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TOPIC: CONSTRUCTION PLANNING (MONITORING) AND CONTROL

RD 3

CONCEPT Planning
is the process of quantifying the amount of time and resources, and the size of the budget for the project. The output of the project planning process is a project plan that a project manager can use to monitor and control the project teams progress.

Monitoring

are the process involves determining what information to collect, how, when and who will collect the information, analysis the info and reporting the current progress.
actual performance with baseline performance and discerning any deviation. This deviation must be analyzed and suggest the solution to bring the schedule back on track.

Controlling is a process of comparing the

PLANNING AND CONTROLLING PROGRAMME


COST ORIENTED PROJECT PLANNING DIRECT COST INDIRECT COST TIME PLANNING (Project plan Gantt Chart & CPM

SCHEDULE ORIENTED (WBS)

RESOURCES PLANNING (Resource Scheduling)

REASONS FOR PLANNING AND CONTROLLING


To know whether the project turn out to be good or bad To know whether it costs more than your client thought it should be To know if it took too long to complete To communicate information to people To define the sequence of activities to make the optimum use of resource To persuade people to complete task before they delay subsequent activities To provide a framework for decision making in event of change

PROCESS OF PLANNING AND SCHEDULING THE PROJECT


DETERMINE THE WORK ACTIVITIES DETERMINE ACTIVITY DURATIONS DETERMINE LOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS DRAW THE LOGIC NETWORK REVIEW AND ANALYSE THE SCHEDULE IMPLEMENT THE SCHEDULE MONITOR AND CONTROL THE SCHEDULE REVISE THE DATABASE AND RECORD FEEDBACK FOR SCHEDULING AND MONITORING BACKBONE OF PLANNING

IMPLEMENT RESOURCE ALLOCATION AND LEVELLING

SCHEDULE ORIENTED PLANNING (WBS)


WBS = is a hierarchical outline (map) that identifies the products and work elements involved in a project.
2 basic techniques i. Bar chart/Gantt chart ii. Network diagrams

i. BAR CHART/GANTT CHART.


A graphic representation of project activities shown in a time-scale bar lines with no links shown between activities.
Popescu and Charoenngam, 1995

Named after their inventor HENRY L. GANTT in 1917.

THE ADVANTAGES OF GANTT CHART/BAR CHART


Easy to prepared and understand by workers Overall view for the project can be shown at early stage of construction. Work progress can be mark easily on chart. Easy to understand and as controlling device. Basic for calculating the work value versus time and preparing cash flow.

THE DISADVANTAGES OF GANTT CHART/BAR CHART


Linkage between the activity are invisible. No information on work flow and priority. No certain flow/link which connected one activity to another. Any delay will not show effect to overall project progress. Any changes or review on chart will not show effect to overall project progress

Examples 1 :
No Activity 1 Design 2 Work below Ground Level 3 Structure works 4 Wall & roof 5 Finishes Duration Immediately Preceding (weeks) Activity (IPA) 6 9 Design 5 Design

7 4

WBGL Wall & Roof

GANTT CHART PROGRAMME


ACTIVITY 1. DESIGN 2. WBGL 3. STRUCTURE 4. WALL/ROOF 5. FINISHES DURATION (WEEKS)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

DATA FROM CHART


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Overall duration = Critical Path = Float for activity 3 = Activity 3 Earliest Start = Activity 3 Earliest Finish = Activity 3 Latest Start = Activity 3 Latest Finish = 26 weeks 1,2,4,5 4 weeks week 6 week 11 week 10 week 15

Examples 2 :
No Activity 1 Design 2 WBGL Duration Immediately Preceding (weeks) Activity (IPA) 7 Design 7

3 Structure
4 Wall & roof 5 Finishes 6 External work

8
4 4 2

Design Structure WBGL. Wall & roof Finishes

GANTT CHART PROGRAMME


ACTIVITY DESIGN WBGL
DURATION (WEEKS) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

STRUCTURE
WALL/ROOF FINISHES EXTERNAL WORK

DATA FROM CHART


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Overall duration = Critical Path = Float for activity 2 = Activity 2 Earliest Start = Activity 2 Earliest Finish = Activity 2 Latest Start = Activity 2 Latest Finish = 25 weeks 1,3,4,5,6 1 week week 7 week 14 week 8 week 15

ii. NETWORK DIAGRAMS


a. ACTIVITY ON ARROW

Example 1

2 4 5

3
Example 2

2
1 3 4

CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM)


A logical and chronological graphic representation of the activities and events composing a project. Basic component : i. Arrow : represent logical linkages ii. Node : represent activities and detail of time iii. No dummy activities

THE ADVANTAGES OF CPM


Show a clear linkages between all activities. Critical/urgent activities recognized in critical path. Due to any delay, diagram will be reviewed and altered easily. Overall progress will be acknowledge and monitored easily.

THE DISADVANTAGES OF CPM


The linkages are quite difficult to understand. Certain exercises and courses are required and usually not suitable for small & medium firms. Difficult to understand by site workers. Usually, be replaced by bar/Gantt chart. Only suitable for big/huge and complex projects.

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS


Activity = work include time & resources event = nodes shows the beginning and ending of activities Arrow = represent activity & direction to bigger nodes Dummy = fake activity just to explain logic in progress Duration = time provided for each activities Earliest start/finish = earliest date activity can start Latest start/finish = latest date activity can start Total float = time adjustment for activity w/o effecting the overall duration of the project TF= LS ES @ LF - EF Critical path = continuous chain of critical activities from the start to the end of the project. No float allowed

RULES FOR COMPILING CPM


Start and finish with a single activity Plot activities horizontally along the paper and link activities in logical sequence. Determine dependency of each activity on other activities and link as necessary All activities should start at the earliest time possible Once dependencies are complete, insert the activity duration Examine the potential for overlap of activities, as this will reduce overall programmed duration

RULES FOR CRITICAL PATH


A Sequence which one activity should started right after the completion of previous activity All activities in critical path must fully utilized the time provided. Must be the longest path along the process At least one critical path per every project All activities in this path are not subject to any float In case of any changes in critical path, modification will conclude all activities.

PROPER NODE DIAGRAM


NO IMPROPER Do not connect node from the top or bottom 1 Should not be signed from right to left Should signed from left to right PROPER Connect sides only

2 Do not combine relationship line


3 Do not intersect by flat crossing 4 Make a jump over the line

Separate relationship line

TYPES OF CPM
CRITICAL PATH METHOD (BASIC NETWORK PROGRAMME) Activity @ ID

A ES LS

CRITICAL PATH METHOD (PRECEDENCE NETWORK )

ES

ID

EF

ACTIVITY LS D LF

BASIC NETWORK PROGRAMME


Example 1
Activity 1-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 3-6 4-6 4-8 5-7 6-8 Duration(week) 2 5 6 4 8 4 3 6 5

Example 2
Activity A B C D E F G H Duration(week) 5 9 6 3 4 5 7 6 IPA A A B B,C D E,F E

I J
K L

4 2
5 7

G H
I,J K

7-9
8-9

7
3

BASIC NETWORK PROGRAMME


Example 3
Activity 1-2 2-3 2-4 3-5 3-6 4-6 4-8 5-7 6-7 Duration(week) 2 5 6 4 8 4 3 6 5

Example 4
Activity A B C D E F G H Duration(week) 2 1 3 2 4 3 5 2 IPA A B B C C,D E,F E

I J
K L

4 4
2 2

F,G H
I,J K

7-8
8-9

7
3

CPM- SOLUTION
- draw AOA for guideline Example 1:
3 1 2 4 5 7 6 8 9

Example 2:
B
A C E H J

CPM- SOLUTION
Draw CPM (example 1)
3 1 0 0 2 2 2 2 4 5 7 7 6 4 8 11 5 6 10

8
4

6 15 15 3

5 8 20 20 7 12 16 3 9 23 23

Cp = 1 2 3 6 8 9

CPM- SOLUTION
Draw CPM (example 2)
B
A 0 0 5 C 5 12 6 E 14 18 5 5 5 9 4 4 9

D 14 14

F 17 17
5 G 22 22

I 29 29 7 4 K 33 33 2 6 J 24 31 5 L 38 38

H 18 25

Cp = A B D F G I K L

CPM- RESULT TABULATION


Example 1:
ID D (W) ES EF LS LF TF CP

Example 2:
ID D (W) ES EF LS LF TF CP

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

2 6 8 4 6 5 7 3 0

0 2 7 8 6 15 12 20 23

2 8 15 12 12 20 19 23 23

0 2 7

2 8 15

0 0 0 3 4 0 4 0 0

/ / / X X / X / /

A B C D E F G H I J K L

5 9 6 3 4 5 7 6 4 2 5 7

0 5 5 14 14 17 22 18 29 24 33 38

5 14 11 17 18 22 29 24 33 26 38 45

0 5

5 14

0 0 7 0 4 0 0 7 0 7 0 0

/ / X / X / / X / X / /

12 18 14 17 18 22 17 22 22 29 25 31 29 33 31 33 33 38 38 45

11 15 10 16 15 20 16 23 20 23 23 23

CPM- CONVERT TO CHART


Example 1: 1D 1-2. 2-3. DURATION (WEEKS) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

2-4.
2-5. 3-6.

4-6.
4-8. 5-7.

6-8.
7-9.

8-9.

CPM- CONVERT TO CHART


Example 2:
1D DURATION (WEEKS) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45

A B C D E F G

H
I J K L

PRECEDENCE NETWORK PROGRAMME


Example 1
ID A B C Duration (week) 4 6 3 IPA A B LABOUR 5 8 4

Example 2
ID A B Duration (week) 2 2 IPA A LABOUR 3 6

C
D E F G H I

3
5 1 3 4 2 2

B
B C, D D E,F G F,H

5
4 6 2 5 4 6

D
E F G H

4
2 3 1 4

B
D C,E D,F G

5
4 4 2 6

PRECEDENCE NETWORK PROGRAMME


Example 3
ID A B C Duration (week) 2 3 4 IPA A A LABOUR 2 3 4

Example 4
Activity A B Duration IPA (week) 3 3 A LABOUR 2 3

C
D E F G H I J K

3
5 2 4 6 2 3 4 2

B
C B,C D,E D,F G F,H I,H J

3
2 4 2 3 3 2 3 4

D
E F G H I J

2
5 3 4 2 2 3

C
B,C D E,F G G H,I

2
5 3 2 4 2 3

PRECEDENCE NETWORK- SOLUTION


- draw AOA for guideline Example 1:
C A B D E F G H

Example 2:
C E D F G H

PRECEDENCE NETWORK
EXAMPLE 1 10 C 13
0 A 4 0 4 4 4 B 10 4 6 10 10 D 14 10 4 14 13 3 16 16 F 19

16 3 19 14 E 16
14 2 16

19 G 20 19 1 20

20 H 24 20 4 24

EXAMPLE 2
4 C 7 0 A 2 0 2 2 2 B 4 2 2 4 4 3 7 4 D 9 4 5 9 9 E 10 11 1 12 12 G 16 12 4 16 16 H 18 16 2 18 18 I 20 18 2 20

9 F 12
9 3 12

PRECEDENCE- RESULT TABULATION


Example 1:
ID D (W) ES EF LS LF TF CP

Example 2:
ID D (W) ES EF LS LF TF CP

A B C D E F G H

4 6 3 4 2 3 1

0 4 10 10 14 16 19 20

4 10 13 14 16 19 20 24

0 4

4 10

0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0

/ / X / / / / /

A B C D E F G H I

2 2 3 5 1 3 4

0 2 4 4 9 9 12 16 18

2 4 7 9 10 12 16 18 20

0 2 4 4 9

2 4 7 9 12

0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0

/ / / / X / / / /

13 16 10 14 14 16 16 19 19 20 20 24

11 12 12 16 16 18 18 20

2 2

CHART & RESOURCES PROFILES (EX1)


1D A B C D E F G H
1 RESOURCES 5 1 2
5

DURATION (WEEKS) 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

WEEK

2 5

3 5

4 5

5 8

6 8

7 8

8 8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 8 8 9 9 9 5 4 4 4 4 4 1 6 6 6 6

CHART & RESOURCES PROFILES (EX2)


1D A B C D E F G H I WEEK RESOURCES 1
3

DURATION (WEEKS) 8 9 10 11 12 13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

1 3

2 3

3 6

4 6

5 9

6 9

7 9

8 4

9 4

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 8 2 2 5 5 5 5 4 4 6 6

Basic element in EARNED VALUE(EV) technique Typical S-curve plotted comparing budget and actual costs. S-curves examine the progress of the project and forecast expenditure in terms of man hours or money. This is compared with the actual expenditure as the project progresses or the value of the work done. All project regardless their size are plotted against the same parameters and characteristic curve can be more readily seen.

S-CURVE (COST AND TIME CONTROL)

S-CURVE (COST AND TIME CONTROL)


TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
NO. 1 TERM EARNED VALUE ANALYSIS (EVA) BUDGETED COST OF WORK SCHEDULE (BCWS) BUDGETED COST OF WORK PERFORMED (BCWP) ACTUAL COST OF WORK PERFORMED (ACWP) DEFINITION Compares the value of work done with the value of work that should Is the value of work that should have been done at given time. This take the work planned to have been done and budget for each task, indicating the portion of the budget planned to have been used. Is the value of work done at a point of time. This takes the work that has been done and the budget for each task, indicating what portion of the budget ought to have used to achieve it. Is the actual cost of the work done

S-CURVE
100% 90%

BCWS Budgeted cost of work scheduled

Value of Work

BCWP Budgeted cost of work performed ACWP Actual cost of work performed

Start

50% Time

80%

Finish

S-CURVE
S-curve has three significant variables that need analyzing, time, money and the S shape (known as the route) Since the S shape or route has been foxed, then only two variable left to be analyzed. The route is as much as a target as the final cost. If the movement month to month is compared then the trend can be derived.

S-CURVE- Determination of cost & Schedule variance


COST Estimete at completion Budget at completion

ACWP

BCWS Cost variance Schedule variance

BCWP

TIME

EARNED VALUE ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE


PRODUCTIVITY the ratio between output & input and provides a measure of efficiency. SCHEDULE VARIANCE (SV) = the value of work done minus the work that should have done = BCWP BCWS (-ve value = behind schedule) COST VARIANCE (CV) = budgeted cost of work done to date minus actual cost of the work done to date = BCWP ACWP (-ve value =budget overrun)

S-CURVE EXERSICES
Example 1
Activity 1-2 1-3 2-4 2-5 3-5 4-6 5-6 Duration (week) 2 6 4 5 3 2 3 COST ESTIMATE (RM) 32,000.00 42,000.00 38,000.00 45,000.00 30,000.00 26,000.00 18,000.00

S-CURVE -SOLUTION
CALCULATE THE AVERAGE COST PER WEEK
Activity Duration (week) 1-2 1-3 2-4 2 6 4 COST ESTIMATE (RM) 32,000.00 42,000.00 38,000.00 AVERAGE C OST PER WEEK (RM) 16,000.00 7,000.00 9,500.00

2-5
3-5 4-6 5-6

5
3 2 3

45,000.00
30,000.00 26,000.00 18,000.00

9,000.00
10,000.00 13,000.00 6,000.00

CONVERT TO CHART
1D 1-2. DURATION (WEEKS) 1 16K 2 16K 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

1-3.

7K

7K

7K

7K

7K

7K

2-4.

9.5K

9.5K

9.5K

9.5K

2-5.

9K

9K

9K

9K

9K

3-5.

10K

10K

10K

4-6.

13K

13K

5-6. COST/WEEK CUMULATIVE 23,000 23,000 23,000 46,000 25,500 71,500 25,500 97,000 25,500 25,500 32,000 23,000 10,000

6K 6,000

6K 6,000

6K 6,000

122,500 148,000 180,000 203,000 213,000 219,000 225,000 231,000

PLOTTING THE S-CURVE


COST 240,000 220,000 200,000 180,000 160,000 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 WEEK

S-CURVE EXERSICES
Example 2
Activity 1-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 3-6 4-6 4-8 5-7 6-8 Duration (week) 2 5 6 4 8 4 3 6 5 COST ESTIMATE (RM) 25,000.00 35,000.00 18,000.00 36,000.00 40,000.00 20,000.00 22,500.00 15,000.00 26,000.00

7-9
8-9

7
3

59,500.00
12,000.00

S-CURVE -SOLUTION
Example 1
Activity Duration (week) 1-2 2-3 2-4 2 5 6 COST ESTIMATE (RM) 25,000.00 35,000.00 18,000.00 AVERAGE C OST PER WEEK (RM) 12,500.00 7,000.00 3,000.00

2-5
3-6 4-6 4-8 5-7 6-8 7-9 8-9

4
8 4 3 6 5 7 3

36,000.00
40,000.00 20,000.00 22,500.00 15,000.00 26,000.00 59,500.00 12,000.00

9,000.00
5,000.00 5,000.00 7,500.00 2,500.00 5,200.00 8,500.00 4,000.00

EXERSICE 2-S-CURVE
Example 1
ID A B C Duration (week) 4 6 3 IPA A B COST (RM) 50,000 36,000 42,000

Example 2
ID A B Duration (week) 2 2 IPA A COST (RM) 28,000 32,000

C
D E F G H I

3
5 1 3 4 2 2

B
B C, D D E,F G F,H

39,000
37,500 11,500 45,000 40,000 20,500 16,000

D
E F G H

4
2 3 1 4

B
D C,E D,F G

58,000
24,000 21,600 12,000 32,000

SOLUTION- CALCULATE COST PER WEEK


Example 1
ID A B C Duration (week) 4 6 3 IPA A B COST (RM) 50,000 36,000 42,000 COST PER WEEK (RM) 12,500 6,000 14,000

D
E F G H

4
2 3 1 4

B
D C,E D,F G

58,000
24,000 21,600 12,000 32,000

14,500
12,000 7,200 12,000 8,000

GANTT CHART
1D 1 2 3 4 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 K K K K 5 6 7 8 9

DURATION (WEEKS)
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

A B C

6K

6K

6K

6K

6K

6K 14K 14K 14K

D
E F G H COST 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 6K K K K K 56 6K 62 6K 68 6K 74 6K 80 6K

14.5K 14.5K 14.5K 14.5K


12K 12K 7.2K 7.2K 7.2K 12K 8K 28.5 28.5 28.5 14.5 12K 12K 7.2K 7.2K 7.2K 12K K K K K 8K 8K 8K 8K 8K 8K 8K

CUMULATI 12.5 25 37.5 50 VE

86 114.5 143 171.5 186 198 210 217.2 224.4 231.6 243.6 251.6 259.6 267.6 275.6

S-CURVE SOLUTIONS
COST 280,000 260,000

240,000
220,000 200,000 180,000 160,000 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 WEEK

KAWALAN MUTU
DEFINISI :- Gabungan ciri-ciri bahan. Pemasangannya dan upaya kerja ditapak yang menentukan sejauhmana mutu kerja yang telah siap dapat memberi kepuasan kepada pelanggan Terbahagi kpd 2 aspek : i. Mutu Rekabentuk Ii. Mutu Binaan

MUTU REKABENTUK:- Merekabentuk dengan mengambilkira isu-isu pemasangan, boleh bina dan keperluan utk mengkoordinasi rekabentuk keseluruhan (struktur, perkhidmatan, kemasan, perabot) sebagai satu produk MUTU BINAAN :- Pembinaan mesti menepati kehendak rekabentuk bagi mengelakkan mutu pembinaan berkurangan. Kakitangan pembinaan mestilah ada kemahiran, prihatin dan berpengetahuan teknikal.

KAWALAN MUTU

KAWALAN MUTU Aspek-aspek kawalan mutu :


i. ii. iii. iv. v. Perancangan Pengetahuan teknikal Sumber Komunikasi Kemahiran.

KAWALAN MUTU
Spesifikasi : satu set dokumen bertulis berkaitan kehendak bahan, mutu kerja dan upaya kerja. Menjelaskan secara bertulis perkara yang tidak dijelaskan pada lukisan seperti kualiti dan cara penyambungan bahan. Sesetengan kontrak perlukan spesifikasi sebagai syarat kontrak. Penting sebagai pengukur mutu kerja

KAWALAN MUTU
3 KATEGORI SPESIFIKASI

i. Spesifikasi bahan jenis bahan yang diperlukan, kualiti dan ciri-ciri ii. Spesifikasi upaya kerja kualiti buruh, had toleren dan kehendak keselamatan. iii. Spesifikasi prestasi perkara berkaitan keupayaan seperti kapasiti loji mekanikal atau elektrikal.

KANDUNGAN SPESIFIKASI :4 unsur asas dalam penulisan spesifikasi: i. Tahu apa yang dikehendaki, nyatakan dengan jelas dan tanpa keraguan. ii. Menyatakan dengan jelas. Bahasa yang mudah difahami oleh semua orang iii. Kaedah kerja iv. Penentuan bahan
Perkataan teknikal digunakan jika perlu. Spesifikasi yang tidak jelas implisit akan menimbulkan pertelingkahan dan biasanya pengertian kontraktor akan diberi keutamaan

KAWALAN MUTU

Spesifikasi Piawai Cth : spesifikasi piawai utk kerja-kerja binaan bangunan oleh JKR sebagai panduan pembinaan. Digunapakai utk semua jenis pembinaan kecuali yg dinyatakan secara spesifik Kelebihan dari segi keseragaman kualiti dan upaya kerja Tapi terdapat terlalu banyak item yg tidak releven.

KAWALAN MUTU

KAWALAN MUTU
Kawalan mutu di tapak Tapak tempat aktiviti pembinaan berlaku 2 pihak utama : i. Kontraktor bertanggungjawab menghasilkan binaan Pegawai penguasa/wakil majikan bertanggungjawab memastikan kerja kontraktor menepati spesifikasi.

Senarai Semak kaedah/ cara perlaksanaan kerja yang mengikut spesifikasi. Contoh senarai semak kerja konkrit: - periksa bancuhan konkrit berasakan bancuhan dan
rekabentuk yang diluluskan - Periksan peralatan ujian sebelum digunakan. - Sediakan kiub ujian, awet & uji ikut spesifikasi - Lakukan ujian runtuh, bulking pasir pada batu baur dan kawal nisbah air simen

KAWALAN MUTU

KAWALAN MUTU
Contoh senarai semak kerja konkrit (samb): - Konkrit tidak boleh dijatuhkan dari kedudukan
tinggi dan ke atas tetulang. Konkrit mesti digetar semasa dituang dan penggetar tidak boleh kena tetulang atau kotak bentuk. - Konkrit yang telah mengalami set permulaan tidak boleh dibancuh semula dan mesti dibuang. - Setelah konkrit mengalami set akhir, ia hendaklah diawet dengan melembapkan permukaan terbuka.

KAWALAN MUTU
UJIAN bagi memastikan bahan/struktur menepati spesifikasi yang ditetapkan 3 kelas ujian dalam Kejuruteraan Awam i. Ujian Kesesuaian ii. Ujian Prestasi iii. Ujian Kefungsian

KAWALAN MUTU
Ujian Kesesuaian - ujian atas bahan/komponen bagi pastikan ia boleh digunakan seperti yang ditetapkan - Dilakukan di tapak atau makmal - 2 kaedah ujian kesesuaian bagi bahan
i. Bahan yang dihasilkan pengeluar dan diuji dikilang (persampelan) dan diberi pengesahan piawaian sirim bagi mengesahkan mutu bahan tersebut. Cth :pintu tahan kebakaran/simen ii. Bahan yang perlu diuji ditapak seperti konkrit.

KAWALAN MUTU
Ujian Prestasi
- Dilakukan di tapak atau makmal - Untuk kawal mutu bahan yang tidak boleh dilakukan dengan ujian kesesuaian - Ujian kiub, ujian beban & sambungan paip

Ujian Kefungsian
- Ujian bagi pastikan sistem/produk berfungsi seperti dalam objektif rekabentuk asal. - Ujian ini biasanya dilakukan di tapak - Contoh ujian ke atas pam atau air-cond

KONSEP PEMASTIAN KUALITI (QA)


Definisi : keseluruhan ciri-ciri dan sifat sesuatu produk/perkhidmatan yang dihasilkan adalah bergantung kepada keupayaan produk/ perkhidmatan itu sendiri untuk memenuhi kehendak/ keperluan seperti yang dinyatakan. (ISO 8402 1986 :Quality Vocabulary) Piawaian yang digunakan i. International Standard (ISO) ii. Malaysian Standard (MS)

KONSEP PEMASTIAN KUALITI (QA)


Pemastian kualiti adalah berkaitan dengan:

i. ii. iii. iv. v.

Keberkesanan kos Kecekapan produktiviti Ketepatan untuk kali pertama Pengurusan kualiti yang baik Tanggungjawab yang dilaksanakan oleh semua pihak

Langkah pemastian Kualiti sesuatu produk:

KONSEP PEMASTIAN KUALITI (QA)

- Sahkan spesifikasi yang boleh diterima pakai bagi setiap produk yang terhasil - Pemilihan bahan-bahan bagi produk tersebut yang khususnya memenuhi spesifikasi yang dikehendaki. - Perancangan saiz pengeluaran projek agar dapat dihasilkan dengan cepat dan berkesan - Menganalisa proses pengeluaran yg dirancang agar proses terakhir yang telah dipilih dapat dikawal. - Mencari alternative agar mutu/kualiti produk dari proses pengilangan dapat dijaga - Menghasilkan prosedur pengujian bagi sampel siap

Teras Piawai ISO 9000

KONSEP PEMASTIAN KUALITI (QA)

i. ISO 9000:2000 Asas dan perbendaharaan kata


yang mewujudkan penggunaan istilah dan definisi. ii. ISO 9001:2000 Sebagai Alat bagi memastikan keluaran menepati dan digunakan dalam persijilan pihak ketiga iii. ISO 9004:2000 - Garis panduan untuk kemajuan perlaksanaan. Piawai ini dikembang dan dibentuk dengan turutan dan struktur yang sejajar dengan ISO 9001:2000

Malaysian Standard (MS) MS 985 Code Of Practice For Suppliers Quality Control System - Meliputi 3 peringkat dalam sistem kualiti yang secara khususnya merujuk ISO 9001:2000. - 3 peringkat tersebut:
Peringkat 1 : rekabentuk, pembuatan & pemasangan Peringkat 2 : pembuatan dan pemasangan Peringkat 3 : pemeriksaan terakhir &/@ pengujian

KONSEP PEMASTIAN KUALITI (QA)