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Foundation /Geotechnical Engineering

Types of Tests Equipments Used Basic Design Parameters

Ing. Enyo Matrevi

Foundation/Geotechnical Engineering
Soil Mechanics Soil Engineering Rock Mechanics Geology Foundations Every civil engineering structure/building/bridge/dam/slope/ embankment founded on or below the surface of the earth

Geotechnical Engineering
Site Investigation & Field Testing Laboratory Testing & Test Interpretation

Engineering Design

Site Investigation and Field Testing


Review Available Information Identify Required Materials Prop. Plan Site Investigation Conduct Field Testing Describe Samples Develop Subsurface Profiles Review Design Objectives

SITE SAMPLING

Laboratory Testing & Test Interpretation

Select Samples for Performance Testing Conduct Laboratory Testing Review Quality of Laboratory Testing Select Material Properties

Engineering Design
Perform Design (Design Engineer has necessary information related to soil and rock properties to complete the design) Evaluating whether to employ cohesive or granular analysis/interpretation on physical and mechanical properties of soil and rock.

Summary of Information needs for Testing


Type of Foundation
Shallow Foundation

Engineering Evaluation
Bearing Capacity Settlement Shrink/ Swell Chemistry Scour Extreme Loading

Information Required
Soil Profile Shear Strength par. Compressibility Shrink/Swell Stress History Chemical Composition Seasonal Variation Unit weights Geologic Mapping

Field Testing
Vane Shaer Test SPT (granular Soil) CPT Rock Coring Nuclear Density Plate Load Test Geophysics testing

Laboratory Testing
1-D Oedometer test Direct shear test Triaxial tests Grain Size distribution Atterbergs pH, Resistivity Mc Unit Weight Organic Content Rock Uniaxial compr Point Load Strength test 1-D Oedometer test Direct shear test Triaxial tests Grain Size distribution Atterbergs pH, Resistivity Mc Unit Weight Organic Content Rock Uniaxial compr Point Load Strength test Slake Durability Friction Test

Deep Foundation

Pile End bearing Pile Skin Friction Settlement Lateral Earth pressures Scour Extreme Loading Vibration Presence of Boulders

Soil Profile Shear Strength par. Compressibility Shrink/Swell Stress History Chemical Composition Seasonal Variation Unit weights Geologic Mapping Horizontal Earth Pressure Friction parameters

SPT (granular Soiis Pile Load Test CPT Vane Testing Piezometer Rock Coring(RQD) Geophysics testing

Checklist Items for Site Investigation


Accessibility Easy Difficult Site Hydrology Surface Water/Dry/Desert Prior Information Maps/Files /Memmoirs/City Records/Interviews

Visit To Site Date/Time Weather Condition

Site Drainage Natural, Artificial drains Run Off Features; Erosion/ponding/piping


Soil/Rock Condition Surface Soils Subsurface Soils: Surface Rocks/Type of Rocks/Rock features Investigative Operations Test Pits Boreholes Cased Holes

Topo Data Site/State/Country Surveys

Ground Cover Grass/Rock Outcrop/Debris/ Concrete/Asphalt/Other

Geologic Information Geologic maps Field mapping Geologic surveys

Existing Terrain Level/Sloping/Steep./Rolling/ Mountainous/Hilly

Utilities Overhead lines Gas lines Manholes Power/Sewer lines Electromagnetic readings

Equipments Used
Pits & Trenches (pick axes & shovels) To determine structures of complex formations, obtain samples To Locate soils/rock seams To obtain rock and determine rock properties

Percussion Rigs
Rotary Rigs Auger Boring Piezometer Plate Load test Dynamic Cone Penetrometer test

In soil and soft rock; to identify geologic units & water content To extract water and determine water properties Determine settlement and modulus characteristics of soil
To assess relative density of underlying soils

PERCUSSION DRILLING RIG

ROTARY RIG

Type of Tests

Field Tests Standard Pen. Tests (SPT) Cone Pen. Tests (CPT) Vane Test (c, ) Plate Load Test Geophysical Test Pile Load Test Piezometer Test Dynamic Cone Pen. Test

Type of Tests
Laboratory Tests Direct Shear Tests 1-D Consolidation Test Triaxial Test Grain size distribution Atterbergs Limits pH tests Unit Weight Organic Content Rock Uniaxial Test Swell Tests Point Load Strength Test Moisture content Test

GEOPHYSICAL TESTING IN PROGRESS

PLATE LOAD TESTING IN PROGRESS

PLATE LOAD TESTING IN PROGRESS

Basic Design Parameters

Bearing Capacity Estimation


Settlement Permeability Characteristics Elastic Modulus Uniaxial Compressive Strength

Rock Quality Designation


Chemistry of Soil/Rock

Bearing Capacity Estimation


Two approaches are often used in the estimation of bearing capacities. The first approach utilizes the Cu / relationship obtained from laboratory shear strength tests on undisturbed clayey/silty samples the second approach employs N-values from standard penetration tests (SPT) to obtain Cu and in the absence of laboratory Cu and values. For the Cu / relationship, the general ultimate bearing capacity (Qult) equation is given as Qult = Cu Nc Sc + z Df Nq Sq + where Df = foundation width, Cu = undrained cohesion of the soil, ,= density of soil, Nc, Nq N, = bearing capacity factors and, Sc, Sq, S = shape factors, N and S factors are obtained using , the angle of shear resistance. Other equations are Qall = N/0.08 Cu = 29 N0.72 BS 8004 CP 2004 for D>0

Settlement Estimation
From Oedometer Consolidation tests results, probable settlement estimation are made using the relationship; Sf = Mv Ho k = Cv Mv Yw Where: Mv = coefficient of volume compressibility, = effective stress and Ho = thickness of compressible layer below

foundation

Other equations are; S = q B I (1 v2) Es Cc = 0.009(LL-10%) S = 2.25qB(1-v2)/Ed

Permeability Characteristics
K = C (d10)2 = Cv Mv 0.31x10-9 = d(10)2/100 m/s

where k = Permeability coefficient C = coefficient ranging from 0.4 1.2 from grain size distribution D10 = effective grain size passing 10% on graph Consolidation test could also be used to determine k.

END OF PRESENTATION