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ELECTRICAL

SAFETY
Presentation by:

Causes of ELECTRICAL HAZARDS


Can be divided into three main groups

Power Electricity Static Electricity Lightning

What are we going to discuss?


Hazards caused by Power Electricity
Major factors governing electrical hazards Broad classification of electrical accidents

Portable electrical tools


OH & UG Distribution Major factors causing electrical accidents Basic points to be observed

FACTORS GOVERNING ELECTRICAL HAZARDS


1. Amplitude & duration of current 2. Condition & position of the body 3. Ambient temperature & humidity 4. Oxygen & CO2 content in air 5. Flooring condition 6. Condition of EARTHING 7. Sex & age of the person

HEART
is the ..in the
best pump designed by nature average life span of 70 years, pumps two million liter of blood, by beating 2500 million times! ......can not withstand 150 mille Amp current for more than one second. It can cause death. Controlled shock is used to revive heart. .....if fresh blood is not supplied to brain for more than THREE minutes, death can occur. .... of human beats @ 68 to 70 times / minute of elephant beats 25 times / min of mouse beats 700 times / min of parakeet beats 1000 times/ min

EFFECT OF CURRENT ON HUMAN BODY


50 Hz A..C. passing thro body for 1 second, through

the route - left hand to both feet to earth. upto 1 mA No sensation 1 mA to 8 mA Sensation but not painful 8 mA to 15 mA Painful shock 15 mA to 20 mA Muscular control lost 20 mA to 50 mA Severe muscular contraction 50 mA to 200 mA Ventricular fibrillation possible death Above 200 mA Severe burns Severe Ventr.fibrillation.- Heart arrest

Condition & Position of the body


Dry skin offers 100,000 to 600,000 ohms resistance Wet skin offers only 1000 ohms resistance There are various postures of body, during which a person gets electric shock. The most dangerous position is the one, in which current passes through the heart in very short time / route.

HEART CURRENT FACTOR


CURRENT PATH L. H. To left ft or right ft or both feet Both hands to both feet L. H. to R. H. R. H. to left ft or right ft or both feet Back to right hand Back to left hand Chest to right hand Chest to left hand Seat to L. H. or R. H. or both hands HCF 1.0 1.0 0.4 0.8 0.3 0.7 1.3 1.5 0.7

How to find out TVF ?


1. Threshold of Ventricular Fibrillation (TVF) is different for different current routes through the body. 2. TVF for any route = TVF for LH to both feet HCF for that route ( ref. Table) 3. For the route of current from chest to left hand TVF = 50 mA / 1.5 = 33 mA This means that, when 33 mA current passes for one second from chest to left hand, ventricular fibrillation is possible. For LH to both feet, this value is 50 mA.

AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
Higher Ambient More Perspiration Wet Low body resistance

HUMIDITY
Higher Body does not Low resistance Humidity get dried up

CO2 & O2 CONTENT IN AIR


Higher CO2 & lower O2 in the air, reduces the resistance of the body.

CONDITION OF FLOORING
1. Wet floor offers less than 100 ohms resistance

2. Insulated rubber mat offers more


than 10 million ohms resistance. 3. Dry, varnished wood was used as support insulators in LT panels. 4. Wet wood can give path to leakage current 5. Accidents in bath rooms are fatal , because person with wet body is standing on the wet flooring.

CONDITION OF EARTHING
For earthing the equipment, there are many links from equipment to the EARTH. These are, Earth terminal ( of the equipment to be

earthed ), Earth wire, Earth pin (in the plug ), Earthing from the switchboard to Distribution Board, Earthing wire from DB to the main Meter Box, from MB to Earth pipe ( inserted in the earth ) Any weak link or discontinuity in the entire CHAIN, will create unsafe conditions during Electrical Accident

CLASSIFICATION
OF

ELECTRICAL ACCIDENTS
42 % # Abuse of equipments # Poor maintenance. # Failure to switch off eqnt.(auto or manual)

31 % # Inadequate design & assembly # Unreliable


protection # Less clearance of live part from the body # Too much critical design 27 % # Improper / unsafe workplace # Inadequate / confusing instructions

PORTABLE TOOLS
Check the condition of plug & socket

Do not use the tool, if casing is broken


Check the earthing connections at both ends Cord should be sufficiently long, to reach

the workplace without tension .


No temporary joints Never stand on damp surface while

operating the portable tool.


Do check the tool at ground level before use. Carry out preventive maintenance regularly.

OH & UG Distribution
Accidental charging of the line / equipment Accidental back feeding of power Crane / Tower ladder crossing OH line Junction poles in the OH line network. Wrong identification of cables. Charging the line without total checking Wrong isolation of the circuit Not using safety appliances Lack of Preventive Maintenance Poor EARTHING Corrosion of OH poles at the base.

DOMESTIC USE OF ELECTRICITY-1


1. Do not let children play with electricity. 2. Maintain EARTHING healthy. Check it regularly. 3. Use 3-pin plug with earthing connected at both

ends.
4. Use fuse / MCB / switches of proper rating.

5. Temporary repairs are dangerous.


6. Give common knowledge of electricity to all family members.

DOMESTIC USE OF ELECTRICITY-2


7. Do not repair electrical equipment without proper
tools & knowledge. 8. Do not carry out repair without isolating the circuit / equipment 9. Never connect EARTHING with water pipe 10. Multiple tapping from one socket are unsafe 11 Be careful while washing floors & kitchen dado 12. Never operate electrical appliances with wet hands

OFFICES & SHOPS


1. Wiring in the false ceiling 2. Switches at visible location

3. Positive isolation
4. Chokes of fluorescent tube lamps 5. High wattage lamps in the show case 6. Reliable earthing for the power system 7. Appliances like hot plate, elect, kettle etc.

8. Fire Protection & Smoke Detection systems


9. CO2 / Halon fire extinguishers at strategic locations

MAJOR FACTORS
CAUSING ELECTRICAL ACCIDENTS-1
1. SHORT CUTS
2. POOR EARTHING 3. OVERCONFIDENCE

4. HURRY TO COMPLETE THE JOB


5. NOT USING SAFETY APPLIANCES 6. WORKING WITHOUT CONCENTRATION

7. LACK OF PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE


8. POOR KNOWLEDGE OF EQUIPMENTS & SYSTEM

MAJOR FACTORS
CAUSING ELECTRICAL ACCIDENTS- 2
9. POOR QUALITY OF TOOLS 10. UNSAFE WORKPLACE

11 MISCOMMUNICATION
12. TEMPORARY REPAIRS 13. UNTRAINED MANPOWER 14. IMPROPER / INADEQUATE PROTECTION 15. NOT FOLLOWING THE SAFETY PROCEDURE

BASIC POINTS TO BE OBSERVED


Do not operate electrical equipments with wet hands. . Use of wet shoes & wet clothing is unsafe Never connect earthing with water pipe Maintain EARTHING in good condition. Do not use water in electrical fires. Use personal protective appliances Temporary repairs are dangerous

Qualified / Trained personnel


Use ELCB. No monkey tricks, please....

CASE STUDIES - 1
Fatal accident to fitter When 5100 KW motor did not trip..... Fatal accident on 5 Amp socket Flash over during ACB checking Accidental start of 800 KW compressor motor Accident during maintenance on 11 KV panel Fatal accident due to cable TV wire. Street light ladder crossing 11 KV line

CASE STUDIES - 2
Shock on a fridge Accident during motor module maintenance Fatal accident to painter

Accident to lineman
Flash over during checking of lighting module Accident while using voltmeter

C. T. replacement in MCC module


Repairing table lamp in live condition

CASE STUDIES - 3
Switching on OH main line.

Accident on the junction pole


Three phase switch of AC plant Accident caused by back feeding of power Fire in the power transformer of theatre Earthing of bus side of OCB panel (SEC)

Taking towel hanged on flexible wire

CASE STUDIES - 4
Cutting of wrong cable Non-standard termination of two cables in one straight joint Local heating in HT panel (after maint.) Flashover in 33 KV panel (BBP) Wireman taking measurement with cotton tape

Opening of rear cover of HT panel...


Man replacing lamp without switching it off

Remember....
Electricity is the best servant, BUT, Tough taskmaster. It does not tolerate any negligence, Penalties are heavy. HENCE, Treat Electricity respectfully.

Thank you