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Gods Plan of Salvation

CCC 280 Creation is the foundation of "all God's saving plans," the "beginning of the history of salvation that culminates in Christ. Conversely, the mystery of Christ casts conclusive light on the mystery of creation and reveals the end for which "in the beginning God created the heavens and the earth": from the beginning, God envisaged the glory of the new creation in Christ. CCC 1080 From the very beginning God blessed all living beings, especially man and woman. The covenant with Noah and with all living things renewed this blessing of fruitfulness despite man's sin which had brought a curse on the ground. But with Abraham, the divine blessing entered into human history which was moving toward death, to redirect it toward life, toward its source. By the faith of "the father of all believers," who embraced the blessing, the history of salvation is inaugurated. CCC 1081 The divine blessings were made manifest in astonishing and saving events: the birth of Isaac, the escape from Egypt (Passover and Exodus), the gift of the promised land, the election of David, the presence of God in the Temple, the purifying exile, and return of a "small remnant." The Law, the Prophets, and the Psalms, interwoven in the liturgy of the Chosen People, recall these divine blessings and at the same time respond to them with blessings of praise and thanksgiving.

Gods Plan of Salvation (detailed)

The History of Salvation- Gods Plan for His People- Story of Amazing Love

Covenant Mediator Covenant Form Covenant Sign

Adam Marriage Sabbath

Noah Abraham Moses David Household Tribe Nation Kingdom Rainbow Circumcision Passover Temple & Throne

Jesus Church Eucharist

Covenant is an extension of kinship by sacred oath. We are brought into a family by oath. Adam- Creation-. Gods relationship with His creation, man. God creates Adam out of clay and fills him with the spirit. Made in image of Gods likeness, -means he is a son of God. Adam as priest (works) and son (image of God), and prophet, and dominion (over animals). Eve is created, flesh of my flesh- marriage. First covenant is marriage. They walk with God and then fall by Original Sin. " Creation moves toward the Sabbath...The Sabbath is the sign of the covenant between God and man; it sums up the inward essence of the covenant....Creation exists to be a place for the covenant that God wants to make with man. The goal of creation is the covenant, the love story of God and man." Pope Benedict Noah- Seth's descendants, seduced by the beauty of the daughters of Cain, take them as wives. They take more than one wife . The sons of Seth violate the sanctity of the marriage covenant instituted by God in the garden. Noah build s ark. Ark saves man from sins. Man is set adrift on watery chaos. Dove, the spirit hovers over the water- like creation. New Eden. With this covenant, God renews His covenant with creation. By this covenant, God also expands the "family structure" of His covenant people - from a husband and a wife to a family unit. Rainbow is sign. Noah builds an altar and offers sacrifice-hes a priest. Abraham- God's covenant with Abraham has three parts, and it begins with three promises: to make Abraham a great nation ; to give him a great name; and to make him the source of blessing for all the world. You will have a great name, a blessing and nation. Your son will give you descendants as numerous as stars in the sky. Abrahams covenant is tribe. He offers sacrifice. Let what happens to these animals happen to me if I am unfaithful. Takes a woman, Hagar to have a child. God makes Abraham suffer with circumcision (sign), because what he did with Hagar. Isaacs birth. Take son, Isaac and kill him. Sacrifice of Isaac (sacrifice of Jesus. The test, his son will inherit the land , --if killed God will raise him. Moses- Joseph ends up in Egypt (as savior). God sends Moses (mediator) to get Israel out of slavery of Egypt (slavery of sin). Egyptian deities were frogs, bulls, goats,, etc.. Passover is sign. Blood on door posts, kill a first born unblemished lamb and eat it. All first born Egyptians die. Exodus. Red Sea is parted. God gives 10 commandments. Worship of golden calf. Manna (Eucharist) and quail in the desert. God wants His firstborn son (Jesus first born), His own people, to be "to Me a kingdom of priests, a holy nation" Priesthood, (Jesus as priest) levities. Animal sacrifices are now required daily. But sacrifice wont take away sin. The nation of people is covenant wander through desert to Promised Land. David- The people demand a king "as the other nations have. Saul. God makes His final covenant of the Old Testament with David. He promises to establish David's kingdom as an eternal and everlasting dynasty, promises that David's heirs will sit on his royal throne forever. He promises, too, that He will regard David's heir as His own son. David acts as priest, blesses things, eats shew bread, is prophet, he is a son. He dances before tabernacle, come into the presence, come to eat, come to Jerusalem and feast. David commits adultery and murder. He is sorry. I want to build you a house. Kingdom is the Covenant. The throne of David. Your kingdom will last forever. Solomon builds the temple. The presence of God in the temple. 700 wives. Pagan women. Idolatry. Tribes divided. False worship. Prophets remind people to return to covenant. The Babylonian Exile, Daniel prays in the temple, Messiah will come 70 weeks of yrs., when counted exact day Jesus is presented in the temple.

Gods Plan of Salvation

The Covenant with Adam (Genesis 1:26-2:3) The word "covenant" isn't used. The story of Adam and Eve is told in "covenantal" language. Adam is the covenant mediator in his role as husband. God promises blessings - that their union will be fruitful and their offspring will fill the earth and rule over it. God establishes a sign by which the covenant will be remembered and celebrated - the Sabbath, the seventh day of rest. And God imposes one condition that they must keep to fulfill their obligation under the covenant - that they not eat from the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil. And God attaches a curse for disobedience - that they will surely die. By this covenant, God's family assumes the form of the marriage bond between husband and wife. The Covenant with Noah (Genesis 9:8-17) The word "covenant" is used in the case of Noah, as God promises never again to destroy the world by flood. The covenant is made with all humanity, through the mediator, Noah, in his role as the father of his family. The covenant includes blessings to Noah and his family (that they will be fruitful and fill the earth) and conditions that must be obeyed (not to drink the blood of any animals, not to shed human blood). The sign of the covenant is the rainbow in the sky. By this covenant, God's people assumes the form of a domestic household, an extended family. The Covenant with Abraham (Genesis 12:1-3; 17:1-14; 22:16-18) God swears to give Abraham a great land and to bless his descendants, who will become a great nation. God makes the covenant with the mediator Abraham in his representative role as chieftain. God promises the blessings of land and great nationhood for his descendants, and through them to bless all the nations of the earth. The sign of the covenant is the mark of circumcision. Circumcision is also the condition that Abraham and his descendants must obey in order to keep the covenant. By this covenant, God's family is takes a "tribal" form. The Covenant with Moses (Exodus 19:5-6; 3:4-10; 6:7) By this covenant, made with the mediator Moses in his representative role as the judge and liberator of Israel, God swears to be Israel's God and Israel swears to worship no other but the Lord God alone. The blessings promised are that they will be God's precious and chosen people. The conditions of the covenant are that they must keep God's Law and commandments. The covenant sign is the Passover, which each year commemorates Israel's birth as a nation. By this covenant, God's family assumes the form of a "holy nation, a kingdom of priests. The Covenant with David (2 Samuel 7:8-19) God promises to establish the mediator David's "house" or kingdom forever, through David's heir, who will also build a temple to God's name. To David in his role as king, God promises to make David's son His son, to punish him if he does wrong but never take away his royal throne. "Your house and your kingdom shall endure forever" and through the blessings of this kingdom God promises to give wisdom to all the nations. The sign of the covenant will be the throne and Temple to be built by David's son, Solomon. By this covenant, God's family grows to take the form of a royal empire, a national kingdom. The New Covenant of Jesus (Matthew 26:28; 16:17-19) The sixth and final covenant made by the mediator Jesus, who by His Cross and Resurrection assumes the role of royal high priest and fulfills all the promises God made in the previous covenants. The prophets, especially Isaiah and Jeremiah, had taught Israel to hope for a Messiah who would bring "a new covenant," through which God's law would be written on men's and women's hearts (see Jeremiah 31:31-34; Hebrews 8:8-12). The conditions of the covenant are that men and women believe in Jesus, be baptized, eat and drink His flesh and blood in the Eucharist, and live by all that He taught. The Eucharist is the sign of the New Covenant. By this covenant, God establishes His family in its final form as a universal (katholicos or 'catholic' in Greek) worldwide kingdom, which Jesus calls His Church (By Scott Hahn)

Gods Plan of Salvation

Jesus- Jesus and New Covenant have to do with marriage. (Eucharist- Marriage between Jesus and His Church) Marriage between God and His people, Jesus and His Church. Personal relationship with Jesus. (union with Jesus) Samaritan Woman- Symbol of Marriage to be healed. - Jesus goes through Samaria to heal the divorce, those who had given into mixing with non-Jews and were separated from the Jews. He meets the woman at the well. The woman had broken her marriage vows. She had 5 husbands. He wants to be her bridegroom. He wants to bring the nations together. He wants to bring back all to the house of God. He had come to heal the divorce caused by the separation of the people. Jesus offers Passover. Passover 4 cups of wine, but Jesus only drinks 3 at the Last Supper. The last cup is on Calvary. He drinks the 4th cup when He is to be crucified. He completes the feast of Passover in His Passion on the Cross. Consummation of the Wedding Feast is Calvary He is the bridegroom, who is naked, but not ashamed like Adam. He consummates the wedding feast. Out from His side flows blood and water. From the side of Adam, came Eve His bride. So from the wound of the side of Christ comes His bride, the Church. Passover Lamb Slain- On the Cross, Jesus the Paschal Lamb was slain and sacrificed for our salvation. Blood splattered on the post of the Cross. Jesus is the first born, unblemished (sinless) lamb. The angel of death passes over the houses with the blood, so Jesus passes over from death to life. Jesus the Lamb, sacrificed on the Cross establishes the New Covenant. We can now pass over from death to eternal life with God in heaven. The Mass is the Passover- At Mass we eat the Lamb. The Mass as Passover, because by the Eucharist we will pass from this life to the next, whoever eats my body and drinks my blood will live forever. At the Last Supper, Jesus said, This is the cup of my blood, the blood of the new and everlasting Covenant. All can come with the wedding feast- the Mass. The Eucharist is the New and Everlasting Covenant. At Mass we come to eat the flesh of the sinless Lamb of God. The Church is the Kingdom of God- In the Temple, sacrifice is offered by the Priest (Jesus). Jesus reigns on the throne of David. Jesus lays down His life for His bride the Church. Circumcision is symbolic of baptism and one enters the Church through it and becomes a member of Gods family. The flood is symbolic of baptism. Baptism- sin is washed away. The Ark is like the Church. Gods people saved by the Ark. Gods people saved by the Church. Jesus heals the wounds of sin, through baptism, confession and Eucharist. He gives us grace to overcome the temptations of lust and pride of life. The pope acts in place of Jesus, as head of the Church. We are brought into Gods family by baptism and we share at the table of the Father at Mass, at the re-presentation of Calvary, we all eat the Feast of the Passover Lamb. Through baptism, Eucharist and confession, God Saves His People and allows them to share in His divine friendship. He gives us union with Him in Eucharist, so we can have union with Him forever in heaven. The Eucharist is the presence of God in the temple.

Gods Plan of Salvation

-Gods Love Out of Love God Chose to Create Man who would share in His Life and Love God is Love -Adam and Eve Chose to use their freedom to disobey God -Original Sin is Inherited. Everyone is stained by original sin. Therefore as sin came into the world through one man and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all men sinned. (Rom. 5:12) -Free Will- God wanted us to freely choose to love Him. We can reject to love Him and cut our self from Him. God made us truly free. We can cut our self off from God and that free act is called sin. -Our own experience in life confirms we all fall short in charity. -The Good News is that God does not let even our wrong choices stand in the way of His desire to draw us into His interior life. -As soon as Adam and Eve sinned, God provided a solution. Salvation- The forgiveness of sins and the restoration of friendship with God, which can be done by God alone. Catechism of the Catholic Church -Adam and Eve knew the result of disobeying God would be death. -Because sin offends Gods perfect justice, it cannot go unpunished. -In Gods plan He accepted the punishment on Himself, (Death) so that anyone who would accept His free gift will obtain salvation. He himself bore our sins in his body on the tree, so that we might die to sins and live for righteousness; by his wounds you have been healed. (1 Peter 2:24)

Gods Plan of Salvation

At the Appointed Time- God sent his Son to take upon our human nature. God so loved the world, He sent His only Son.. Incarnation- Jesus takes upon Himself our human nature in the sinless and immaculate womb of Mary. (Lk. 1:26-38) You shall call His name Jesus, for He will save His people from their sins. (Matt. 1:21) Jesus means Savior. Marys Role in Salvation- Mary is the Mother of the Redeemer, Coredemptrix (Jesus takes His flesh from Mary) and His flesh is nailed to the Tree for our redemption. Mary plays a subordinate role in redemption and salvation, but She plays a role unlike any other human being. God, though He was Creator, became an unborn infant, born in Bethlehem (house of bread). He is the Bread from Heaven (Jn. 6), who came into a feeding trough for animals. Mary is the Ark of the Covenant. (Rev. 11:19-12:1) Then Gods temple in heaven was opened, and the ark of his covenant was seen within His temple, A great sign appeared in the heaven, a woman clothed with the sun.. Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary -Who am I, that the Mother of the Lord should come to me. The infant lept.. (Lk 1:39-46) and reference to David dancing before the ark. (2 Sam. 6:9) How can the ark of the Lord come to me? (2 Sam. 6:16) King David leaping and dancing before the Lord. Mary is overshadowed (Lk 1:35) Ark overshadowed (Ex 40:34-35) and God himself would dwell in the ark (Ex. 25:8) Jesus, who is God, dwells within the womb of Mary, the New Ark. The Eucharist is the New and Everlasting Covenant.

Gods Plan of Salvation

-Jesus Hidden Life -The Temptation in the Desert -The 12 Apostles are Chosen -Jesus Worked Miracles, Only Messiah heals blind -Reveals Trinity, Reveals the Father & Holy Spirit -Expels Demons -Preaches Kingdom and Teaches the Good News -Jesus Fulfills all Prophesies in the Old Testament -Jesus Establishes His Church -Jesus Institutes the 7 Sacraments (He wanted to be sure all people throughout the world and for the future would have access to His saving work. He told His apostles to preach the Gospel to all the Nations. Through Baptism and Confession sins forgiven, Eucharist- Jesus body to eat) -Crucifixion and Death- Ultimate Demonstration of Gods Love -Resurrection Shows Payment of Sin is Satisfied, He appeared to Apostles & Hundreds More -After 40 Days, Ascended into Heaven -Sent the Holy Spirit to Guide and Empower the Apostles, Preach to all Nations, Baptizing them -History of the Early Church is in the Acts of the Apostles -Successors Appointed by the Apostles

Gods Plan of Salvation

CCC 1084 "Seated at the right hand of the Father" and pouring out the Holy Spirit on his Body which is the Church, Christ now acts through the sacraments he instituted to communicate his grace. The sacraments are perceptible signs (words and actions) accessible to our human nature. By the action of Christ and the power of the Holy Spirit they make present efficaciously the grace that they signify.
CCC 1087 Thus the risen Christ, by giving the Holy Spirit to the apostles, entrusted to them his power of sanctifying: they became sacramental signs of Christ. By the power of the same Holy Spirit they entrusted this power to their successors. This "apostolic succession" structures the whole liturgical life of the Church and is itself sacramental, handed on by the sacrament of Holy Orders. CCC 1088 To accomplish so great a work" - the dispensation or communication of his work of salvation - "Christ is always present in his Church, especially in her liturgical celebrations. He is present in the Sacrifice of the Mass not only in the person of his minister, 'the same now offering, through the ministry of priests, who formerly offered himself on the cross,' but especially in the Eucharistic species. By his power he is present in the sacraments so that when anybody baptizes, it is really Christ himself who baptizes. He is present in his word since it is he himself who speaks when the holy Scriptures are read in the Church. Lastly, he is present when the Church prays and sings, for he has promised 'where two or three are gathered together in my name there am I in the midst of them."

Church History
NOTE: This Church History only highlights some important aspects of Church History and is not all inclusive.

And I tell you, you are Peter and on this rock I will build my Church, and the powers of hell shall not prevail against it. Matt. 16:18 -Outpouring of the Holy Spirit on the disciples at Pentecost caused the Church to begin its public ministry, bringing the Gospel of Jesus to all the nations. THE JEWS -Early years- Church was primarily a community of Jewish Converts. It was them Jesus focused His public ministry and they were the first the Apostles and disciples carried the Good News. -Focus on ministry at first was on Jerusalem, preaching to the Jews. CHURCH EXPANSION BEYOND JERUASLEM36 AD (Persecution Begins) Stephen falsely accused of blasphemy and stoned to death. Acts 6:8-7:60) His death triggered a larger persecution of the entire Christian community, led by Saul, who would later convert (Paul). Jewish Christians fled to other major cities such as Rome, Alexandria. As Christians spread, they came in contact with Gentiles, who many converted.

Church History

COUNCIL OF JERUSALEM (50 AD)- The First Church Council Major Dispute arises- should Gentile Christians follow all the precepts of the Law of Moses? It was clear all are to follow the 10 Commandments, but unclear about dietary laws and practices such as circumcision. The Council decided they were not bound by laws of circumcision but were bound to laws avoiding eating meats which had been sacrificed to idols. (Acts 15:1-19). It was Peter, the first Pope, who rose and declared it to be so, and then the assembly fell silent.

Church History

The Apostles and Their Disciples Go Out to Preach in Many Places. St. Pauls missionary journeys as he establishes churches. He appoints Titus as Bishop of Crete, etc.. St. James, the bishop of Jerusalem. St. Peter, bishop of Rome and of the Universal Church St. Thomas preached in India. St. Bartholomew in Armenia. St. John went to Ephesus. Etc. All 12 were martyred, except St. John the Apostle.

Church History
Church experiences peace as persecutions stop.

Coliseum in Rome, where many Christians were martyred.

Nero begins to persecute Christians. Many Christians were martyred including Peter and Paul. This persecution caused hostility from Rome toward Christians would last into the 4th Century. Several persecutions over the centuries would erupt. It reached its peak in the years 304 and 305AD, when the Emperor Diocletian issued three edicts causing a violent persecution that lasted almost 20 years in the empire. Masses secretly offered in the catacombs at night. Relics (bones) of martyrs placed in altars. House churches were used by Christians.


The Emperor of the West, Constantine was more favorable to Christians, most likely due to his mother St. Helena. Seeing the Sign of the Cross in the sky, In Hoc Signo Vinces ("by this sign you shall conquer), he gathered his troops for battle and defeated those causing problems and then issued the Edict of Milan in 313, which legalized Christianity and gave equal status with the pagan religions of Rome.

House church in 232 AD. A private house used for Christian meetings. Discovered in 1930s in Syria.

Church History
Christians began to freely practice their faith. The construction of churches began for the first time. Construction of the worlds first Basilica, the Lateran Basilica occurs. The pagan church Pantheon built in 125ADS as a church to all the gods was re-dedicated as Saint Mary of the martyrs in the 600s. Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, built by St. Helena, Constantine's mother. The Church of The Holy Sepulcher: (Tomb of Jesus and Calvary) was first built by order of the Emperor Constantine the Great, immediately following the Council of Nicaea (325 A.D.)

St. John Lateran Church- Rome


Was Jesus God? Was His humanity mixed with His Divinity? Council of Nicea- 325 AD affirmed Christs divinity, which was denied by the Bishop Arius, who caused the Arian heresy. Council of Constantinople 381 AD was called due to the extent of the Arian heresy. The council reaffirmed the Nicene Council, Jesus is Divine & reaffirmed Nicene Creed. Council of Ephesus 431AD was called due to the Nestorian heresy, which denied Mary was the Mother of God and claimed She gave birth only to the human Christ. The Council affirmed Christ is a divine person, who assumed human nature when conceived in Marys womb and therefore Mary is the Mother of God. Council of Chalcedon 451 AD defined the way Christ assumed flesh as a union of two natures, human and divine, in one divine person. When Pope Leo explained the union of the two natures, the bishops cried out, This is the faith of the apostles, so we all believe. Peter has spoken through Leo.

Church of the Nativity, Bethlehem

Church of the Holy Sepulcher, Jerusalem

Church History
CREATION OF CHRISTENDOM 400S- Large Civic Halls called basilicas were converted into churches due to the large number of people who wanted to worship. Desert- Some people began to go out into the desert denying themselves physical comfort, as a spiritual martyrdom witnessing their desire to live and die for the Lord. St. Benedict and Monasticism Many people began to draw away from the world in secluded places to pray, fast and do penance, which was the birth of Monasticism. Collapse of the Empire in 410AD caused monasteries to become centers of education and culture. Monks Copy Manuscripts, western culture preserves for future generations. 400s to 700s Monks sent out to preach the Gospel all over Europe. St. Patrick, St. Boniface in Germany, etc.. The Church was established in modern day France, Germany, Ireland, Scotland, England, by the year 1000, almost all of Europe was Christian.

Church History
Due to collapse of Western Empire, half of Europe was without any centralized leadership or government. The popes stepped in to save Western Europe from total ruin. Attila the Hun approached Rome in 451, Pope Leo the Great met him and convinced him to spare Rome. Hostility Arises Between the East and West Church Which Is About to Result in the Great Schism. The rise of the papacys political authority wed the Church to the state in the West, which caused hostility between East and West. Without the use of world wide council, when Pope Leo I added the words, And the Son filioque to the Nicene Creed describing the procession of the Holy Spirit, Eastern bishops thought the pope usurped their authority. When the pope crowned Charlemagne as the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire on Christmas Day, the hostility reached its peak. The Greeks in the East were furious because the pope crowned a French barbarian king. For the next 150 years the situation worsened, especially because some popes were of ill repute.

Church History 1054 Schism between the East and West Occurs
The Patriarch of Constantinople breaks with Rome and later call themselves the Orthodox Church. They two would reunite briefly in the 1200s, but once again broke off. Pope Leo IX and Patriarch of Constantinople Michael Cerularius heightened the conflict by suppressing Greek and Latin in their respective domains. In 1054, Roman legates traveled to Cerularius to deny him the title Ecumenical Patriarch and to insist that he recognize the Church of Rome's claim to be the head and mother of the churches. Cerularius refused. The leader of the Latin contingent, Cardinal Humbert, excommunicated Cerularius, while Cerularius in return excommunicated Cardinal Humbert and other legates. This was only the first act in a centurieslong process that eventually became a complete schism. The validity of the Western legates' act is doubtful, since Pope Leo had died, while Cerularius's excommunication applied only to the legates personally. Still, the Church split along doctrinal, theological, linguistic, political, and geographical lines, and the fundamental breach has never been healed, with each side accusing the other of having fallen into heresy and of having initiated the division. The Crusades, the Massacre of the Latins in 1182, the capture and sack of Constantinople in 1204, and the imposition of Latin Patriarchs made reconciliation more difficult. This included the taking of many precious religious artifacts and the destruction of the Library of Constantinople. Today many of the divisions have been healed and most likely in the near future, they will once again be reunited with the Catholic Church

Church History
RISE OF ISLAM AND RISE OF CRUSADES 7th Century- Islam was founded and began conquests against Christians. Asia Minor, Northern Africa, and Spain were taken over. FIRST CRUSADE Pope Urban II in 1095 launched a crusade in response to a plea from the Byzantine Empire in order to regain Christian holy places and prevent attacks from Muslims. They sought to open a passage way to the Holy Land to ensure the safety of Christians who go on pilgrimage there despite the Muslim territory. OTHER CRUSADES There were 8 Crusades from 1095 to 1270. The second Crusade was preached in order to free the Holy Land, notable St. Bernard of Clairvaux. It was unsuccessful. Later Crusades had less honorable aims and were often materialistic. By the end of the 13the Century, Muslims had driven out the crusaders from the Holy Land. Some Crusaders ransacked and pillaged Constantinople which caused great anger among the Eastern Church. Even today, Muslims control the Upper Room, the place of Jesus Last Supper and the Descent of the Holy Spirit on Pentecost.

Church History
The Catholic Church creates Universities. The Rise of Great Learning and Development of Trade. From 910 due to the establishment of the Cluny Monastery in France, monasteries began to spread and monks began to take leadership roles in the Church, such as Pope Gregory VII (1073-1085). In the 1200s, St. Francis and St. Dominic establish their religious orders. St. Francis becomes first saint with the wounds of Christ stigmata and establishes the order of penance, which builds the Church. St. Dominic crushes the Albgensian Heresy due the Rosary given to him from the Blessed Virgin Mary. His order was known as the Order of Preachers. The rise of philosophy, especially under St. Thomas Aquinas, a Dominican, and his great works on theology The Summa Theologica had a great influence on the Church.

Climax of Papal Power- Pope Innocent III (1198-1216). The power of the Church over the kings was greatest at this time of Church History.

A group of territories in central Italy ruled by the popes from 754 until 1870. They were originally given to the papacy by Pepin the Short and reached their greatest extent in 1859. The last papal state, the Vatican City, was formally established as a separate state by the Lateran Treaty of 1929.

POPES LIVE IN AVIGNON, FRANCE. THE WESTERN SCHISM (PAPAL SCHISM) The Western Schism, or Papal Schism, was a prolonged period of crisis in Latin Christendom from 1378 to 1416. To escape instability in Rome, Clement V in 1309 became the first of seven popes to reside in the fortified city of Avignon in southern France during a period known as the Avignon Papacy. For 69 years popes resided in Avignon rather than Rome. This was not only an obvious source of not only confusion but of political animosity as the prestige and influence of city of Rome waned without a resident pontiff. The papacy returned to Rome in 1378 at the urging of Catherine of Siena and others who felt the See of Peter should be in the Roman church. Though Pope Gregory XI, a Frenchman, returned to Rome in 1378, the strife between Italian and French factions intensified, especially following his subsequent death. In 1378 the conclave elected an Italian from Naples, Pope Urban VI; his rough nature in office soon alienated the French cardinals, who withdrew to a conclave of their own, asserting the previous election was invalid since its decision had been made under the duress of a riotous mob. They elected one of their own, Robert of Geneva, who took the name Pope Clement VII. By 1379, he was back in the palace of popes in Avignon, while Urban VI remained in Rome. For nearly forty years, there were two papal curias and two sets of cardinals, each electing a new pope for Rome or Avignon when death created a vacancy. Efforts at resolution further complicated the issue when a third compromise pope was elected in 1409. The matter was finally resolved in 1417 at the Council of Constance where the cardinals called upon all three claimants to the papal throne to resign and held a new election naming Martin V pope.

Church History

Church History PROTESTANT REVOLT & COUNCIL OF TRENT Problems in the Church.
1. Political power, material possessions, privileged position in public life, the defense of ancient historical rights, earthly interests of various kinds of the higher clergy. 2. Pastoral solicitude, the specifically religious and ecclesiastical aim, fell largely into the background; there were unsuccessful attempts to rectify the existing evils. 3. Papal Curia political interests and a worldly life were often prominent. 4. Many bishops and abbots bore themselves as secular rulers rather than as servants of the Church. 5. Many ecclesiastics were chiefly concerned with their income and how to increase it. 6. Luxury prevailed widely among the higher clergy. 7. The scientific and ascetic training of the clergy left much to be desired. 10. The moral standard of clergy very low, and the practice of celibacy not everywhere observed. 11. The condition of many monasteries (which were often homes for the unmarried daughters of the nobility). 12. Due to the condition of the clergy, there was much scorn against them. 13. Christian people -- ignorance, superstition, religious indifference, and immorality were rife. 14. From the fourteenth century the demand for "reform of head and members had been voiced with ever-increasing energy by serious and discerning men. 15. The authority of the Holy See had also been seriously impaired, partly through the fault of some of its occupants and partly through that of the secular princes. 16. The pope's removal to Avignon in the fourteenth century was a grievous error. 17. The severest blow was dealt by the disastrous papal schism (1378-1418). 18. The Abuse of Indulgences led some to believe that Catholics could buy there way into heaven. 19. After the restoration of unity, the attempted reforms of the Papal Curia were not thorough.


Indulgences are Good For a long time it had been customary for the popes to grant indulgences for buildings of public utility (e.g. bridges). In such cases the true doctrine of indulgences as a remission of the punishment due to sin (not of guilt of sin) had been always upheld, and the necessary conditions (especially the obligation of a contrite confession to obtain absolution from sin) always inculcated. Indulgences Abused But the almsgiving for a good object, prescribed only as a good work supplementary to the chief conditions for the gaining of the indulgence, was often prominently emphasized. The indulgence commissaries sought to collect as much money as possible in connection with the indulgence. The promulgation of indulgences for the new St. Peter's furnished Luther with an opportunity to attack indulgences in general, and this attack was the immediate occasion of the Reformation in Germany. Vainly did earnest men raise their voices against this abuse. He declared he was attacking only the abuses of indulgences; however, he soon taught doctrine in many ways contrary to the teaching of the Church. One Never Could "buy" Indulgences The financial scandal surrounding indulgences, the scandal that gave Martin Luther an excuse for his heterodoxy, involved almsindulgences in which the giving of alms to some charitable fund or foundation was used as the occasion to grant the indulgence. There was no outright selling of indulgences. The Catholic Encyclopedia states: It is easy to see how abuses crept in. Among the good works which might be encouraged by being made the condition of an indulgence, almsgiving would naturally hold a conspicuous place. . . . It is well to observe that in these purposes there is nothing essentially evil. To give money to God or to the poor is a praiseworthy act, and, when it is done from right motives, it will surely not go unrewarded."

Church History

PROTESTANT REVOLT & COUNCIL OF TRENT In Germany, the first impulse to secession was supplied by the opposition of Martin Luther, an Augustinian monk. His response to the promulgation by Leo X of an indulgence for contributions towards the building of the new St. Peter's at Rome was his 95 Theses, which was a list of criticisms of Church practices, which he nailed to the church door in Wittenberg, Germany. The Theses became the rallying point for people discontented with the Church.

Church History


True Doctrines Rejected (Millions Fall Away)

Luther proclaimed the false doctrine of "justification by faith alone. Later rejected all supernatural remedies (especially the sacraments and the Mass). Denied the merit of good works (thus condemning monastic vows and Christian asceticism in general). Rejected the institution of a hierarchical priesthood (especially the papacy) in the Church. His doctrine of the Bible as the sole rule of faith, with rejection of all ecclesiastical authority, established subjectivism in matters of faith. By this revolutionary assault he won over anti-ecclesiastical elements, including numerous monks and nuns who left the monasteries to break their vows, and many priests who espoused his cause with the intention of marrying. Very soon secular princes and municipal magistrates made the Reformation a pretext for arbitrary interference deciding what faith their subjects should accept. Ecclesiastical affairs were now reorganized on the basis of the new teachings; henceforth the secular power is ever more clearly the supreme judge in purely religious matters, and completely disregards any independent ecclesiastical authority. Luther and others quickly broke away from the Catholic Church, leading away many millions in Germany, France, Switzerland, England, Scotland, the Netherlands and Scandinavia.


The Council of Trent (1545-1563) Reaffirmed the doctrines with great clarity. New Religious Order (Society of Jesus Jesuits), launch the Counter-Reformation, which sought reclaim the peoples and nations that had been separated. Although only a portion of Europe was restored to the Church, the counter reformation succeeded in renewing the Church as a whole and removed many of the abuses and problems that led to the Protestant Revolt. Pope St. Pius V promulgated the Catechism of the Council of Trent three years after the Council of Trent. The Catechism was of great help in renewing the Church and doing away with abuses. The Catechism had four parts: 1. Explanation of Beliefs of Catholics based upon the Creed. 2. The 7 Sacraments as instituted by Christ. 3. 10 Commandments put into New Testament Setting. 4. An Analysis of the Practice of Prayer based on the Lords Prayer. The Church was growing tremendously in the New World, and nearly 10 million Indians converted to the Catholic faith, which was primarily due to the apparitions of Our Lady of Guadalupe and missionaries in the New World. The blood of many martyrs was shed in order to establish the Church in these lands. Gospel spreads to India, Japan, China, Philippines.

Church of England

Church History

King Henry VIII desiring an heir to the throne, becomes frustrated with his wife Catherine of Aragan because 5 of her 6 children die at very young age. He decides to divorce Catherine and marry Ann Boleyn, so she may give birth a child who will be his successor. After careful consideration by the Popes expert legal council, the marriage cannot be annulled, which causes the king to become angry. He marries Anne Boleyn which is considered invalid by the Church. King Henry separates himself from Rome. He never formally repudiated the doctrines of the Catholic Church, but he declared himself supreme head of the church in England in 1534. This, combined with subsequent actions, eventually resulted in a separated church, the Church of England. Henry and his advisors felt the pope was acting in the role of an Italian prince involved in secular affairs, which obscured his religious role. England possessed numerous religious houses (monasteries) that owned large tracts of land worked by tenants. Henry dissolved them (15361541) and transferred a fifth of England's landed wealth to new hands. Henry made radical changes in traditional religious practices. He ordered the clergy to preach against superstitious images, relics, miracles, and pilgrimages, and to remove most candles. In 1535, one time Lord Chancellor of England and friend of the King, Sir Thomas More, who was "the King's loyal servant but God's servant first," was beheaded.

King Henry VIII

Sir Thomas More

Church History Enlightenment- Atheism, Mary in the Church

The Church became challenged by philosophers. With the coming of the Age of Reason, known as the Enlightenment, faith was ridiculed. The enlightened philosopher could not be a person of faith because religion and science, faith and reason were viewed as incompatible opposites. Persecution resulted due to an outward denial of Gods role in human affairs, as seen in the French Revolution in the 1800s. A new kind of paganism in culture, without any worship of God. This resulted in the closing of churches, monasteries and imprisoning and killing priests and religious. The Churchs response was Vatican I in 1870. It described the true relationship between faith and reason. Reason is not put aside, rather the light of faith purifies reason and enables the believer to use reason to make sense out of divine Revelation. The Council affirmed Gods existence can be discovered in reason alone. Dogma of the Immaculate Conception 1854, Apparitions of Mary- 1858 St. Bernadette Lourdes; 1870 Catherine Laboure


The principle the Church must guard the faith against deviations is an obligation of divine law (cf. Mt. 18:18; 2 Tim. 1:14). The actions taken to implement the process sometimes were questionable and even deplorable. Yet, because of centuries of misinformation, we must take care to distinguish fact from fiction. 1. 4th century on - Emperors convene Church councils against heresies. 2. The Emperors also established a wide range of civil penalties for heresy. 3. Civil Penalties ranged from fines to capital punishment, as the famous Corpus Iuris Civilis (534) of the Emperor Justinian (d. 565) attests. Inquisition was one means by which both secular and Catholic courts addressed heresy. 4. 1000 AD Most of Western Europe Converted to Christianity, there was little separation between Church and State. Secular and ecclesial offices and legal systems overlapped. 5. Religious heresies were considered a kind of political treason. 6. Catharism (from the Greek katharos, which means pure) was a heresy which threatened nearly every line of the Creed. Although there were many other heresies addressed by inquisitorial courts (including the Waldenses, Beguines, Fraticelli, and the Spirituals), Catharism was the most prevalent, and therefore the heresy which gave rise to the use of inquisition by the Catholic Church. 7. During the next century, secular rulers, Church councils, and popes called for the investigation and prosecution of heresy and for the punishment of unrepentant heretics.


8. Pope Gregory IX (1227-41) began the investigation of heresy under the discipline of the Holy See. What we term the Inquisition is simply the ecclesiastical tribunal with specially appointed judges (inquisitors) answerable to both the local bishop and the pope, whose task it was to investigate charges of heresy in a systematic and fair way. The origin of this form of judicial inquiry, the inquisitio, was not Church law, but Roman law as incorporated into the procedures of civil and canon law alike. Pope Gregory wisely relied on the new mendicant orders, the Franciscans and the Dominicans, to handle most of the inquisitorial work. 9. This first phase of the Inquisition died out in the 1300s as the heresies themselves faded. 10. Spanish Inquisition (1478 1834) (see next page) 11. Alarmed at the spread of Protestantism, Pope Paul III (1534-49) established the Roman Inquisition in 1542. Perhaps its most famous act was the conviction of Galileo for violating its injunction that he neither teach nor defend the thesis that the sun is the immovable center of the universe. (See Galilelo page) The Roman Inquisition changed its name. At the time of Galileo, it was the Congregation of the Holy Office.
Pope John Paul II changed the name from the Congregation of the Holy Office to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.


SPANISH INQUISITION In 1478, at the request of the Spanish sovereigns Ferdinand and Isabella, Pope Sixtus IV (1471-84) issued a papal bull creating the Spanish Inquisition. It lasted until 1834, although its most fervent activity was during the 15th and 16th centuries. The Spanish Inquisition was more cruel precisely because it was administered by the secular government. Protestant and secular opponents of Catholicism fabricated through pamphlets, histories, plays, and paintings cruelties and excesses far beyond what actually occurred. Anti-Catholic pamphleteers and historians have grossly exaggerated , asserting that millions died at the stake. The actual numbers were (3,000-5,000), though these fiery deaths were quite real and regrettable. Although such exaggerations have made facts from fiction, there is some truth about abuses that Catholics must admit. Unrepentant men found guilty of heresy were handed over to the State for punishment, even though Church authorities did not always agree with the States punishments. We must realize that in handing over the condemned heretic to the secular power, the Church knowingly was handing over the condemned for punishments ranging from imprisonment to burning at the stake. Furthermore, even with all the procedural precautions, there were inquisitors who did not follow the laws of the Church and all too readily handed over a significant number of heretics to be burned alive.


How can the Catholic Church claim infallibility when it officially condemned Galileo for heresy when he declared that the earth revolves around the sun? It is commonly believed that the Catholic Church persecuted Galileo for abandoning the geocentric (earth-at-the-center) view of the solar system for the heliocentric (sun-at-the-center) view. In the end, the Holy Office decided against Galileo and pronounced the decision that his theories "were false and contrary to Holy Scripture" and that he was "gravely suspect of heresy." Church tribunals have juridical & disciplinary authority only, and neither they nor their decisions are infallible. What about the charge that Galileo was imprisoned and brutally tortured in order to extract a confession from him? The astronomer made his first appearance before the Inquisition in 1615 and was neither imprisoned nor tortured but received a mild censure and was sent on his way. By 1633, he was again summoned to Rome to face the charges that he had persisted in promoting his theories as though they were matters of faith and provable by the Bible. During his second stint before the Inquisition, Galileo was incarcerated, not, as is commonly thought, in some gloomy, rat-infested dungeon, but in the palace of Niccolini, the Tuscan ambassador to the Vatican and an ardent supporter of Galileo. In 1989, Pope John Paul II discussed the mistakes the Church made in its handling of the Galileo case. He apologized for the Church's handling of the case, further rehabilitated Galileo's name, and pointed out once again that the province of the Church is theology and revelation, not science or astronomy.

Church History

Pope John Paul II, The Inquisition belongs to a tormented phase in the history of the Church, which . . . Christians [should] examine in a spirit of sincerity and open-mindedness. CCC 2298 In times past, cruel practices were commonly used by legitimate governments to maintain law and order, often without protest from the Pastors of the Church, who themselves adopted in their own tribunals the prescriptions of Roman law concerning torture. Regrettable as these facts are, the Church always taught the duty of clemency and mercy. She forbade clerics to shed blood. In recent times it has become evident that these cruel practices were neither necessary for public order, nor in conformity with the legitimate rights of the human person. On the contrary, these practices led to ones even more degrading. It is necessary to work for their abolition. We must pray for the victims and their tormentors. Pope John Paul II: Yet the consideration of mitigating factors does not exonerate the Church from the obligation to express profound regret for the weaknesses of so many of her sons and daughters who sullied her face, preventing her from fully mirroring the image of her crucified Lord, the supreme witness of patient love and of humble meekness. From these painful moments of the past a lesson can be drawn for the future, leading all Christians to adhere fully to the sublime principle stated by the Council: The truth cannot impose itself except by virtue of its own truth, as it wins over the mind with both gentleness and power.

Church History

Heresy of Modernism
Modernism- Synthesis of many previous heresies. Pope Pius X was a defender of the Churchs teachings in the face of modernism. Its a spirit of complete emancipation, tending to weaken ecclesiastical authority; the emancipation of science, which must traverse every field of investigation without fear of conflict with the Church; the emancipation of the State, which should never be hampered by religious authority; the emancipation of the private conscience whose inspirations must not be overridden by papal definitions or anathemas; the emancipation of the universal conscience, with which the Church should be ever in agreement; A spirit of movement and change, with an inclination to a sweeping form of evolution such as abhors anything fixed and stationary;

Church History 20th Century- Fascism, Nazism, Socialism, Communism, World War I & World War II, 1917 Apparitions at Fatima 1917 Mary appears in Fatima, Portugal and warns of Second World War if people do not repent. Asks for penance, prayer, rosary, Consecration of Russia to Her Immaculate Heart. 1922-1939 Pope Pius XI sought to confirm rights of Catholics under Fascism. Pope Pius XII (1938-1958) Sought to stop World War II and saved thousands of Jews from the evil of Nazi regime. Atomic bombs. Dogma of the Assumption of Mary in 1950. Many countries are taken over by Communism and atheism grows. More martyrs in the 20th century than all other centuries combined. Fall of Communism due to Pope John Paul II together with the bishops of the world who Consecrated the World to the Immaculate Heart of Mary on March 25th, 1984.

Vatican II 1962-1965 thru Pope John Paul II 2005

Church Council called by Blessed John XXIII - concluded by Pope Paul VI. Council desired to embrace the modern world. The Council made controversial changes, especially to the Holy Mass the ancient Triditine Mass to the Novus Order. New Schism occurs due to Traditionalists (Lefebvre) (Society of Pius X) believe Vat. II was invalid. Dissenters in the Church used this as an opportunity to make all sorts of changes through experimentations, and changes to the Christian life referring these changes to the spirit of Vatican II. Innovations and the like caused confusion. Many priests and religious left consecrated life. Some advocated married clergy and others women priests. Some made erroneous statements about the Council such as devotion to Mary or the Rosary not needed. Time period: sexual revolution; drugs; divorce; priest abuse of boys; Catholic universities, schools, hospitals profess to be Catholic, but dont follow Church teachings; television and movies with immoral content; pornography; abortion legalized; euthanasia; homosexual unions legalized; embryonic stem cell research; assisted suicide; terrorism. The encyclical Humane Vitae in 1968 by Pope Paul VI was ignored by many clergy and many said Contraception was not immoral. Pope John Paul II, the Great- Responds with the many encyclicals. The Gospel of Life combats the sins against life. He is shot on May 13th the anniversary of Fatima, forgives the shooter and fulfilled the Consecration as desired by the Blessed Virgin Mary. Code of Canon Law Revised. New Catechism of the Catholic Church. Feast of Divine Mercy. Solidarity - Communism collapses. Solemnly declares women priests an impossibility. Travels through ought the world more than any other pope in the history of the Church. Canonizes and makes Blessed more saints than any other pope. The Jubilee Year 2000, he asked for Forgiveness from the Jews. Secularism attacks the Church. Theology of the Body given. Belief in the Eucharist decreases. JPIIs Encyclical, the Eucharist and he proclaims Year of the Rosary with Rosary Encyclical adds New Mysteries of Light.

Church History