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CHAPTER 7

The Reproductive Process

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Nature of the Reproductive Process

Reproduction is one of the most important properties of life Two modes of reproduction
Asexual Sexual

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Examples of Sexual and Asexual Reproduction


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Nature of the Reproductive Process

Asexual Reproduction
Involves only one parent No special reproductive organs or cells Genetically identical offspring Production of offspring is simple, direct, and rapid - increase population fast Widespread in bacteria, unicellular eukaryotes and many invertebrate phyla

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Nature of the Reproductive Process

Asexual Reproductive Methods

Binary Fission

Common among bacteria and protozoa The parent divides by mitosis into two parts Each grows into an individual similar to the parent

Multiple Fission

Nucleus divides repeatedly Cytoplasmic division produces many daughter cells

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Nature of the Reproductive Process

Budding
Unequal division of an organism Bud is an outgrowth of the parent Develops organs and then detaches

Fragmentation

Multicellular animal breaking into many fragments that become a new animal

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Nature of the Reproductive Process

Sexual Reproduction
Generally involves two parents Special germ cells (gametes) unite to form a zygote Sexual reproduction recombines parental characters

A richer, more diversified population results

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Nature of the Reproductive Process

Sexual Reproductive Methods


Bisexual
Most

Reproduction

common form Produces offspring from union of gametes from two genetically different parents Generally, individuals are male or female Organisms are dioecious

Sexes are separate

Gonads

(Found in most vertebrates and invertebrates) Organs that produce gametes (testes, ovaries)

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Nature of the Reproductive Process


The

female produces the ovum

Large with stored yolk and nonmotile

Spermatozoa

(sperm) are produced by

the male

Small, motile and much more numerous

Meiosis

- used to make gametes

Produces four haploid cells

Fertilization

Two haploid cells combine Restores the diploid chromosome number in the zygote Zygote divides by mitosis

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Sexual Life Cycle


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Nature of the Reproductive Process

Hermaphroditism

Both male and female organs in the same individual (monoeicious, hermaphrodites)

Many sessile, burrowing and/or endoparasitic invertebrates and some fish Most avoid self-fertilization

Exchange gametes with member of same species Hermaphroditic species could potentially produce twice as many offspring as dioecious species A genetically programmed sex change occurs with an individual organism Ex: Clownfish - born male, change to female if dominant female is removed

Each individual produces eggs, increases #

Sequential Hermaphroditism

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Hermaphroditic Earthworms Mating


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Nature of the Reproductive Process

Parthenogenesis

Development of an embryo from an unfertilized egg Male and female nuclei fail to unite after fertilization Egg begins development without sperm Narrows the diversity available for adaptation to new conditions - not clones of female (haploid cells replicate) Examples: fleas, bees, aphids, some fish and lizards

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Nature of the Reproductive Process

Why do so many animals reproduce sexually rather than asexually?

The costs of sexual reproduction are greater than asexual methods - negatives of sexual reproduction:
Requires more time Uses more energy The cost of meiosis to the female involves passing only half of her genes to offspring Production of males reduces resources for females that could produce eggs - more females = more offspring

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Nature of the Reproductive Process However:

Sexual organisms

Produce more diverse genotypes to survive in times of environmental change

diversity prevents extinction On a geological time scale Sexual lineages with less variation are prone to extinction Many invertebrates with both sexual and asexual modes enjoy the advantages of both

Example: Starfish, Lizard

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Unisex - ALL female lizards


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Bisexual - Both Male and Female Present

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Sex Determination

Sex Determination

At first, gonads are sexually identical In human males

SRY (sex determining region Y) on the Y chromosome organizes the gonad into a testis

Once formed, the testis Secretes testosterone which, masculinizes the fetus

Development of a penis, scrotum and male ducts, and glands

Females have no Y, so gonads never change into testes, therefore Testosterone is never secreted

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Sex Determination

Absence of testosterone in a genetic female embryo

Promotes development of female sexual organs Vagina, clitoris and uterus

Genetics of sex determination vary:


XX-XY Haplodiploid (males are formed from unfertilized eggs) XX-XO Temperature

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Incubation Temperature determine sex of offspring


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Germ Cells

Gametogenesis

Gametes formation Spermatogenesis (Testes)


Oogenesis

(Ovaries)

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Seminiferous Tubule containing sperm


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Germ Cells

Spermatogenesis

Formation of sperm Parts of Sperm Haploid nucleus condenses into a head A midpiece forms containing mitochondria The whiplike flagellar tail provides locomotion Sperm head contains an acrosome Often contains enzymes to aid in penetration of egg layers Enzymes are specific to a species. Why??

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Acrosome produces specific enzymes, so they only digest their species eggs membrane. This helps aquatic animals who might spawn at the same time. Ex. Coral sperm cant fertilize Sea Star eggs.

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Germ Cells
Oogenesis

Formation of ovum (egg) - 3 polar bodies and 1 egg

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Reproductive Patterns

TYPES OF BIRTH Oviparous (egg-birth) Animals


Lay eggs outside the body Fertilization may be internal (before eggs are laid) or external (after laid) Some animals abandon eggs; others provide extensive care Examples: reptiles, birds, amphibians, fish

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Reproductive Patterns

Ovoviviparous (egg-live-birth) Animals


Retain eggs in their body Essentially all nourishment is derived from the yolk not the mother. Fertilization is internal Common in some invertebrate groups and aquatic animals, certain fishes (sharks) and reptiles

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Reproductive Patterns

Viviparous (live-birth) Animals


Give birth to young in a more advanced stage of development Eggs develop in oviduct or uterus Embryos continuously derive nourishment from the mother Fertilization is internal Occurs in mammals and some fishes Provides more protection to offspring

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Plan of Reproductive Systems

Invertebrate Reproductive Systems

Invertebrates that transfer sperm for internal fertilization require complex organs

Insects (Crickets) - have an ovipositor - helps deposit eggs

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Crickets Sex Organs

Sperm is stored in a sac (spermatophore) and deposited into the genital bursa of the female. The female then controls the release of a few sperm to fertilize her eggs at the moment they are laid, using the ovipositor.
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Plan of Reproductive Systems

Vertebrate Reproductive Systems

Reproductive and excretory systems are called the urogenital system Close anatomical connection In male fishes and amphibians

In all vertebrates except most mammals Ducts open into a cloaca In females with cloacas, the oviduct also opens into cloaca
Most female mammals have separate excretory and reproductive systems

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Male Reproductive Parts: Scrotum, Testis, Epididymis, Vas deferens, Prostate, Seminal Vesicles, Urethra, Penis Female Reproductive Parts: Vagina, Ovary, Cervix, Fallopian Tubes

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Endocrine Events that Orchestrate Reproduction

Hormonal Control of Timing of Reproductive Cycles Vertebrate reproduction

Seasonal or cyclic

Offspring arrive when food is available and other environmental conditions are optimal for survival

Sexual cycles

Controlled by hormones that respond to food intake, photoperiod, rainfall, temperature or social cues

Hypothalamus controls release of hormones

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Childbirth
Multiple
Many

Births

animals are multiparous


are uniparous (elephants) occur

Give birth to many offspring at one time Give birth only to one at a time

Some

Exceptions

Armadillos gives birth to four young, all male or all female Derived from one zygote - IDENTICAL

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Endocrine Events that Orchestrate Reproduction


Identical

Twins - separate

One-third have separate placentas and amniotic sacs

Indicates fertilized egg separated at an early stage

Two-thirds

share a placenta with separate amniotic sac


Splitting occurred after implantation

few share 1 amniotic sac and 1 placenta

Indicates that separation of the zygote occurred after day 9 of pregnancy, when the amnion has formed These twins risk becoming conjoined (Siamese twinning)

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Rare - possible Conjoined twins

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