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Section 1 : Storage System

Intelligent Storage Systems

Chapter 4

EMC Proven Professional


The #1 Certification Program in the information storage and management industry

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ISM - Course Organization


Information Storage and Management Section 2 Storage Networking Technologies and Virtualization Section 4 Storage Security and Management

Section 1 Storage System

Section 3 Business Continuity

Introduction to Information Storage and Management

Direct-Attached Storage and Introduction to SCSI

Introduction to Business Continuity

Securing the Storage Infrastructure

Storage System Environment

Storage Area Networks

Backup and Recovery

Managing the Storage Infrastructure

Data Protection: RAID

Network-Attached Storage

Local Replication

Intelligent Storage System

IP SAN

Remote Replication

Content-Addressed Storage

Storage Virtualization

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Chapter Objectives

Click to Read EMC Networked Storage - Topology Guide

After completing this module, you will be able to: o Describe components of intelligent storage system

o List benefits of intelligent storage system


o Explain intelligent cache algorithms and protection o Describe implementation of intelligent storage system
o High-end storage array o Midrange storage array

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What is an Intelligent Storage System


Intelligent Storage Systems are RAID arrays that are: o Highly optimized for I/O processing

o Have large amounts of cache for improving I/O performance


o Have operating environments that provide:
o Intelligence for managing cache o Array resource allocation o Connectivity for heterogeneous hosts o Advanced array based local and remote replication options

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Benefits of an Intelligent Storage System


Intelligent storage system provides several benefits over a collection of disks in an array or even a RAID arrays:
o Increased capacity o Improved performance o Easier data management o Improved data availability and protection o Enhanced Business Continuity support o Improved security and access control

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Monolithic storage systems


o Intelligent storage systems generally fall into one of two categories, monolithic and modular. Monolithic storage systems are generally aimed at the enterprise level, centralizing data in a powerful system with hundreds of drives. They have the following characteristics:
o Large storage capacity

o Large amounts of cache to service host I/Os efficiently and optimally o Redundant components for improved data protection and availability
o Many built in features to make them more robust and fault tolerant o Usually connect to mainframe computers or very powerful open systems hosts o Multiple front end ports to provide connectivity to multiple servers o Multiple back end Fibre Channel or SCSI RAID controllers to manage disk processing.
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Modular storage systems


o Modular storage systems provide storage to a smaller number of (typically) Windows or Unix servers than larger integrated storage systems. Modular storage systems are typically designed with two controllers, each of which contains host interfaces, cache, RAID processors, and disk drive interfaces. They have the following characteristics:
o Smaller total storage capacity and lesser global cache, than monolithic arrays
o Fewer front end ports for connection to servers o Performance can degrade as the number of connected servers increases

o Limited redundancy o Fewer options for array based local and remote replication

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Components of an Intelligent Storage System

Intelligent Storage System


Host Front End Cache Back End Physical Disks

Connectivity
FC SAN

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Intelligent Storage System: Front End

Intelligent Storage System


Host Front End Cache Back End Physical Disks

Connectivity
FC SAN

Ports

Controllers

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front end
o The front end controller receives and processes I/O requests from the host. Hosts connect to the storage system via ports on the front end controller.
o Ports are the external interfaces for connectivity to the host. Each storage port has processing logic responsible for executing the appropriate transport protocol for storage connections. For example, it could use SCSI, Fibre Channel, or iSCSI. o Behind the storage ports are controllers which communicate with the cache and back end to provide data access.

o The number of front-end ports on a modular storage system generally ranges from 1-8; 4 is typical. On a large monolithic array, port counts as high as 64 or 128 are common.

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Front End Command Queuing


A

A
C B D

I/O Requests

I/O Processing Order Front-End Controller

Cylinders

Without Optimization (FIFO)

A
C B D

I/O Requests

I/O Processing Order Front-End Controller

Cylinders

With command queuing


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Intelligent Storage System: Cache

Intelligent Storage System


Host Front End Cache Back End Physical Disks

Connectivity
FC SAN

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Write Operation with Cache


Write-through Cache
Write Request
Acknowledgement

Cache

Write-back
Cache Write Request
Acknowledgement
Acknowledgement

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Read Operation with Cache: Hits and Misses


Data found in cache = Hit
Read Request Cache

No data found = Miss


Cache Read Request

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Cache Management: Algorithms


New Data

o Least Recently Used (LRU)


o Discards least recently used data

o Most Recently Used (MRU)


o Discards most recently used data
Oldest Data

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Cache Management: Watermarking


o Manage peak I/O requests bursts through flushing/de-staging
o Idle flushing, High Watermark flushing and Forced flushing

o For maximum performance:


o Provide headroom in write cache for I/O bursts

100 % HWM

LWM

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Idle flushing

High watermark flushing

Forced flushing

Cache Data Protection


o Protecting cache data against failure:
o Cache mirroring
o Each write to the cache is held in two different memory locations on two independent memory cards

o Cache vaulting
o Cache is exposed to the risk of uncommitted data loss due to power failure

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Intelligent Storage System: Back End

Intelligent Storage System


Host Front End Cache Back End Physical Disks

Connectivity
FC SAN

Controllers

Ports

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back end
o The back end controls the data transfers between cache and the physical disks. Physical disks are connected to ports on the back end. o The back end provides the communication with the disks for read and write operations. The controllers on the back end:
o Manages the transfer of data between the I/O bus and the disks in the storage system o Handles addressing for the device - translating logical blocks into physical locations on the disk o Provides additional, but limited, temporary storage for data o Provides error detection and correction often in conjunction with similar features on the disks

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Intelligent Storage System: Physical Disks

Intelligent Storage System


Host Front End Cache Back End Physical Disks

Connectivity
FC SAN

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What the Host Sees RAID Sets and LUs


Host 1

Intelligent Storage System


LU 0

Front End Cache

Back End

Physical Disks
LU 0

Connectivity
FC SAN

LU 1

LU 1

Host 2
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Masking
o Since intelligent storage systems have multiple disk drives, they use the disks in various ways to provide optimal performance and capacity. For example:
o A large physical drive could be subdivided into multiple virtual disks of smaller capacity. This is similar to drive partitioning. o Several physical drives can be combined together and presented as one large virtual drive. This is similar to drive concatenation . o Typically physical drives are grouped into RAID sets or RAID groups. LUs with the desired level of RAID protection are then created from these RAID sets and presented to the hosts.

o The mapping of the LUs to their physical location on the drives is managed by the controller.

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LU Masking
o LU masking is access control mechanism o Process of masking LUs from unauthorized access

o Implemented on storage arrays


o Storage group logical entity that contains one or more LUs and one host

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ISS Implementation: High-end Storage Systems


o Also referred as Active-active arrays
o I/Os are serviced through all the available path
Active-Active Configuration

o Following are high-end array capabilities:


o Huge cache to service host I/Os o Fault tolerance architecture o Multiple front-end ports and support to interface protocols o High scalability o Ability to handle large amounts of concurrent I/Os
Active
Port
Controller A Controller B

o Large storage capacity

LU

Active Host

Port

Storage Array

o Designed for large enterprises

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Midrange Storage Systems


o Also referred as Active-passive arrays
o Host can perform I/Os to LUs only through active paths o Other paths remain passive till active path fails
Active-Passive Configuration

Port

Passive Host

o Designed for small and medium enterprises o Less scalable as compared to high-end array

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Controller B

o Midrange array have two controllers, each with cache, RAID controllers and disks drive interfaces

Active

Port

Controller A

LU

Storage Array

Chapter Summary
Key points covered in this chapter: o Intelligent Storage Systems features

o Components of Intelligent Storage Systems


o Cache management algorithms o Intelligent Storage System implementation
o High-end storage array o Mid range storage array

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Concept in Practice: EMC CLARiiON


o Support for UltraFlex technology

o Scalable from up to 960 disks o Supports flash drives o Supports different types and sizes of drives, and RAID types (0, 1, 1+0, 3, 5, 6) o Supports up to 16 GB of available cache memory per controller (Storage Processor) o Enhances availability with non disruptive upgrade and failover o Ensures data protection through mirrored write cache and cache vaulting o Supports storage-based local and remote data replication
o Through SnapView and MirrorView software
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2009 CLARiiON Family

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CLARiiON CX4: The Proven Midrange Storage Solution

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CLARiiON CX-4 Architecture


Storage Processor
Multi-Core Processors CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU

Storage Processor
Multi-Core Processors

FC Module FC Module FC Module FC Module iSCSI Module iSCSI Module I/O Complex

4 Gb/s Fibre Channel Front-End


CLARiiON Messaging Interface (CMI)

CPU CPU

CPU CPU

CPU CPU

CPU CPU

FC Module FC Module FC Module FC Module

Multi-Lane PCI-Express Bridge Link


Memory

Power Supply Fan Fan Fan Fan

SPS

Memory

iSCSI Module iSCSI Module

CPU Module

SPS
4 Gb/s LCC

Power Supply
4 Gb/s LCC

CPU Module

I/O Complex

4 Gb/s Fibre Channel Back-End

4 Gb/s Fibre Channel Back-End

4 Gb/s LCC

4 Gb/s LCC

4 Gb/s LCC

4 Gb/s LCC

4 Gb/s LCC

4 Gb/s LCC

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o The CLARiiON architecture includes fully redundant, hot swappable componentsmeaning the system can survive the loss of a fan or a power supply, and the failed component can be replaced without powering down the system. o The Standby Power Supplies (SPSs) maintain power to the cache for long enough to allow its content to be copied to a dedicated disk area (called the vault) if a power failure should occur. o Storage Processors communicate with each other over the CLARiiON Messaging Interface (CMI) channels. They transport commands, status information, and data for write cache mirroring between the Storage Processors. CMI is used for peer-to-peer communications in the SAN space and may be used for I/O expansion in the NAS space. o The CX3-80 uses PCI-Express as the high-speed CMI path. PCI Express architecture delivers advance I/O technology delivering high bandwidth per pin, superior routing characteristics, and improved reliability.

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Continued.. o When more capacity is required, additional disk array enclosures containing disk modules can be easily added. Link Control Cards (LCC) connect shelves of disks. The LCC provides services to the drive enclosure, which includes the capability to control enclosure functionalities and monitor environmental status. Each drive enclosure has two LCCs. The other functions performed by LCCs are loop configuration control, failover control, marker LED control, individual disk port control, drive presence detection, and voltage status information. o FLARE Storage Operating Environment: FLARE is a special software designed for EMC CLARiiON. Each storage system ships with a complete copy of the FLARE operating system installed on its first four disks.
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Concept in Practice CLARiiON Video

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EMC Symmetrix
o Incrementally scalable to 2,400 disks o Supports Flash-based solid-state drives o Dynamic global cache memory (16 GB512 GB) o Advanced processing power (up to 130 PowerPC) o Direct matrix Architecture o High data processing bandwidth (up to 128 GB/s) o Data protection with RAID 1, 1+0 (also known as 10 for mainframe), 5, and 6 o Storage-based local and remote replication
o Through TimeFinder and SRDF software
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Additional Task Research EMC Symmetrix V-Max

Direct Matrix Architecture


ESCON host attach Fibre Channel host attach FICON, GigE, iSCSI FICON, GigE, iSCSI FICON, GigE, iSCSI host attach host attach host attach FICON, GigE, iSCSI host attach Fibre Channel host attach ESCON host attach ESCON Director
Cntl Direct Matrix Direct Matrix

FC Director
Cntl Direct Matrix Direct Matrix

Multi-Protocol CD
Cntl Direct Matrix Direct Matrix

Multi-Protocol CD
Cntl Direct Matrix Direct Matrix

Multi-Protocol CD
Cntl Direct Matrix Direct Matrix

Multi-Protocol CD
Cntl Direct Matrix Direct Matrix

FC Director
Cntl Direct Matrix Direct Matrix

ESCON Director
Cntl Direct Matrix Direct Matrix

Control and communications Signals

Environmental control and status signals

64 GB Memory

64 GB Memory

64 GB Memory

64 GB Memory

64 GB Memory

64 GB Memory

64 GB Memory

64 GB Memory

Environmental control and status signals

Control and communications Signals

Direct Matrix

Direct Matrix

Direct Matrix

Direct Matrix

Direct Matrix

Direct Matrix

Direct Matrix

Direct Matrix

Direct Matrix

Direct Matrix

Direct Matrix

Direct Matrix

Direct Matrix

Direct Matrix

Direct Matrix

Direct Matrix

Cntl

Cntl

Cntl

Cntl

Cntl

Cntl

Cntl

Cntl

FC (Back-End)
A A B B A A B B

FC (Back-End)
A A B B A A B B

FC (BE or FE)
A A B B A A B B

FC (BE or FE)
A A B B A A B B

FC (BE or FE)
A A B B A A B B

FC (BE or FE)
A A B B A A B B

FC (Back-End)
A A B B A A B B

FC (Back-End)
A A B B A A B B

Symmetrix Fibre Channel disk devices

Symmetrix Fibre Channel disk devices

Fibre Channel back-end director *

Fibre Channel back-end director *

Fibre Channel back-end director *

Fibre Channel back-end director *

Symmetrix Fibre Channel disk devices

Symmetrix Fibre Channel disk devices

Power supplies

Service Processor
UPS

Battery backup Unit Modules

Cooling

Modem

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Direct Matrix Architecture


o Front end: The host connects to Symmetrix via a front-end port on the channel director. Multiple directors are configured, each with multiple ports to provide host connectivity and redundancy. Each Symmetrix channel director supports eight internal links to global memory. o Back end: Back end disk directors manage the interface to the disk drives and are responsible for data movement between the disk drives and global memory. Each disk director on a Symmetrix system supports 8 internal links to global memory. o XCM: XCM is the communication agent between the service processor and all the processing nodes (channel, disk, and memory director) within the system. External connections to the service processor provide dialhome capability for remote monitoring and diagnostics. o Symmetrix Enginuity: This is the operating environment for EMC Symmetrix. Enginuity manages and ensures the optimal flow and integrity of information through the various hardware components of the Symmetrix system. It manages all Symmetrix operations and system resources to optimize performance intelligently.
2009 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved.

Direct Matrix Architecture


o Global Memory: The Symmetrix global memory is its most important component. All read and write operations are performed through global memory. Host I/Os are received at the front end and processed through global memory at much greater electronic speeds than transfers involving disks. The global memory directors work in pairs. The hardware writes to the one global memory director first and then writes are mirrored to the secondary global memory director, for data protection. Each global memory director has 16 ports with full-duplex serial connections between the global memory director and the channel or disk directors (a total of 16 directors) through the direct matrix. Each of the 8 director ports on the 16 directors connects to one of the 16 memory ports on each of the 8 global memory directors, as shown in Figure. These 128 individual point to- point connections facilitate up to 128 concurrent cache operations in the system, providing ultra-high bandwidth for I/O processing.
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EMC Symmetrix
o Advanced processing power o Up to 130 PowerPC Processors o Four or eight processors per director o High-performance back end o Up to 64 2 Gb/s Fibre Channel paths (High data processing bandwidth up to 128 GB/s) o RAID 0, 1, 1 + 0, 5 o 73, 146, and 300 GB 10,000 rpm disks; 73 and 146 GB 15,000 rpm disks; 500 GB 7,200 rpm disks o A fully fault-tolerant design o Nondisruptive upgrades and operations o Full component-level redundancy with hot-swappable replacements o Support: Dual-ported disks and global-disk hot spares o Redundant power supplies and integrated battery backups o Remote support and proactive call-home capabilities
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Direct Matrix Architecture


o This shows the logical representation of the Symmetrix DMX architecture. The Front-end (host connectivity directors and ports), Cache (Memory) and the Back-end (directors/ports which connect to the physical disks) are shown. o Front-end: o Hosts connect to the DMX via front-end ports (shown as Host Attach) on Front-end directors. DMX supports ESCON, FICON, Fibre Channel and iSCSI front-end connectivity. o Back-end: o The disk director ports (back-end) are connected to Disk Array Enclosures. The DMX back-end employs an arbitrated loop design and dual-ported disk drives. I/Os to the physical disks are handled by the back-end.
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Direct Matrix Architecture


o Cache: o All front-end I/Os (reads and writes) to the Symmetrix have to pass through the cache, this is unlike some arrays which will allow I/Os to by pass cache altogether. Let us take a look at how the Symmetrix handles front-end read and write operations: o Read: A read is issued by a server. The Symmetrix will look for the data in the cache, if the data is in cache it will be read from cache and sent to the server via the front-end port This is a read hit. If the data is not in cache, then the Symmetrix will go to the physical disks on the back-end, fetch the data into cache and then send the data from the cache to the requesting server This is a read miss. o Write: A write is issued by a sever. The write will be received in cache and a write complete will be immediately issued to the server. Data will be destaged from the cache to the back-end at a later time.

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Concept in Practice Symmetrix Video

Click Here

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Download EMC Navisphere Manager from the student secure area

Lab - Navisphere Manager Simulator


o Exercise 1:

Click Here Simulator Demo

o Logging into and Navigating Navisphere Manager Lab Exercise

o Exercise 2:
o Enable/Disable Navisphere Classic CLI and Configuring NTP

o Exercise 3:
o Storage Management - Allocating and Assigning LUNs

** Click to Open the Documents


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End of Section 1 - Quiz


o Storage System
o Introduction to Information Storage and Management o Storage System Environment o Data Protection: RAID o Intelligent Storage System

Quiz Section 1

For Instructor Use

Take the Online Assessment


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** Click to Open the Documents

Check Your Knowledge


o What are the parts of an Intelligent Storage System? o What are the differences between a high-end and a midrange storage array? o What is the difference between a read cache hit and a read cache miss?

o What is the difference between Least Recently Used and Most Recently Used algorithms?
o What is the difference between Write-through and Write-back cache?
Additional Task Research more on EMC Arrays

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External Links
o EMC Clariion Family
o Combine midrange networked storage with innovative technology and robust software capabilities to manage and consolidate your data. o http://www.emc.com/products/family/celerra-family.htm

o EMC Symmetrix Family


o Featuring new EMC Symmetrix V-Max, which leverages the EMC Symmetrix Virtual Matrix Architecture to deliver unprecedented levels of scalability and efficiency. o http://www.emc.com/products/family/symmetrix-family.htm

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For your Reading on www.emc.com

o Gain Access to EMC Publications namely ON Magazine & EMC.now Magazine


o Visit : http://www.emc.com/on
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Watch the Full Keynote Address on www.emcworld.com/keynotes.htm or www.youtube.com/EMCCorp

Keynote Address
Joseph M. Tucci Chairman, President, & CEO EMC Corporation

Click to View the Presentation

Watch the 2009 Keynote

Next Event
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