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Mechanical Engineering Science 8

Dr. Daniil Yurchenko

Introduction to Systems

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Assessment
20% Test (week 6) 30% Exam

If you have any questions JN 1.23 Email: d.yurchenko@hw.ac.uk

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Books
Modern Control Engineering K. Ogata Prentice-Hall. --------------------------------------------------- Automatic Control Systems F. Golnaraghi, B. Kuo John Wesley & Sons

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What is a system?
We define a system as a set of interacting components making up a whole machine which can be isolated from its surroundings. It has a set of prescribed inputs and outputs. The process of isolating the system requires a boundary to be defined which helps to identify the system inputs and outputs.

INPUT
SYSTEM
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OUTPUT

System definition examples


INPUT WIND TURBINE Wind Electricity OUTPUT

Single Input Single Output


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System definition examples


INPUT OUTPUT

Load Torque

CAR ENGINE

Engine Speed

Throttle angle

Multiple Input Single Output


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System definition examples


INPUT OUTPUT

Steam

STEAM TURBINE

Electrical Power Steam to Condenser

Single Input Multiple Output


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System definition examples


INPUT Current Velocity Airplane Current Position Fuel Left Distance to Destination OUTPUT

Multiple Input Multiple Output


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Why do we need to control?

We would like a system works in some prescribed manner


OBJECTIVES CONTROL SYSTEM RESULTS

Temperature and humidity at your house Walking from one point to another Getting to some point in the shortest possible time Financial investment
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X-29 plane with forward-swept Example wing

B-2 and F-117 are aerodynamically unstable in all three axes and require constant flight corrections from a fly-bywire system to maintain controlled flight

Wind turbines with adjustable blades or pitch control.

This control is essential because sometimes the wind's speed puts too much stress on the turbine, causing safety controls to kick-in and apply brakes to the rotor to prevent it from damage or use pitch control

To manage traffic in large cities traffic light controls systems are used.

Robots

CNC Machines

Example
V2 V1 h

We wish to hold the tank level h constant regardless of the flow through valve V1 This could be achieved through irregular adjustment of valve V2

Open-loop Control

Tank level control


OBJECTIVE manually controlled Valve V2 RESULT

Maintain constant level of water


V2

V1
h
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Open-loop Control

Tank level control


V2

V1 h

Reference input

Controller

Control action

Objective/process

Control item

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Closed-loop Control (Feedback)

Tank level control


V2

V1 h

Maintain constant level of water

BARREL with automatically controlled Valve


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Closed-loop Control (Feedback)

Tank level control


V2

V1 h

Reference input

Computer

Output Objective/process

Measurement
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Closed-loop Control (Feedback)


Process Output

Controller

Measurement

Comparison
Give examples of a feedback control used: In a car In an airplane

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Components of a closed-loop control system


Measurement component Comparator Amplifier Actuator Corrector (or compensator)

Basic requirement to control system

Stability: the ability to maintain stable state Accuracy: stable steady-state accuracy Dynamic characteristics: response time and damping characteristics

Systems
In this course we will normally consider single input/single output systems The input is turned into the output via the system transfer process. This transfer process will be modelled by a linear differential equation with constant coefficients which will be presented as a transfer function

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Linear dynamic systems

These are modelled by a linear differential equation. A generic example is shown below
System Input, xi(t) System Transfer Properties System Output, xo(t)

For a linear system the transfer properties relate the system to the output
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Linear dynamic systems

The transfer properties take the general form:


an d
n

dt

xO t a
n

d
n 1

n 1

xO t ..... a0 xO t xi t dt

Coefficients ak, k = 1,2,n are constants xi(t) is a specified function of time

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Properties of linear systems

Linear differential equations exhibit the properties of superposition and homogeneity. Conversely a system which exhibits these properties is a linear system.

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Principle of superposition
This states that if the system input is broken down into two elements xiA , xiB which individually generate outputs x , x then when the inputs are applied simultaneously (added) then the output is the sum of the individual outputs. This can be expressed:

A O B O

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Principle of superposition
A A x t x i O t

-application of condition A -application of condition B

x B t x B t i O

x A t x B t x A t x B t i i O O

-application of both conditions A and

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Homogeneity
A linear system is said to be homogeneous when a constant scale factor applied to the input generates the same scaling of the output. i.e. xi t xO t -application of an input
xi t xO t

-application of the scaled input


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Order of a linear system

The order of a linear differential equation and hence of the system which it describes is the value of the highest derivative in the differential equation.

dxO xO xi dt T

is a an example of a first order system

d n xO d n 1 xO an a n 1 ....... a1 xO a 0 xi n n 1 dt dt

is an example of an n-order system


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Valuta