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PRESTIGE INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE

A PRESENTATION ON POLLUTION OF RIVER GANGES (GANGA)  SANDEEP KHORE  SUYASH JAIN  GAURAV
A PRESENTATION ON POLLUTION
OF RIVER GANGES (GANGA)
SANDEEP KHORE
SUYASH JAIN
GAURAV JAIN
SUBMITTED TO:-
SHILPA BURRA
ANUBHA MA’AM
A.R. VISHAL KIRTI SODIYA

PRESENTED BY:-

GANGA (GANGES) The Ganges is the largest river in India with an extraordinary religious importance for
GANGA (GANGES)
The Ganges is the largest river in India with an extraordinary
religious importance for Hindus. Ganga River originates in the
Himalayas and is 2, 525 km (1,569 mi) long. It begins at the
Gangotri glacier in the state of Uttarakhand, where it empties
into the Bay of Bengal. It is the second largest river in the
World by discharge. In the central Himalayas at the concourse
of five headstreams - Bhagirathi River, Mandakini, Alaknanda
River, Dhauliganga and Pindar at Dev Prayag. Ganga or, more
exactly, Bhagirathi, originates from Gangotri glacier, one of the
biggest glaciers in Himalayas. The place, where Bhagirathi
flows out from Gangotri, it called "Goumukh" (Holy site know
as char dham. This word means "Cow mouth". Indeed, with
use of imagination this icy cave reminds a cow.
BASIN OF GANGES
BASIN OF GANGES
ORIGIN OF GANGES
ORIGIN OF GANGES
POLLUTION OF GANGA The Ganges was ranked among the five most polluted rivers of the world
POLLUTION OF GANGA
The Ganges was ranked among the five most polluted rivers of
the world in 2007. An estimated 2.9 billion litres or more of
human sewage is discharged into the Ganges daily (200 million
litres daily in the city Varanasi alone), although the existing
treatment plants have capacity to treat only 1.1 billion litres
per day, leaving a huge deficit. Ganga which is the life line of
millions of people and of great religious significance is being
polluted by both domestic sewage and industrial pollutants
that are being dumped in to the river untreated. This causes
health hazard for over 400 million people who directly and
indirectly use the river water in their daily lives. In
Varanasi rivers "Varuna" and "Asi" have been polluted beyond
recognition that now they flow not a rivers but just torrents of
sewage and waste water mixing at the start and end of the
holy city of Varanasi (Varuna-Asi).
DEAD BODIES & WASTES ARE DUMPED IN THE RIVER
DEAD BODIES & WASTES ARE DUMPED
IN THE RIVER
CAUSES HUMAN WASTE INDUSTRIAL WASTE RELIGIOUS EVENTS
CAUSES
HUMAN WASTE
INDUSTRIAL WASTE
RELIGIOUS EVENTS
Human waste The Gangas river basin is one of the most fertile and densely populated regions
Human waste
The Gangas river basin is one of the most fertile
and densely populated regions in the world and
covers an area of 1,080,000 km2(400,000 square
miles). The river flows through 29 cities with
population over 100,000; 23 cities with population
between 50,000 and 100,000, and about 48
towns. A large proportion of the waste in the
Ganges is from this population through domestic
usage like bathing, laundry and public defecation.
Industrial waste Countless tanneries, chemical plants, textile mills, distilleries, slaughterhouses, and hospitals contribute to the pollution
Industrial waste
Countless tanneries, chemical plants, textile
mills, distilleries, slaughterhouses, and
hospitals contribute to the pollution of the
Ganges by dumping untreated waste into
it. Industrial effluents are about 12% of the
total volume of effluent reaching the Ganges.
Although a relatively low proportion, they are a
cause for major concern because they are
often toxic and non-biodegradable.
Religious events
Religious events
people bathe ritualistic
people bathe
ritualistic

During festival seasons, over 70 million

in the Ganges over a few weeks to cleanse waste or leaves are left in the
in the Ganges over a few weeks to cleanse
waste or leaves are left in the Ganges for
reasons.

themselves from their sins. Some materials like food,

Religious events people bathe ritualistic During festival seasons, over 70 million in the Ganges over a
IMPACT MARINE LIFE WILDLIFE HUMAN BEING
IMPACT
MARINE LIFE
WILDLIFE
HUMAN BEING
Marine life The results of mercury analysis in various specimens collected along the basin indicated that
Marine life
The results of mercury analysis in various specimens
collected along the basin indicated that some fish
muscles tended to accumulate high levels of mercury. Of
it, approximately 50–84% was organic mercury. A strong
positive correlation between mercury levels in muscle
with food habit and fish length was found.
The Ganges River dolphin is one of few species of fresh
water dolphins in the world. Listed as an endangered
species, their population is believed to be less than
2000. Hydroelectric and irrigation dams along the
Ganges that prevents the dolphins from traveling up and
down river is the main reason for their reducing
population.
Wildlife Some of the dams being constructed along the Ganges basin will submerge substantial areas of
Wildlife
Some of the dams being constructed along the Ganges basin
will submerge substantial areas of nearby forest. For
example, the Kotli-Bhel dam at Devprayag will submerge
1200 hectares of forest, wiping out the river otters and
'mahaseer' (a kind of fish) that are found
here. Wildlifebiologists in
India have been warning that the
wild animals will find it difficult to cope with the changed
situation.
Human beings An analysis of the Ganges water in 2006 showed significant associations between water-borne/enteric disease
Human beings
An analysis of the Ganges water in 2006 showed significant
associations between water-borne/enteric disease pop and
the use of the river for bathing, laundry, washing, eating,
cleaning utensils, and brushing teeth. Exposure factors such
as washing clothes, bathing and lack of sewerage, toilets at
residence, children defecating outdoors, poor sanitation, low
income and low education levels also showed significant
associations with enteric disease outcome. Water in the
Ganges has been correlated to contracting dysentery,
cholera, hepatitis, as well as severe diarrhea which continues
to be one of the leading causes of death of children in India.

Cleaning efforts

GANGA ACTION PLAN:- The Ganga Action Plan or GAP was a program launched by Sarojini naidu
GANGA ACTION PLAN:-
The Ganga Action Plan or GAP was a program launched by Sarojini
naidu in April 1986 in order to reduce the pollution load on the river.
But the efforts to decrease the pollution level in the river became more
after spending Rs 901.71 Crore Ganga Action Plan Therefore, this plan
was withdrawn on 31 March 2000. The steering Committee of the
National River Conservation Authority reviewed the progress of the
GAP and necessary correction on the basis of lessons learned and
experiences gained from the GAP phase; 2 schemes have been
completed under this plan. A million litres of sewage is targeted to be
intercepted, diverted and treated. Phase-II of the program was
approved in stages from 1993 onwards, and included the following
tributaries of the Ganges: Yamuna, Gomti, Damodar and Mahananda.
As of 2011, it is currently under implementation.
Scientists and religious leaders have speculated on the causes of the
river's apparent self-purification effect, in which water-borne bacteria
such as dysentery and cholera are killed off thus preventing large-scale
epidemics. Some studies have reported that the river retains more
oxygen than is typical for comparable rivers; this could be a factor
leading to fewer disease agents being present in the water.
THANK’S YOU
THANK’S YOU