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Malaysian Studies- Chapter 2

Part 3

Racial Problems-problem of unity


& rule policy

System during British colonization

Education different

religions & customs Occupation


Efforts Toward Racial Unity


Relations Committee, 1949 - enabled leaders of various groups to find a solution to the existing racial problems - proposed : non-Malays be involved in local politics : more opportunities be given to the Malays in the business & industrial sections
System, 1951 - enabled people from various ethnic groups to get involved in the administration of the government & hold portfolios in areas such as Home Affairs, Agriculture, Land, Health etc.


Member system(page36)
April 1951, British introduce the Member System Purpose: to appoint the the local representative to the head of department in the central government. Benefits: create spirit of cooporation among the races through joint administration, encourage understanding among races

United Malays National Organization (UMNO)

11th May 1946
Dato Onn bin Jaafar objectives * to unite Malays to oppose Malayan Union * to protect Malays interests * to gain independence from the British

Dato Onn : independent Malaya truly inter-racial proposed non-Malays be allowed to join UMNO UMNO members : UMNO stood for Malays right, could not be multi racial

Sept. 1951, Dato Onn resigned & was replaced by Tunku Abdul Rahman

Malayan Chinese Association (MCA)

27th Feb 1949 Leong Yew Koh objectives * to protect Chinese interest * to co-operate with the government & oppose Communism during the Emergency years * to propose more liberal citizenship
( recruitment of the Chinese into the police & armed forces ; resettlement of the local community into New Villages )

Malayan Indian Congress (MIC)

August 1946 John Thivy objectives * to protect Indians interest * to propose more liberal citizenship
in the earlier years of its information, did not receive much support because it was dominated by Indian from the upper class received full support when the Tamils took over the party in 1954

The Fight For Independence

The Elections
1952, elections for local government & town councils, UMNO-MCA Alliance won 9 out of the12 seats contested general elections in 1955, the Alliance (UMNOMCA-MIC) 51 out of 52 seats contested

10 Alliances members - Ministers Tunku Abdul Rahman - Chief Minister

majority of the Legislative Council - Alliances members

UMNOs invitation to form the Alliance that MCA began to be known as political party The move of alliance proved the open hearted disposition of the Malay the their willingness to share power.


1955, Merdeka Mission ( 4 Alliances representative & 4 sultans ) London to persuade the British to give full independence


agreed to give independence on 31st August 1957

The Reid Commission


up constitution that set up a new democratic & unified Malaya with a firm government - had to consider the right of Malays, non-Malays & the Sultans

memorandums were received from individuals & various organizations


draft of the constitution did not satisfy the Alliance especially the proposals on religion & citizenship

Another delegation to London - to clarify certain matters & amend the draft of the constitution
Merdeka Constitution - ethnic bargain * MIC & MCA agreed to give special right to the Malay & Bahasa Melayu as the national language * UMNO allowed Chinese & Indian to receive citizenship & involvement in politics

Constitution of the federation of Malaya 1. The constitution was accepted by Federal Legislative council , 15 AUG 1957 2. Fundamental Principles: a. Yang di Pertuan Agong is the head of Malaya b. The Malay are recognised as the sons of soil and their special rights are guaranteed in the constitution c. Malay language-national language, English- can still be used in Legislative Council for period of 10 years d. Person born on or after Independence is automatically a Malaysian citizen e. Islam-main religion, freedom to worship is guaranteed for nonmuslim

Independence of Malaya
31st August 1957, Stadium Merdeka, Kuala Lumpur, Tunku Abdul Rahman First Prime Minister --- Tunku Abdul Rahman First YDPA --- Sultan of Negeri Sembilan, Almarhum Tunku Abdul Rahman ibni almarhum Tunku Muhammad First general election --- 1959, Alliance won 74 out the 104 seats contested