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Alexis Gaius Isis L. Aranas Danielle Anne E.

Reodica

BYZANTIUM Constantinople (after its


Imperial founder) New Rome was inaugurated as capital of the Roman Empire in A.D. 330. Byzantium, said to have been founded about B.C. 750. It is known to have been a Greek colony some three hundred years later. In A.D. 324, became the capital of the Roman Empire.

INFLUENCES
GEOGRAPHICAL GEOLOGICAL CLIMATIC RELIGIOUS SOCIAL HISTORICAL

GEOGRAPHICAL
Influence
Byzantium stands on seven hills, and is at the junction of the Bosphorus and the Sea of Marmora, where Europe and Asia are only divided by a narrow strip of water. This gave it a commanding and central position for the government of the expanding Roman Empire. It was also at the intersection of two great highways of commerce, the water highway between the Black Sea and Mediterranean, and the trade route between Europe and Asia ; and thus it controlled the corn trade from the northern shores of the Euxine Sea(Black Sea).

GEOGRAPHICAL
Influence

The large, natural harbor of the Golden Horn possesses unusual advantages for commerce ; for it is four miles in length, unaffected by tides, and of sufficient depth to render its quays accessible to ships of deep draught. Byzantine art pervaded all parts of the Eastern Roman Empire and was carried by traders to Greece, Russia, Asia Minor, North Africa, and even farther west, where it is found in Venice, Ravenna, and Perigueux, and it had considerable influence on the architecture of these districts.

GEOLOGICAL

Constantine possessed no good building stone, and local

Influence

materials such as clay for bricks and rubble for concrete were employed. Other materials more monumental in character had therefore to be imported : marble was brought from the quarries in the islands and along the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean to Constantinople, which was the chief marble-working centre and supplied all parts of the Roman Empire. Byzantine architecture was further considerably influenced by the multitude of monolithic columns of such sizes as were obtainable from the different quarries. These were even introduced into the underground cisterns for the water storage of this Imperial city.

CLIMATIC
Influence

Flat roofs for summer resort were combined with oriental domes Small windows often high up in otherwise unbroken walls, formed the chief features of the style Sheltering arcades surrounded the open courts.

RELIGIOUS
Influence

In the year 313 the Edict of Milan was Issued, which granted toleration to Christians, and in 330 Constantinople became the capital of the first Christian Empire. It follows that the chief buildings erected in the new capital were churches for the new religions. At first they were of the Basilican Early Christian type. Later, the domical Byzantine Style was developed. Byzantine architecture, devoid of statues has always been and still .remains the official style of the Orthodox church of Greece and eastern Europe which has conserved unchanged its doctrines and ritual.

HISTORICAL
Influence

On the death of the Emperor Theodosius I (A.D. 395) the Empire was finally divided, and Byzantium continued to be the capital of the Eastern Empire, and throughout the Middle Ages was the bulwark of Christianity against the attacks of the Huns and Goths on the west, and of Saracens on the east.

SOCIAL
Influence
Constantine developed the policy initiated by Diocletian (A.D. 284305) of providing adequate civil government and military protection throughout the widespread Roman Empire and showed his statesmanship in his manner of dealing with this political problem, just as he did in securing support for himself from the growing power of Christianity by establishing it as the state religion. Diocletian's attempt, however, to solve the difficulty of managing the Eastern Empire from the west of Italy by instituting three seats of government, in addition to that of Rome, had proved ineffectual and open to abuse, and therefore when Constantine in his turn was confronted with the same difficulty he took the bold course of transplanting his capital from Rome to Byzantium (A.D. 324) because he recognized the political value of its central position in the Empire. Byzantium was an old Greek city, and so the new Imperial buildings were executed by Greek craftsmen untrammelled by Roman traditions. Within the fortifications of Constantine, the new city was laid out on Roman lines, so far as the hills and site allowed.

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER

METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION
Brickwork (external) Caprices in patterns and banding, internally it was suitable for covering with marble, mosaic and 'fresco' decoration. The decorative character of external facades depended largely on the arrangement of the facing bricks: not laid horizontally, obliquely, form of the meander fret, chevron or herringbone pattern.

METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION
FRESCO - a term originally applied to painting on a wall while the plaster is wet, but is often used for any wall painting not in oil colors. DOME a traditional feature in the East; a fusion o{ the domical construction with the classical columnar style. Domes of various types were now placed over square compartments by means of pendentives'. PENDENTIVE- the term applied to the triangular curved .overhanging surface by means of which a circular dome is supported over a square or polygonal compartment.

METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION

METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION
Three types of DOMES:
a. Simple - pendentives and domes are part of the same sphere

Three types of DOMES:

METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION

b. Compound 1. The dome is not part of the same sphere as the pendentives and domes rises independently upon them. 2. The dome is raised on a high drum pierced with windows.

Three types of DOMES:


c. Special designs 1. Melon Dome ~dome with convolutions 2. Serrated 3. Onion or Bulbous sharp

METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION

These domes were usually constructed of bricks on some light porous stone, such as pumice, or even of pottery. Some byzantine Domes and vaults were, it is believed, constructed without temporary support or centering by the simple use of large flat bricks.

METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION
centering - a temporary structure upon which the materials of a vault or arch are supported in position until the work becomes self-supporting.

At St. Sophia, haunches were strengthened by a ring of small buttresses to compensate for the weakening effect of the window openings.

METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION

The grouping of small domes or semi-domes round the large central dome was effective and one of the characteristic features of Byzantine churches was that the forms of the vaults and domes were visible externally. Undisguised by any timber roof; thus in the Byzantine style the exterior closely corresponds with the interior.

At St. Sophia, haunches were strengthened by a ring of small buttresses to compensate for the weakening effect of the window openings.

METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION

The grouping of small domes or semi-domes round the large central dome was effective and one of the characteristic features of Byzantine churches was that the forms of the vaults and domes were visible externally. Undisguised by any timber roof; thus in the Byzantine style the exterior closely corresponds with the interior.

METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION

METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION In St. Sophia is seen the perfect


expression of the Byzantine style: for the columns are not merely ornamental, but really support galleries, and semicircular arches rest directly on columns with capitals suitable for supporting the springers of arches of which the voussoirs were rectangular blocks not set in receding moulded planes, as in mediaeval architecture.

EXAMPLES 1. St. Sophia. Constantinople (Hagia 5(1phia = divine wisdom)


was built by Justinian by the architects Anthemius of Tralles and lsidorus of Miletus, or the site of two successive basilican churches of the same name, erected respectively by Constantine and Theodosius lt.

EXAMPLES 2. St. Mark, Venice


Reflects the art of Byzantium which so largely influenced the architecture of Venice. The glittering, resplendent facade of the narthex faces the great ~Piazza' of San Marco, whose vast open space, paved in marble, forms a great public atrium to the church. Dedicated to the sea-city's patron saint. *piazza - a public open space or square surrounded by buildings.

EXAMPLES This famous edifice stands on the site of the

original basilican church, which was founded in 830 to receive the body of St. Mark, and partially burnt down 976. .... The plan has a central dome 12.8 m (42ft.) in diameter, and e dome over each arm of the cross. The great square piets, 8.5 m x 6.4 m (28 ft. x 21 ft.} which can the dome are pierced on both the ground and gallery levels, and arcades support passages connecting the central piers to f.t\e extremities of the nave and transepts. The addition of the narthex and baptistery makes the church approximately square in plan.

3. Gracanica Church

EXAMPLES

4. St. Sophia, Novgorod For capitals, the Roman Ionic, Corinthian, and composite types were sometimes used, but from these were derived a new "'cubiform" type with convex side suited to carry a rising arch which took the place of the horizontal entablature. Over each type was placed a deep abacus or "Dosseret block" a new invention which performed the function of enlarging the surface of the capital to support the wide voussoirs of the arch or a thick wall.

EXAMPLES

Hagia Sophia
Was chosen a world heritage site by UNESCO in 1985. Rebuilt by the orders of Emperor Justinian in 537, for 900 years Hagia Sophia had been the center of Orthodox Christianity until 1453 when the city was concurred by Ottomans. 500 years following the conquest of Muslims, it became a jewel for the Muslim world and as the grand mosque of the sultans. In 1935, Hagia Sophia had been converted into a museum of Turkish Republic by the orders of Ataturk, and became one of the most significant monuments not only in Turkey but on earth with its architecture and its historical richness.

Hagia Sophia
Was chosen a world heritage site by UNESCO in 1985. Rebuilt by the orders of Emperor Justinian in 537, for 900 years Hagia Sophia had been the center of Orthodox Christianity until 1453 when the city was concurred by Ottomans. 500 years following the conquest of Muslims, it became a jewel for the Muslim world and as the grand mosque of the sultans. In 1935, Hagia Sophia had been converted into a museum of Turkish Republic by the orders of Ataturk, and became one of the most significant monuments not only in Turkey but on earth with its architecture and its historical richness.

Hagia Sophia
Interior of the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey. The crown of the dome rises 180 feet (55 meters) above the floor.

http://www.livescience.com/27574-hagiasophia.html

Hagia Sophia
Sunlight coming in through the windows of the Hagia Sophia "seemed to dissolve the solidity of the walls and created an ambience of ineffable mystery," wrote one author.

Hagia Sophia
The Apse Mosaic in the Hagia Sophia shows the Virgin Mary holding baby Jesus. It is 13 feet tall.

Hagia Sophia

Fig. 1 Vize, Hagia Sophia, exterior from west, 2003

Hagia Sophia

Fig. 2 Vize, Hagia Sophia, exterior from southwest, ca. 1960

Hagia Sophia

Fig. 3 Vize, Hagia Sophia, exterior from east, 2004 (photo: R. Rosenbauer)

Hagia Sophia

Fig. 4 Vize, Hagia Sophia, exterior from east, ca. 1960 (photo: C. Mango)

Hagia Sophia

Fig. 5 Vize, Hagia Sophia, interior toward east, 2003 (photo: R. Rosenbauer)

Hagia Sophia

Fig. 6 Vize, Hagia Sophia, interior (photo: U. Peschlow)

Hagia Sophia

Fig. 7 Vize, Hagia Sophia, ground and gallery plan (drawings: R. Rosenbauer)

Hagia Sophia

Fig. 8 Vize, Hagia Sophia, transverse sections with views to east and west (drawings: R. Rosenbauer)

Hagia Sophia

Fig. 9 Vize, Hagia Sophia, longitudinal section toward south (drawing: R. Rosenbauer)

Hagia Sophia

Fig. 10 Vize, Hagia Sophia, dome from east

Hagia Sophia
Fig. 11 Vize, Hagia Sophia, south facade, detail of reinforcement wall behind west arcosolium

Hagia Sophia

Fig. 12 Vize, Hagia Sophia, south facade, wall protruding south with blocked archway

Hagia Sophia

Fig. 13 Vize, Hagia Sophia, diakonikon, fragment of original marble floor

Hagia Sophia

Fig. 14 Vize, Hagia Sophia, sanctuary with original floor tiles and templon stylobate (drawing: R. Casagrande)

Hagia Sophia

Fig. 15 Fragment of Byzantine opus sectile Floor

Hagia Sophia

Figs. 1617 Fragments of an ambo (drawing: K. Noreen and R. Casagrande)

Hagia Sophia

Fig. 18 Fragments of a lintel

Hagia Sophia

Fig. 19 Fragments of a marble screen

Hagia Sophia

Fig. 20 Vize, Hagia Sophia, south corridor after cleaning in 2004

Hagia Sophia

Figs. 2122 Vize, Hagia Sophia, south and north corridors, detail of wall belonging to previous structure

Hagia Sophia

Fig. 23 Vize, Hagia Sophia, ground plan with remains of previous structure (drawing: R. Casagrande)

Hagia Sophia
Fig. 24 Vize, Hagia Sophia, west facade (drawing: R. Rosenbauer and R. Casagrande)

Hagia Sophia

Fig. 25 Vize, Hagia Sophia, site plan (drawing: R. Rosenbauer)