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Mukund Nadgowda YASHADA


Information and Communication Technology

in Governance

Just possessing Information & Communication Technology (ICT)Tools is not enough. It may make your life more complex unless you are clear about
Why, when, where & how to use these powers to get what we want in the simplified way.

Our Transformations

First Wave Second Wave

Agriculture Revolution Industrial Revolution

Third Wave Information Revolution, which in turn triggered the concept of eGovernance

SMART Governance Characteristics

A Governance body having characteristics like : Simple Moral Accountable Responsive Transparent

SMART Governance with focus around citizens, and prefixed with e (usage of ICT tools to achieve desired objectives ) is e-Governance.

Various Stake Holders in e-Governance

It is application of Information & Communication Technology(ICT) for interaction between : 1. G2C, C2G-Government & citizens 2. G2B, B2G - Government & Business 3. G2G - Inter / Intra Government 4. G2E Management & employees

e-Governance Mission
Partnership between various stake holders with objectives as follows : e - Citizen : To receive govt. services, access them on line 24x7x365 days , and participate in governance process : To access Govt. services, for faster economic development, and participation in value addition to govt. services

e - Business

e Employees : For better communication / understanding, Increased productivity, participation in strategic planning e Government : To Increase productivity / efficiency, build good relationships with others for good governance.

Citizen Centric e-Governance

When the focus of Government services is to facilitate citizens to have access to information :

In the format convenient to them at the place of their choice Transparency about the decision making processes Simplification of procedures of information access To minimize the total processing time for requested actions

An example
Technology should facilitate citizen to make payments of utility bills (electricity bill, telephone bill or water bill) at one place or automate the payment through bank. It should further facilitate the citizens to interact with the concerned agencies for queries / clarifications / adjustments etc.
( Aim should be to provide Single window service 24 X 7 X 365 )

e-Governance is a Process
An Illustration : Development of Computerised Databases and Dissemination of Information through normal
channels or Web technology is e-Government Enforcement of laws for timely delivery of services to citizens, Business and other Govt.offices through Internet or Intranet is eGovernance

E-Governance Applications
Few examples, where citizens interface with Government :

Delivery of Products (BSNL Directory distribution) Delivery of Services (Hospital, Police, Post) Delivery of Information (Govt. schemes, RTI matter) Online Transactions (Applying for Driving License)

Practical benefits of e-Governance

Simpler documentation Faster responses Simpler procurement Greater reach of services Accelerating education Public participation Simplified transactions Simplified interactions

Potential e-Governance Application areas

Citizen Services Employment Bridging the Digital Divide Revenue Postal Health Education Justice Trade Public Grievances Human Rights etc

Evolutionary Stages in eGovernance

Use of email, internal networking Intranet setup for internal activities Allowing public access Enabling 2-way communication Enabling online transactions by Citizens Enriching digital democracy Integrating with other applications / SSO

e-Governance : Challenges
The key challenges with e-Governance are not the TECHNOLOGY issues but, they are the ORGANIZATIONAL issues

Let us look into these challenges

e-Governance : Challenges

Realistic Needs Analysis Redefining rules and procedures for data collection, processing, storage, dissemination, and decision making

e-Governance : Challenges

Information transparency / security

( Is it practical to have 100 % transparency ? )

Interdepartmental collaboration for information sharing ( Horizontal & Vertical)

(How to change mind sets to employees to come out of possessive nature ? )

Security and Legal Issues

( Who should be responsible for correctness of the information having multiple updation /access rights?)

e-Governance : Challenges
(Just acquiring computers is not enough. People should be aware of their potential and should acquire skill of using them optimally )

Tendency to resist the change in work culture

(Using a computer instead of type writer and using email, instead of telephone can not be treated as change in work culture. Some thing more is required, What is that challenge?)

Challenges specific to Indian scenario

Problem of priority (There are other important issues) Infrastructure (lack or unavailability thereof) Diversity (Different languages and regions) Over powering (IT expert sector) Low quality of input (hence) Low quality of output ( Garbage in / garbage out)

Words of Caution
Technology helps to reach the un-reached, but it can make the things worse through digital divide. There is the fear of emergence of an elite group who only may be the ultimate beneficiaries of successful technology application

Where do we stand ?
In Countries such as USA, Singapore, Norway,
Sweden, online Govt. services are high. In Britain, New Zealand, South Korea even the general usage of internet is less when compared. Internet usage in India too growing and many state governments are going online.

What is lacking ?

We have been doing computerization

NOT e-Governance!
We need to adopt a holistic approach!

What is e-government ?
It is the transformation of government to provide
Efficient Convenient & Transparent

Services to

the Citizens & Businesses

through Information & Communication Technologies

What is NOT e-Government ?

e-Government is not about e

but about government !

e-Government is not about computers but about citizens !

e-Government is not about translating processes

but about transforming processes !

Minimum Agenda for e-Governance

Intranet Infrastructure ( LAN, PC, Software Tools, Portal / Vortal ) IT Empowerment of Officers/Officials IT enabled Services - intra and inter Departments (G2G, G2B)

IT enabled delivery of services for masses - Public Information & Facilitation (G2C)
IT Vision for the Sectoral Development

e-Governance Systems Development Steps

1. 2. 3.


Have a clear vision and prepare action plan. Choose projects that fit in action plan, if you cant, make them fit in. Large e-Governance systems have to be divided into manageable logical modules, each with a goal that supports overall objective of eGovernance. ICT provides solution for plugging such components to a great extent, even if the modules are developed on different platforms. There is need to contain cost by developing portable / replicable modules, which can be reused across different government.

e-Governance Systems Development Steps

5. The e-Governance architecture should be able to support phased implementation. This is possible by providing interlinked common backbone architecture, and customized architecture at front end for deployment of different e-Governance applications. 6. There is need to follow technology standards for Databases, operating systems,Schema, nomenclatures, architecture, communication security etc.

Critical Success Factors

People, Process, Technology

Architecture & Standards Security Implementation Models


Points to Ponder in Implementation of e-Gov

System Study Vs. System Development Pilot Vs. Rollout In-house Vs. Outsource Make or Buy

Open Source Vs Proprietary software

Problems in implementation
Budget constraints Too many disjointed efforts Lack of Infrastructure Digital Divide Shortage of Champions Local Language Interface No architecture and standards Too little benefits

Railway Reservation 7/12 / Land Records, E-Tendering Sevarth PlanPlus

eGov Applications


The National e-Governance Plan (NeGP)

e-Governance approach in India The National e-Governance Plan (NeGP)

The Plan seeks to lay the foundation and provide the impetus for long-term growth of e-Governance within the country.
It seeks to create the right governance and institutional mechanisms, set up the core infrastructure and policies and implement a number of Mission Mode Projects at the center, state and integrated service levels to create a citizen-centric and business-centric environment for governance.

e-Governance approach in India The National e-Governance Plan (NeGP)


The NeGP aims at improving delivery of Government services to citizens and businesses with the following vision:
Make all Government services accessible to the common man in his locality, through common service delivery outlets and ensure efficiency, transparency & reliability of such services at affordable costs to realize the basic needs of the common man.

e-Governance approach in India The National e-Governance Plan (NeGP)

Centralized Initiative, Decentralized Implementation Identify services to be targeted Prioritize Services (Mission) Identify measurable service goals (Outcomes) Identify, Appoint & Empower Mission Leaders Create mechanism for effective Private Sector participation Put in place a common Infrastructure, Policies, Standards and Framework. Service delivery through Common Service Centres Think Big, Start Small and Scale Fast All services supported by infrastructure to facilitate web-enabled access Connectivity: State Wide Area Networks (SWANs)/NICNET National Data Bank/ State Data Centres ( SDCs) Common Service Centres (CSCs) primary mode of delivery

e-Governance approach in India The National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) Core Infrastructure
National eGovernment Intranet (NICNET, ERNET etc.) State wide Intranets National eGovernment Data Center State Data Centers Security Infrastructure Resource Centre for E-Governance GIS National Spatial Data Infrastructure Language Resource Centre

e-Governance approach in India The National e-Governance Plan (NeGP)

e-Governance approach in India The National e-Governance Plan (NeGP)

Institutional Framework under NeGP

(CM- Chief Minister, CS Chief Secretary, DIT Dept of IT, GoI, PeMT Project Governance Mission Team, SeMT State eGovernance Mission Team)

Legal Framework for eGovernance

IT Act, 2000, was enacted to provide legal recognition for transactions carried out by means of electronic data interchange and other means of electronic communication, commonly referred to as electronic commerce, which involve the use of alternatives to paper-based methods of communication and storage of information, to facilitate electronic filing of documents with the Government agencies and further to amend the Indian Penal Code, the Indian Evidence Act, 1872, the Bankers Books Evidence Act, 1891 and the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. The focus of the Act is on electronic commerce and electronic records. It contains provisions on digital signatures and authentication of electronic records, legal recognition of digital signatures and electronic records, retention of electronic records, attribution, acknowledgement and dispatch of electronic records, security of electronic records, regulation of Certifying Authorities, Cyber Regulation Appellate Tribunal etc. To facilitate the implementation of e-Governance projects at various levels across the country, a more holistic legal framework is required.

Need for Statutory Backing for E-Governance

As seen earlier, the DIT has been tasked with creating the common core and support infrastructure, like the National and State Wide Area Networks, NDC and SDCs, Common Services Centres and the Electronic Service Delivery Gateways. It is also laying down Standards and Policy Guidelines in its role as facilitator. There are complexities involved in evolution/development and adoption of the overall technology architecture, framework standards, security policy, funding strategy, service delivery mechanism, sharing of common infrastructure etc.

Need for Statutory Backing for E-Governance

Data Retention and Preservation policies are important, as paper files are replaced by electronic methods. Data Privacy issues are extremely important. Citizens may take Government Departments to courts on leakage of data and privacy issues. NDA (Non-Disclosure Agreements) with all vendors and their employees is an aspect that should be carefully examined. Amendments to IT Act now have section on Sensitive Personal information (Rules u/s 43A).

Stronger laws
Stronger and more effective laws and rules related to usage of ICT will have to be formulated, and strongly implemented. This presupposes the adoption and use of security measures more particularly empowering and training judiciary and law enforcement manpower with the knowledge and use of cyber forensics and digital evidencing.

To conclude
E-governance is an evolutionary phenomenon, and requires a change in the mindset of one and all citizen, executives and the government.
With the support of the Internet, the government processes defined by specializations can be made efficient, effective, and citizenfriendly. There are many challenging issues lying ahead. Security is the main concern, both for the Government and for citizens. Redefining rules and procedures, information transparency, legal issues, infrastructure, skill and awareness, access to right information, inter-departmental collaboration, tendency to resist the change in work culture, are the main concerns for the government to address.