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A Simple Circuit
We must have a closed circuit to turn on the lamp. Closed circuit is a circuit with all parts connected, so that its electric current can flow A circuit that is disconnected is called open circuit. In the open circuit, there is no path to flow the electrons, and they cant turn on the bulb

Electric Current
Dynamic Electricity is the flowing charges The amount of electric charge flowing in a conductor in every seconds called electric current Mathematically, it can formulated: I=Q I=Electric current (Ampere) t Q=Electric Charge (Couloumb)
t=Time Interval


Potential Difference
The energy that function to conduct an electric charge from one point to another point is called potential difference Mathematically, it can formulated: V=W V=Potential Difference (Volt) q W=Energy (Joule)
q=Electric Charge (Coulomb)

Ammeter & Voltmeter

Ammeter must be set in series in a component of which the electric current will be measured. Meanwhile, voltmeter must be set in parallel in a component the potential difference of which will be measured

Serial Circuit & Parallel Circuit

Serial circuit is a circuit which the electric components are arranged in series or not branching so the electric so the electric current that flows in each component is equal Parallel circuit is a circuit which the electric component are arranged in parallel or branching so the electric voltage in each component is equal.

STATE: Electric current that flows in a conductor wire is directly proportional to voltage difference between ends of that conductor wire. Mathematically, it can formulated: I=V I=Electric Current (Ampere) R V=Potential Difference (Volt)
R=Electric Resistance (Ohm)

The relation among resistance, length of wire, area of wires cross section, and wires resistivity can be expressed as follows. Mathematically, it can formulated: R= p l R=Electric Resistance (Ohm)


l=Length of a wire (meter)

A=Section area of the wire

Based on conductivity, materials are distinguished into : 1. Conductor: material that easily conducts an electric current and easily conducted with an electric current. Example: iron, copper, aluminium, graphite, and steel


Semiconductor is a material or substance the electric conductivity of which lies between conductor and insulator Insulator is a material or substance that is difficult to conduct an electric current or is not easily conduct with an electric current


STATE: The sum of electric current flowing to the branching point is equal to the sum of electric current flowing away from that branching point.

In the series circuit of electric resistors the following apply: a. The electric current in each resistor is equal to the electric current in substitute resistor b. The sum of voltage in each resistor is equal to the voltage in a substitute voltage.

c. The substitute resistance is equal to the sum of each resistance d. The voltage in each resistor is directly proportional to its resistance

In the parallel circuit of electric resistors the following apply: a. The electric current that flows through a substitute resistor is equal to the sum of electric current that flows through each resistor b. The voltage in a substitute resistor is equal to the voltage in each resistor

c. The electric current that flows in each resistor is directly proportional to the inverse of its resistance d. Parallel substitute resistor is formulated as follows: 1 = 1 + 1 + 1 + .. Rp R1 R2 R3


Electromotive Electric Source (EMF): EMF of an electric current source is the potential difference between the ends of electric current source when the electric current source conducts electric current Divided into two kinds: 1. Alternative Current (AC) 2. Direct Current (DC)

Generator is a device consisting of a coil wire and a magnet to generate electricity A generator converts kinetic energy into electrical energy Kinetic energy can be converted into electrical energy. Moving a magnet in a coil wire can generate electric current

1. Primary element: electrochemical elements that cant be charged anymore if their charge is used up. Example: dry element (batteries), wet element (voltaic element) 2. Secondary element: electrochemical elements that can be charged again if their charged is used up. Example: accumulator

Clamping Voltage
Clamping voltage is the potential difference between the poles of an elements while conducting electric current The relationship between clamping voltage and EMF are like the equation below: V = Vr or V = - Ir V= Clamping voltage = EMF I = electric current internal resistance R=internal resistance in electric current sources


Ammeter is an instrument used to measure current that passes through a node or another part of circuit. We have to place an ammeter in series with resistor The current passing through the circuit will decrease when the device has higher resistance. So, the resistance of the ammeter resistance should be very small

Voltmeter is used is used to measure the voltage that passes across a circuit We have to place a voltmeter parallel to the resistor The resistance of voltmeter should be very big so that it enables to detect small current and voltage change


1. Reading the scale shown by needle 2. Dividing the value on the scale by the maximum scale 3. Multiplying the result of step (2) by the selected maximum scale


Electric energy is the energy produced by an electric current in a conductor that can be changed to another form of energy. Equation: W = Q.V W=I.t.V W = I2.R.t W= V2 . t R

Electric Power
Electric Power is Electric energy per time. Equation: P=W t P = V.I P = I2 . R P = V2 R