Sei sulla pagina 1di 30



Submitted by:
Prerna Malhotra
• Largest gland of the body
• Responsible for drug metabolism and
Biotransformation of drugs
• Metabolism of drug and other toxic
substances involve two types of
reactions: Phase 1: detoxification;
Phase 2: synthetic reaction
• Responsible for metabolism of
protein, fat, carbohydrate,
• synthesis of plasma protein, amino
acids, bile acids,
• storage of iron, copper, vitamins and
Functions of Liver
Free radicals
• Highly reactive molecular species with an
unpaired electron

• Formed as by products of metabolic reaxtions in


• Radicals react together to form a less reactive


• Radical rxns are chain reactions

Free Radical Formation and

1. From oxygen obtaining one or more unpaired

electron, forming free radical.
2. Then affects cells or lipids around it.
3. In return, those cells or lipids become a free
radical which then affect other neighboring
4. This continues until the free radical is stopped.
Causes of free radical formation
• Air pollution,
• Radiation,
• Cigarette smoke,
• Sunlight,
• Environmental chemicals,
• Exposure to metals,
• Biological materials (including food),
• Chemical reactions that take place in our body.

• An Agent that prevents or inhibits oxidation.

• Antioxidants are substances that may

protect cells from the damaging effects of
oxygen radicals and highly reactive
Dietary Antioxidants
• A substance in foods that signficantly
decreases the adverse effects of reactive
species, such as reactive oxygen and
nitrogen species, on normal physiological
functions in humans
Antioxidant protection
• Antioxidants, like Vitamin E,
donate extra electrons to
unpaired electrons to stop free
radical damage potential.

• As a result, Vitamin E is no longer


• Although free radical damage

can’t be stopped all together, it
can be minimized.
Vitamin E
• Fat-soluble antioxidant
• Absorbed in Small Intestines
• Primary defender against effects of free radicals in
the body
• Protects cell membranes
• Stored in liver and fat cells.
• Protects components of the cell and their membrane
from destruction .
• Shown to protect against LDL oxidation, raises HDL,
lowers total cholesterol and improves blood preasure
Sources of Vit. E
Vitamin E (Cont.)

• Protects cell membranes

• RDA men = 15mg/day

• RDA Women = 15 mg/day

• Tissues in the cells exposed to the

highest amounts of oxygen like
mitochondria seem to have the
highest amount of Vitamin E
Vitamin C
(ascorbic acid)

• Gives up electrons very easily when

they are needed.

• Helps to reactivate Vitamin E

• Can receive electrons again to become

reactive, having the ability to recycle

• Protects oxygen and iron from oxidation.

Vitamin C (cont.) Men = 90 mg/day
Women = 75
• Protects against oxidation stress.
• Helps with connective and epithelial tissue
maintenance and repair.
• Helps protect arteries against oxidative
• Water soluble and can flush out of the body
readily, about 24-48 hour body retention
before excreted.
Vitamin A and B - carotene
• Beta Carotene is a water
soluble precursor to Vitamin A,
and is a antioxidant in itself;
where Vitamin A has no
antioxidant activity.

• Found In:
Corn, squash and carrots, egg
yolk, and other pigmented fruits
and vegetables. This is what
helps give them their yellow
• An essential trace mineral,

• RDA of 70 ug/day.

• Found in Glutathion peroxidase - a free

radical scavenging enzyme.

• Destroys peroxides and thus protects lipid

membranes as does Vitamin E.
• Non-nutrient compounds found in plant-
derived foods that have biological activity in
the body.
• Contribute to food taste, aromas, colors and
other characteristics.
• Act as antioxidants, mimicking hormones,
and suppressing the development of
• Work better when combined with other
Other effects of Phytochemicals
• May help prevent the introduction of
some cancers
• Block/neutralize enzymes which promote
cancer & other diseases
• May help keep cholesterol in check
• Decrease blood clot formation
• May help prevent osteoporosis
Food Phytochemical(s)

Allium vegetables Allyl sulfides
(garlic, onions, chives, leeks)
Cruciferous vegetables Indoles/glucosinolates
Most Commonly Studied Phytochemicals (broccoli, cauliflower, Sulfaforaphane
cabbage, Brussels sprouts, Isothiocyanates/thiocyanates
kale, turnips, bok choy, Thiols

Solanaceous vegetables Lycopene

(tomatoes, peppers)
Umbelliferous vegetables Carotenoids
(carrots, celery, cilantro, Phthalides
parsley, parsnips) Polyacetylenes
Compositae plants (artichoke) Silymarin
Citrus fruits Monoterpenes (limonene)
(oranges, lemons, grapefruit) Carotenoids
Other fruits (grapes, berries, Ellagic acid
cherries, apples, cantaloupe, Phenols
watermelon, pomegranate) Flavonoids (quercetin)
Beans, grains, seeds Flavonoids (isoflavones)
(soybeans, oats, barley, brown Phytic acid
rice, whole wheat, flax seed) Saponins
Protease inhibitors

Herbs, spices (ginger, mint, Gingerols

rosemary, thyme, oregano, Flavonoids
There are also hundreds more sage, basil, tumeric, caraway, Monoterpenes (limonene)
phytochemicals existing and in
need of discovery! Licorice root Glycyrrhizin Catechins
Green tea
Broccoli sprouts contain
Tomatoes, with
an abundance of the
their abundant
lycopene, may
defend against
cancer by
protecting DNA
from oxidative

Rich in flavonoids –
apples may protect
against lung cancer

Garlic, with it’s abundant allicin,

may lower blood cholesterol and
protect against stomach cancer
Blueberries, a rich
source of flavonoids,
improves memory in The limonene of citrus
animals fruits may inhibit
cancer growth
Also High in Vitamin C

The phytochemical resveratrol

found in grapes protects
against cancer by inhibiting
cell growth and against heart
disease by limiting clot
Isoflavones of soybeans seem to starve
cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth;
they may also lower blood cholesterol
and protect cardiac arteries.
• Referred to as “Super Antioxidants.”
• Shown to have: antiviral, antiallergic,
antiinflammatory, antithrombogenic and
anticarcinogenic effects.
• Scavenge for free radicals associated with
oxygen and iron; or by inhibiting oxidative
• Over 4000 flavanoids found, fall in four different
groups: flavones, flavanones, catechins, and

• Found in: certain fruits, flowers, roots, stems, tea,

wine, grains and vegetables