Sei sulla pagina 1di 28

Grammar II Unit 9 Gerund or To Infinitive

Miriam Sheen Class

Gerund

avoid finish delay

enjoy mind suggest

dislike imagine regret

admit consider deny involve miss

practice postpone

If these verbs are followed by another verb, the structure is usually verb + ing: Stop talking! I dont miss working late every night. I imagine working abroad. When Im on vacation, I enjoy not having to get up early.

These expression also take ing:

Give up (=stop) Go on (=continue) Put off (=postpone)

keep or keep on (=do something continuously or repeatedly

Are you going to give up smoking? He kept (on) interrupting me while I was speaking.

Whit some of the verbs (especially admit, deny, regret, and suggest) you can also use a that structure:

He denied that he had stolen the money He denied stealing the money. Bill suggested that we go to the movies Bill suggested going to the movies

Avoid using two gerunds together.

Im starting to learn French


Im starting learning French.

To infinitive

agree offer refuse attempt promise manage

decide plan arrange

appear seem pretend

forget intend tend

need mean

If these verbs are followed by another verb, the structure is usually verb + infinitive :
It was late , so we decided to take a taxi home They agreed to lend me some money . I like Susan, but I think she tends to talk too much. Im sorry. I dindt mean to hurt you.

There is a continuous infinitive (to be doing) and a perfect infinitive (to have done). We use these especially after seem, appear, and pretend:

I pretend to be reading. ( = I pretend that I was reading) You seem to have lost weight. ( = It seems that you have lost weight). He appears to be doing a good job ( = It appears that he is doing a good jod).

After the following verbs you can use a question word (what / where / how, etc) + infinitive. ask decide know remember forget explain

We asked Have you decide Tom explained(to me) I dont know

how to get where to go how to change whether to go

to the station? for your vacation? the tire on the car? to the party or not?

Also: show/tell/ask someone what / how / where to do something:

Can someone show me how to change the film in this camera? Ask Jack. Hell tell you what to do.

Verb + Object + Infinitive

Want

ask

expect

help

would like

would prefer

There are two possible structures after these verbs: verb + infinitive I asked to see the manager I expected to be late He would like to come verb + object + infinitive I asked Tom to help me We expected him to be late He would like me to come

After help you can use the verb with or without to Can somebody help me (to) move this table_

Tell

remind

force

enable persuade

order

warn invite

These verbs have the structure verb + object + infinitive:

Remind me to call He warmed me not to touch anything Who taught you (how) to drive? I got Jack to fix my car

You cannot use suggest with the infinitive To suggested that I buy a car (not Tom suggested me to by)

Advise

encourage

allow

permit

There are two possible structures after these verbs. Compare:

verb + ing (with object) They dont allow smoking in this building I wouldnt advise staying at that hotel verb + object + infinitive They dont allow you to smoke in this building I wouldnt advise you to stay at the hotel

make

let

These verbs have the structure verb + base form Hot weather makes me feel uncomfortable I only did it because they made me do it She wouldnt let me read the letter

Do not use to after make and let


They made me do it. (not they made me to do it)

Infinitive or Gerund (like, would like, etc.)

like

hate

cant bear

love

cant stand

After these verbs and expressions you can use gerund or the infinitive. I like getting up early I love meeting peoplo I hate washing dishes She cant stand being alone = = = = I like to get up early I love to meet people I hate to wash dishes. She cant stand to be alone.

Would like is followed by the infinitive:

I would like to be rich Would you like to come to a party?


Notice the difference in meaning between I like and I would like. I would like is a polite way of saying I want. Compare: I like playing tennis (= enjoy it in general) or I like to play tennis

I would like to play tennis (= I want to play)

We also use the infinitive after would love/hate/prefer Would you prefer to have dinner now or late? Id love to be able to travel aroun the world You can also say I would like have done something (= I regret that didnt or couldnt do something)

Its too bad we didnt visit Tom. I would like to ghave seen him again

Infinitive or Gerund (begin, start, continue, remember, try.)

begin

start

continue

These verbs can usually be followed by ing or the infinitive. So you can say:

The baby began crying or The baby began to cry It has started raining or It has started to rain He continued working after his illness or He continued to work after his illness.

Remember to do and remember doing You remember to do something before you do it. Remember to do something is the opposite of forget to do something

I remembered to lock the door before I left, but I forgot to shut the windows. Please remember to mail the letter

You remember doing something after you do it. I Remember doing something = I did something, and now I remember it:

I clearly remember locking the door before I left. (= I locked it, and now I clearly remember this)
He could remember driving along the road just before the accident happened, but he couldnt remember the accident itself

Try to do and try doing

Try to do = attempt to do, make an effort to do


I was very tired. I tried to keep my eyes open, but I couldnt. Please try to be quiet when you come home. Everyone will be asleep. Try doing = do something as an experiment or test Try some of tea maybe youll like it (= try some of it to see if you like it. We tried every hotel in town, but they were all full (=we went to every hotel to see if they had a room)

If Try (with this meaning) is followed by a verb, we say try + gerund. I cant find anywhere to live. Why dont you try putting an ad in the newspaper? (do this to see if it helps you to find a place to live) Ive got a terrible headache. I tried taking an aspirin, but it didnt help (I took an aspirin to see if it would stop my headache)

EXERCISES

writing I dont enjoy __________(write) letters. to buy (buy) a car. Nick has decided not _________ to lend (lend) me any money Tom refused _________ taking I consider ___________(take) the job. to use Can you show me how _________(use) the washing machine

smoke Mr. Thomas doesnt let anyone ________ (smoke) in his office eating I dont advise _________(eat) in that restaurant. The foods awful. cry The film was very sad. It made me ______(cry)
Lindas parents have always encouraged to study (study) hard her__________ Please remember _________ to mail (mail) this box