

• Although free radical damage


can’t be stopped all together, it
can be minimized.
Vitamin E
• Fat-soluble antioxidant
• Absorbed in Small Intestines
• Primary defender against effects of free radicals in
the body
• Protects cell membranes
• Stored in liver and fat cells.
• Protects components of the cell and their membrane
from destruction .
• Shown to protect against LDL oxidation, raises HDL,
lowers total cholesterol and improves blood preasure
Sources of Vit. E
Vitamin E (Cont.)

• Protects cell membranes

• RDA men = 15mg/day

• RDA Women = 15 mg/day

• Tissues in the cells exposed to the


highest amounts of oxygen like
mitochondria seem to have the
highest amount of Vitamin E
Vitamin C
(ascorbic acid)

• Gives up electrons very easily when


they are needed.

• Helps to reactivate Vitamin E

• Can receive electrons again to become


reactive, having the ability to recycle
themselves.

• Protects oxygen and iron from oxidation.


RDA:
Vitamin C (cont.) Men = 90 mg/day
Women = 75
mg/day
• Protects against oxidation stress.
• Helps with connective and epithelial tissue
maintenance and repair.
• Helps protect arteries against oxidative
damage.
• Water soluble and can flush out of the body
readily, about 24-48 hour body retention
before excreted.
Vitamin A and B - carotene
(precursor)
• Beta Carotene is a water
soluble precursor to Vitamin A,
and is a antioxidant in itself;
where Vitamin A has no
antioxidant activity.

• Found In:
Corn, squash and carrots, egg
yolk, and other pigmented fruits
and vegetables. This is what
helps give them their yellow
color.
Selenium
• An essential trace mineral,

• RDA of 70 ug/day.

• Found in Glutathion peroxidase - a free


radical scavenging enzyme.

• Destroys peroxides and thus protects lipid


membranes as does Vitamin E.
Phytochemicals
• Non-nutrient compounds found in plant-
derived foods that have biological activity in
the body.
• Contribute to food taste, aromas, colors and
other characteristics.
• Act as antioxidants, mimicking hormones,
and suppressing the development of
diseases.
• Work better when combined with other
phytochemicals.
Other effects of Phytochemicals
• May help prevent the introduction of
some cancers
• Block/neutralize enzymes which promote
cancer & other diseases
• May help keep cholesterol in check
• Decrease blood clot formation
• May help prevent osteoporosis
Food Phytochemical(s)

Phytochemicals
Allium vegetables Allyl sulfides
(garlic, onions, chives, leeks)
Cruciferous vegetables Indoles/glucosinolates
Most Commonly Studied Phytochemicals (broccoli, cauliflower, Sulfaforaphane
cabbage, Brussels sprouts, Isothiocyanates/thiocyanates
kale, turnips, bok choy, Thiols
kohlrabi)

Solanaceous vegetables Lycopene


(tomatoes, peppers)
Umbelliferous vegetables Carotenoids
(carrots, celery, cilantro, Phthalides
parsley, parsnips) Polyacetylenes
Compositae plants (artichoke) Silymarin
Citrus fruits Monoterpenes (limonene)
(oranges, lemons, grapefruit) Carotenoids
Glucarates
Other fruits (grapes, berries, Ellagic acid
cherries, apples, cantaloupe, Phenols
watermelon, pomegranate) Flavonoids (quercetin)
Beans, grains, seeds Flavonoids (isoflavones)
(soybeans, oats, barley, brown Phytic acid
rice, whole wheat, flax seed) Saponins
Protease inhibitors

Herbs, spices (ginger, mint, Gingerols


rosemary, thyme, oregano, Flavonoids
There are also hundreds more sage, basil, tumeric, caraway, Monoterpenes (limonene)
fennel)
phytochemicals existing and in
need of discovery! Licorice root Glycyrrhizin Catechins
Green tea
Polyphenols
Broccoli sprouts contain
Tomatoes, with
an abundance of the
their abundant
cancer-fighting
lycopene, may
phytochemical
defend against
sulforaphane
cancer by
protecting DNA
from oxidative
damage

Rich in flavonoids –
apples may protect
against lung cancer

Garlic, with it’s abundant allicin,


may lower blood cholesterol and
protect against stomach cancer
Blueberries, a rich
source of flavonoids,
improves memory in The limonene of citrus
animals fruits may inhibit
cancer growth
Also High in Vitamin C

The phytochemical resveratrol


found in grapes protects
against cancer by inhibiting
cell growth and against heart
disease by limiting clot
formation.
Isoflavones of soybeans seem to starve
cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth;
they may also lower blood cholesterol
and protect cardiac arteries.
Flavanoids
• Referred to as “Super Antioxidants.”
• Shown to have: antiviral, antiallergic,
antiinflammatory, antithrombogenic and
anticarcinogenic effects.
• Scavenge for free radicals associated with
oxygen and iron; or by inhibiting oxidative
enzymes.
• Over 4000 flavanoids found, fall in four different
groups: flavones, flavanones, catechins, and
anthocyanins.

• Found in: certain fruits, flowers, roots, stems, tea,


wine, grains and vegetables
THANK YOU!!!