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Rationale For Nationalization of

Bank’s in India
• Banking in India originated in the last decades of the 18th century. The first banks were The General
Bank of India which started in 1786, and the Bank of Hindustan, both of which are now

• The oldest bank in existence in India is the State Bank of India, which originated in the Bank of
Calcutta in June 1806, which almost immediately became the Bank of Bengal. This was one of
the three presidency banks, the other two being the Bank of Bombay and the Bank of Madras,
all three of which were established under charters from the British East India Company.

• The three banks merged in 1925 to form the Imperial Bank of India, which, upon India's
independence, became the State Bank of India.

• Central banking is the responsibility of the Reserve Bank of India, which in 1935 formally took over
these responsibilities from the then Imperial Bank of India, relegating it to commercial banking

• After India's independence in 1947, the Reserve Bank was nationalized and given broader powers.
In 1969 the government nationalized the 14 largest commercial banks; the government
nationalized the six next largest in 1980

• The partition of India in 1947 adversely impacted the economies of Punjab and West Bengal, paralyzing
banking activities for months. India's independence marked the end of a regime of the Laissez-faire
for the Indian banking. The Government of India initiated measures to play an active role in the
economic life of the nation, and the Industrial Policy Resolution adopted by the government in 1948
envisaged a mixed economy. This resulted into greater involvement of the state in different segments
of the economy including banking and finance. The major steps to regulate banking included:

• In 1948, the Reserve Bank of India, India's central banking authority, was nationalized, and it became an
institution owned by the Government of India.
• In 1949, the Banking Regulation Act was enacted which empowered the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) "to
regulate, control, and inspect the banks in India."
• The Banking Regulation Act also provided that no new bank or branch of an existing bank could be opened
without a license from the RBI, and no two banks could have common directors.
• However, despite these provisions, control and regulations, banks in India except the State Bank of India,
continued to be owned and operated by private persons. This changed with the nationalisation of
major banks in India on 19 July, 1969.

Reasons for Nationalization
2. Commercial banks had facilitated the concentration of
economic power in the hands of few and created monopoly
in the country.
4. The priority sector was neglected. Banks did not pay attention
to credit needs to farmers, small scale industries
6. Management lacked professional expertise.
8. Resources of banks were misused for benefit of directors and
their companies
10.Bank credit was not made according to five year developmental
• This was observed by the prime minister Indira
Gandhi in 1969. She thought that these
banks were not working for development of
nation. So she thought of taking over banks
into government undertaking.
Objectives of Bank
1. To allocate bank credit according to requirement of
planned economic development.
3. To spread and diversify banking services to
underdeveloped and backward states.
5. To make credit planning part of larger national plans.
7. To foster new class of entrepreneurs.
9. To provide bank credit to priority sectors.
When Did it Happen ?
• 1955: Nationalization of State Bank of India.

• 1959: Nationalization of 7 SBI subsidiaries.

• February 1st 1969: Nationalization of 14 major banks with deposit of over 50

• 1980: Nationalization of seven banks with deposits over 200 crores.

Definition and Function of Banks
• Banking Regulation Act of India, 1949 defines Banking as "accepting, for
the purpose of lending or investment of deposits of money from the
public, repayable on demand or otherwise and withdrawable by
cheques, draft, order or otherwise.“
• Banks essentially perform the following functions :
• Accepting Deposits from public/others (Deposits)
• Lending money to public (Loans)
• Transferring money from one place to another (Remittances)
• Acting as trustees
• Keeping valuables in safe custody
• Government business

Types of Banks
• 1.Central Bank

The Reserve Bank of India is the central Bank that is fully owned by the
Government. It is governed by a central board (headed by a Governor)
appointed by the Central Government. It issues guidelines for the functioning of
all banks operating within the country.

2.Public Sector Banks

3.Private Sector Banks

• Old generation private banks
• New generation private banks
• Foreign banks operating in India
• Scheduled co-operative banks
• Non-scheduled banks

4 . Co-operative Sector
The co-operative sector is very much useful for rural people. The co-operative
banking sector is divided into the following categories.
• State co-operative Banks
• Central co-operative banks
• Primary Agriculture Credit Societies
• Public Sector Bank :- Central Bank of India, Corporation Bank, Bank of India,
many more

• Private Sector Bank :- ICICI Bank, Axis Bank.

• Foreign Bank :- Citi Bank, ABN-AMRO Bank, Standard Charted Bank

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